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Full text of "History of Dearborn County, Indiana : her people, industries and institutions, with biographical sketches of representative citizens and genealogical records of old families"

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With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and 
Genealogical Records of Old Families 



Indianapolis, Indiana 

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The reproduction of this book has been 
made possible through the sponsorship 
of the Hillforest Historical Foundation, 
Aurora, Indiana. 

A Reproduction by 
1401 North Fares Avenue 
EvansvUle, Indiana 4771 1 
nineteen hundred and eighty 

D / X 

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To the dear, departed ones, whose busy hands changed the giant forests 
into fertile fields; whose love of home established the hearthstones, the tender 
ties of which yet bind together the heartstrings of the native born ; whose pa- 
triotism gave the best of their lives and substance for the defense of their coun- 
try; whose graves make sacred the soil their feet so often trod. 

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All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exer- 
tion and suffering. The deeds and motives of the men that have gone before 
have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of Dearborn county, Indiana, with what they 
were one hundred years ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin land, 
it has come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of 
wealth, systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid industries 
and immense agricultural and mineral productions. Can any thinking person 
be insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the aspirations and 
efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the foundation upon which 
has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? To perpetuate the 
story of these people and to trace and record the social, political and indus- 
trial progress of the community from its first inception is the function of 
the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and personal mem- 
oirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the present to the 
past, is the motive for the present publication. A specially valuable and inter- 
esting department is that one devoted to the sketches of representative citizens 
of the county whose records deserve preservation because of their worth, ef- 
fort and accomplishment. The publishers desire to extend their thanks to 
the gentlemen who have so faithfully labored to this end.. Thanks are also 
due to the citizens of Dearborn county for the uniform kindness with which 
they have regarded this undertaking, and for their many services rendered in 
the gaining of necessary information. 

In placing the "History of Dearborn County, Indiana," before the citi- 
zens, the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the 
plan as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work 
has been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any 
error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch 
was prepared. Confident that our effort to please will fully meet the appro- 
bation of the public, we are, 

Respect fullv, 


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First White Man in Northwest Territory — English and French Claims — 
Three Successive Sovereign Flags Over Present Indiana Territory — Pass - 
ing of the Indians — Battle of Fallen Timbers — Northwest Territory — Early 
Settlements — Activities of the Traders — French and In dian W ar — Pontiac's 
Conspiracy — Northwest Territory and Quebec Act — Revolutionary Period — 
George Rogers Clark and His Campaign — First Surveys and Early Set- 
tlers — Ordinance of 1787 — First Stage of Government Under the Ordinance 
— Second Stage — Organization of the Northwest Territory — Representative 
Stage of Government — First Counties Organized — First Territorial Legis - 
lature of Northwest Territory — Division of 1800— Census of Northwest 
Territory in 1800 — Settlements in Indiana Territory in 1800 — First Stage of 
Territorial Government — Changes in Boundary Lines of Indiana— Second 
Stage of Territorial Government — The Legislative Council — The First Gen- 
eral Assemblies — Congressional Delegates of Indiana Territory — Efforts to 
Establish Slavery in Indiana — The Indian Lands — Organization of Coun - 
ties — Changes in the Constitution of Indiana — Capitals of Northwest Terri - 
tory and of Indiana — Military History of State — Political History — Gov - 
ernors of Indiana — A Century of Growth — Natural Resources. 


Location and Size — Topography — Soil — Surface Features — Streams — River 
Changes — Altitudes — The Rocks — Minerals — Land Slips — The Limestone Up- 
land Soil — The Miami Clay Loam — The Waverley or Bottom Soils — Farming 
Methods — Chemical Analysis of Waverley Sandy Loam in the Bottom Lands 
of Laughery Creek — Chemical Analysis of the Upland Soils of Northern 
Dearborn County, Mixture of Miami Clay and Decayed Shales. 


The Mound Builders and Local Evidences of Their Existence — Signal 

Mounds and Other Ancient Works — Burial Grounds — Indian Claims to 

Lands in Dearborn County — Excursions Against the Indians — Encroach - 
ments of the Settlers Resented— Loc al Na mes. 


Location and Boundaries of Dearborn County — Early History of the Terri - 
tory Now Embraced Within Dearborn County — French Claims — Ordinance 
of 1787 — Early Dearborn Boundary Lines — Conquest of the Northwest Ter - 
ritory — Harmcr's Expedition — St, Clair's Defeat — Battle of Fallen Timbers. 


Prcparationi for Campaign Against Detroit in 1780 — Difficulty in Raising 
Troops — Gen. George Rogers Clark in Command, Assisted by Col. Archi - 
bald Laughery — Ambuscade and Massacre of the Latter and His Troops* — 
Lieut. Isaac Anderson's Journal of the Expedition — Far-reaching Result of 
Laughery's Defeat — Treaty of Ft. Finney— Journal of Major Ebenezer 
Denny — General Clark's Control of the Situation — Failure of the Treaty to 
Secure Lasting Peace. 


The Trend of Advancing Civilization — Indebtedness of the Present Genera - 
tion to the Early Pioneers— First Settlement of Importance in the Vicinity 
of Dearborn County — The Symmes Purchase and Settlement Thereon — Futile 
Attempts of Symmes to Found a City— Shattered Dreams — Indian Protests 
Against Impositions of the Whites — Security After the Wayne Treaty — 
Early Settlements and Pioneers — The Ohio Company — Extract from Journal 
of General Butler — The First Actual Settlers — Citations from Early Authori- 
ties — A Contested Honor — Murder of Redskins. 


Effect of the Ordinance of 1787— Influx of Settlers to the Ohio Valley- 
First Families of Dearborn — Early Surveys — First Formal Land Entries — 
Hardships of the Pioneers — The Early Circuit Rider — A Primitive Domicile — 
The Pioneer*! Evening at Home — Progress of the Pioneers — Difficulties of 
Early Husbandry— Tribute to the Early Settler— Little Time for Study— 
Sidelights on the Pioneers — Early Hunters — Capt. Joseph Hayes — Col. Zeb - 
ulon Pike. 


Governor Harrison's Proclamation Creating Dearborn County — First Offi - 
cers of the County — The Militia — First Sessions of the Courts — Court Houses 
and Jails — Question of County Division — Legislative Enactments Relating 


Dearborn County Fortunate in Its Choice of Officers — Territorial Judges — 
Common Pleas Judges — Associate Judges — Probate Judges — The Territorial 
Legislature — State Legislature — Representatives in the Legislature — County 
Commissioners — County Treasurers, Auditors, Clerks, Recorders. Sheriffs, 
Assessors and Superintendents of Schools — Prosecuting Attorneys — Coroners 
and Surveyors. 


First Boundaries — Original Land Sales and Entries — The Earliest Settlers — 

McGuire and Watts Families — Some Other of the Pioneers— Pioneer 

Churches — Earliest Burial — Farmers' Retreat. 



Organization — Boundaries — Land Entries — Early Settlers — The Griffin Fam - 
ily — Humble Homes of the Pioneers — Town of Cochran. 

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Organization and Description — Settlement and First Land Entries — The 
Fir>t Settler — Experiences of a Pioneer — Experiences of Ebenezer Harbert-- 
Beauty of Clay Township's Location — Dillsboro — Sanitarium — Business Di- 


Location — Organization — First Land Entries — Story of William McClure — 
A Pioneer Minister — Some Early Settlers — West Harrison. 


Organization — Original Boundaries — Changes in Territory — Land Entries — 
First Settlers — The First Boom — Fioneer Families — Story of a Country 
Town — Wilmington. 


Locat ion— Boundaries — First Settlement — Land Entrie s — The Lawrence 

Families — Rival Villages — Lawrenccvillc and Morgantown — Weisburg — Hub - 
bell's C ro ss Ro ads, 


One of the Original Townships of the County — Its Name — Early Settlers — 
Dover— New Al sace— St, Le on. 


Earliest Land Entries — Early Pioneer History — First Settlers — Hardinsburg 

— The Ferris P'amily — A Description of Farm Life and Work in the Early 
Days — Many Changes With the Years — Greendale— Patrons' Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company. 


One of the Original Townships — Area — Boundaries — First Land Entries and 
Early Settlers — Mills — Logan's Cross Roads. 


Original Area and Changes in Boundaries — Earliest Land Entries — Early History 
of the Township — Emigrants from Maine — Stories of the Early Settlers — A 
Worthy Judge — Early Temperance Advocate — Ben Tibbetts and Other Pio - 
neers — Noted Members of the Old Debating Club. 


Organization — Boundaries — Early Land Purchases — The First Settlers — In - 
fluential Men of Early Days — Experience of a Pjonecr Girl — A Family of 
Patriots — An Early Advertisement — Unwelcome Neighbors — Tohn Ewbank — 
Cherry Bottoms. 


Description of — Land Entries — Pioneer Settlers — Early Mills — Moores Hill 
— Its Name — Sparta — Cold Springs — Chesterville. 

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Location — Description — Early Land Entrie> — Settlers — Story of Benjamin 
Walker— Some of the Pioneers— A Con ve nient Houacbuat— U nc. of the First 


Name — Creation of the Township— Land Entries — Area — The Stockade Near 
Guilford — First Settlera — The First Cabin — The Old Burying Ground — Guil - 
ford — Yorkville. 


Entry of the Land by Capt. Samuel C, Vance — Survey and Platting of the 

Town Site— Situation — First Houses — Slow Growth at First — First Events — 
Some Early Citizens — Early* Real Estate Values — Stringent Boat Regula - 
tions — The First Newspaper — First Bank — Physicians — Prices of Merchan - 
dise — First Sunday School — Local Improvements — The New Orleans Trade — 
Character of the Early Population — River Exportations — Floods Regarded 
as Beneficial— Burning of the Court House — Fourth of July Celebrations — 
County Finances in 1826 — Hard Times in 1830-40 — Whitewater Canal as an 
Aid to Industry — Growth of Lawrenceburg as a Trading Point — Early Bti>i - 
ness and Professional Men — Coming of the Railway — Fire Department — 
Business Directory of i860 — Old Landmarks — The Town Conncil — Donation 
to the Railway Company — Additions to the City — Earlier Industries — Manu - 
facturing Plants— Cemeteries — Present Business Directory. 


Beauty of Situation — Original Plat — Entry of the Land — Sale of Lots — 
Grounds Set Apart for Public Purposes — First Councilmcn — First Magis - 
trate — Extracts from the Docket — Early Business Directory — Aurora Rem - 
iniscences — Changes in Business Firm* — City Officials — Riverview Cemetery 
Association — Present Business Directory. 


Revolutionary Soldiers and Their Part in the Settlement of Dearborn 
County— Dearborn's Revolutionary Honor List — The War of 1812 — Roster of 
Home Defenders — The War With Mexico — Efficient Service. Regardless of 
Pay — Dearborn County Volunteers — Banks Come to Rescue — Soldiers Inade - 
quately Drilled — Roster of Dearborn County Soldiers and the Commands 
in Which They Served — Schooling for Civil War — Response to First Call to 
Arms — Loyalty to the Government — Equipping Early Companies — List of 
Volunteers and the Commands in Which They Served — Summary of Coun - 
ty's Service — Closing Days of the War — Lincoln's Assassination — The Mor - 
gan Raid — Village of Harrison Invaded — Fired on Own Comrades — War 
With Spain. 


Early Conditions in Legal Matters — Pioneer Lawyers — Judge Burnet's Rem - 
iniscences — Oliver H. Smith on Early Indiana Lawyers — Roster of the Pio- 
neer Bar — Gen. James Dill — An Anti-Slavery Victory — Constitution Creates 

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Confusion — Jesse B. Thomas — Judge Elijah Sparks — Horace Bassett — The 
Lane Family — Judge Jesse L. and William S. Holman — James T. Brown — 
George H. Dunn — Daniel S. Major — Ebenezer Dumont — Col. Benjamin J. 
Spooner — John Schwartz — George M. Roberts — Reminiscences by O. H. 
Smith — Trial of Fuller — Present Members of the Bar. 


Early Medical Practice — Epidemics in Southeastern Indiana — Physicians" 
Fees — Legal Regulation of the Practice — State Medical Society — Cholera in 
1833 — Malignant Malarial Fever — Scarlet Fever — Heroic Remedies— Old-time 
Ailments — The Making of a Doctor — Early Physicians — Some Early An - 
nouncements^ — Present Physicians. 


First Newspapers in Dearborn County — Personal Reminiscences — Charac - 
teristics of Early Journalism — Lawrenceburg Papers — Newspapers at Au- 
rora — Changed Conditions — A Typical Pioneer Newspaper — A Pauper for 
Sale — Some Interesting Items Concerning the Newspapers of the County. 


Methodist Episcopal Churches — Growth of Methodism — First Sermon in Au - 
rora — Baptist Churches — Open-air Baptism — Presbyterian Churches — Lu - 
theran Chnrrhes — The Christian Church — German Methodist Church — Cath- 


Free and Accepted Masons — Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Knights of 
Pythias — Improved Order of Red Men — Grand A-rmy of the Republic — Junior 
Order of United American Mechanics. 


Little Need of Banks in Pioneer Days — Early Banks in Lawrenceburg — Brief 
Mention of Banks Now in Operation — Building and Loan Associations. 


Original Condition of the Soil — Bountiful Harvests Secured by the Pio - 
neers — Early Market Conditions — A Land of Plenty — Pioneer Farming Con - 
ditions — Early Crops — Hogs, Cattle and Horses — County Fairs — Lawrence - 
burg Agricultural Association — Pioneer Conditions — Early Harvest Opcra - 


Pioneer Trails and Bridle Paths — The First Permanent Road — Highways 
Established — Stage and Mail Routes — Aurora at a Disadvantage in Its Early 
History — The State Road — Lawrenceburg a Center of Trade — Bridges — 
Canals — Railroads — River Transportation— Flatboating — Variety of Cargoes 
— Ferries — Changed Conditions. 

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Early Problem of Education — Legislative Enactments as to Schools — Loss 
of Early Records — School Fund Loans — County Seminary — Early Legisla - 
tion — Some of the First Teachers — Wilmington Seminary — Early Schools — 
Payment of Teachers — Contrast of Former Years — Lawrenceburg Schools — 
Lawrenceburg Academy — Modern School System Introduced — Enumeration 
of Children — Tradition of an Early College — Aurora Schools — County Or - 


John C. Moore's Generous Donation for a Collegiate Institution — A Sum - 
mary of the Presidents of the Institution — Leading Events in the History of 
the College — Dr. Harry A. King, Recently President — Dr. Andrew J. Bigney 
— Faculty — Chronology. 


AURORA „ 482 

Erthstane History Club — St. Cecelia Musicale — Review Club — Orpheus lluh 
— Aurora Woman's Research Club. 


Topographical Reasons for the Annual Overflow of the Ohio River — Cli - 
matic Conditions — Floods More Severe in Recent Years — Civilization an Aid 
to Floods — Record of Early Floods — Floods of More Recent Date — Graphic 
Account of the Flood of 1884 — Comparative Stages of High Water — The 
Great Flood of igi.i — Relief Work. 

Visit of Abraham Lincoln — The 111-Fated "Redstone" — Story of an Anxious 
Father — Dog Leg Society of Lawrenceburg — A Runaway Slave Story — Game 
Hunting Stories — In a Wolf Den — Stories of Morgan's Raid. 

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Agricultural Societies ~ ~ 434 

Agricultuie _ ~70, 429 

Altitudes „ „ 64 

Analysis of Soil . 21 

Ancient Earthworks ..74. 170 

Anderson, Isaac, Journal of qi_ 

Anti-slavery Victory 342 

Assessors, County - 145 

Associate Judges 140 

Attorney* of the County 339 

Auditors, County 144 

Aurora — 

Additions to — 268 

Altitude 64 

Banks 423 

Business Directory, 1858 275 

Business Directory, 1915 229 

Cemeteries - 277 

Churches 382, 393, 29L 400, 403 

City Officials, 1854 ?2A 

Clubs 434 

Early Business Interests 272 

Floods 491 

Land Entries _ 117, 154. 265 

Lodges — „ 412 

Lot Sales ~ 266 

Magistrate, First .... ~ 269 

Mill 27J 

Mounds 24 

Newspapers ..274, S2fi 

1 Original Plat 263 

Public Grounds 268 

Reminiscences 272 

Roster of City Officials 226 

Schools —456, 459, 468 

Situation ~ 265 

Transportation 441 

Banks and Banking ..235, 429 

Baptist Churches ~ ..153. 202, 392 

Bassett, Horace ~ 345 

Battle of Fallen Timbers „ ^34, 41, 86 

Battle of Laughery's Creek 8_z 

Beauty of Local Scenery 63 

Bench and Bar 339 

Benevolent Institutions, State fix 

Blasdels Mills 210 

Bottom Soils 7j) 

Boundaries of the County ..78, 80. 

Boundaries, State, Changes in 47 

Bridges 443 

Bright „ 3QQ 

Brown, James T 349 

Burial Grounds, Ancient ..7S, 171 

Cabin, Pioneer 121, 162 

Caesar Creek Township — 

Boundaiics 147 

Burial, the First _ 153 

Change in Territory 147 

Churches . 152 

Entry of Land 142 

First Settler 149 

German Families - ~ La 2 . 

Land Sales „„ 142 

Pioneers 15J 

School* 452 

Settlers „ 148 

Wolf Story „ „ „ 515 

Cambridge ..210, 212 

Canals „ 441 

Capitals of Indiana 54 

Capitals of \"orthwest Territory ... 54 


Capture of Vi.-. _ 23. 

Catholic Churches 402 

Cattle - 433 

Census of Northwest Territory — 44. 
Center Township- 
Area 154 

Boundaries 154 

Early Settlers 15$. 158 

Indians . is6 

Land Entries 154 

Organization — . 154 

Reminiscences . 156 

Sale of Land 153 

Settlement -iSS. 1S7 

Wild Game 157 

Changes in State Constitution 52 

Cherry Bottoms .-2 10. 313 

Chesterville 220, 417 

Cholera Epidemics . 352 

Christian Church . 401 

Churches 152, 168, 178, 181, 18& 202, 

214. 212. J24i 242t 38S 

Circuit Judges — 140 

Circuit-riders, Early — „ no_ 

Civil war _ 296 

Claims of English Colonies 33 

Claims of Northwest Territory 34 

Clark, Gen. George Rogers .—87. 95. 105 
Clay Township- 
Boundaries — - 159 

First Settlers _ i£a 

Land Entries ~ jjo. 

Location 164 

Mills . „ ifil 

Organization 159 

Schools 457 

Settlement „ 159 

Clerks, County 144 

Clubs, Women's 482 

Cochran ifR 

Cold Springs ZiQ 

Commissioners, County 143 

Common Pleas Judges 140 

Conquest of Northwest Territory.... Si 

Constitution, Changes in $2 

Constitutional Convention. 1850 

Coroners 146 

Counties, Organization of ..43. 51 

County Assessors 143 

County Auditors 144 

County Clerks _ — -~ 144 

County Commissioners 143 

County Division 133 

County Fairs 434 

County Finances, 1826 242 

County Officers, Roster of izq 

County Recorders 145 

County School Organization 47J 

County Seat Legislation 136 

County Seat Removal ™ 133 

County Seminary ..176, 453 

County Superintendent of Schools 145 

County S .rveyors 146 

County Treasurers 144 

Court House History .133, 241 

Courts of the County, First 132 

Creameries ... „ 432 

Creation of Dearborn County ..So, 13.2 


Dairy Interests „ 432 

Dearborn County Created 5k> 

Dearborn County Named 132 

Dearborn County Volunteers 200 

Denny, Maj. Ebenezer, Journal of 04 

Dill, Gen. James ..34 ' . 351 

Dillsboro — 

Additions 165 

Altitude ..64, 164 

Banks 425 

Business Directory ififi 

Churches -391, 397, 400 

Commercial Interests 164 

Improvements 165 

Location .„ 164 

Lodges ,414, 4151 417.. il3 

Mill 165 

Mineral Water 164 

Oil and Gas Company 163 

Platted 165 

Population 164 

Sanitarium 163 

Schools 459 

Division of the County 133 

Doctors 356 

Dog Leg Society 509 

Dover 404 

D imont, Ebenezer 331 

Dunn, George £L 3^0 

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Early Crops 431 

Early Epidemics . 15Q 

Early Harvest Operations — 436 

Early Indiana Lawyers 340 

Early Market Conditions 422 

Early Physicians 36s 

Early Prices ~ 235 

Early Teachers 455 

Earthworks, Ancient 120 

Education 453 

Educational System of State ...... — 61 

Election, First Territorial 48 

Emigrants from Maine 108 

English Colonies, Claims of 33 

English Settlers .313. 214 

Epidemics, Early 359 

Erthstane History Club 482 

Ewbank, John - 213 

Experiences of a Pioneer 

Fairs - 434 

Fallen Timbers, Battle of ^ 4L 86 

Family of Patriots 211 

Farm Products „ 432 

Farmers College - - 468 

Farmers Retreat ... ..153, 400, 457 

Farming Methods, Early zo 

Ferries 442 

Ferris Family „ i8_Z 

Finances of County, 1826 242 

First Actual Settlers 107, im 

First Families of Dearborn 1 1 4 

First General Assemblies 42 

First Land Entries Lift 

First Officers of the County ..... 132 

First Sessions of County Courts .... 132 

First Territorial Legislature 43 

First Territorial Surveys 39 

First White Men in Territory 33 

Flatboating 442 

Flood Relief 502 

Floods 486 

Ft. Finney. Treaty of 94 

Fort Hill u 

Fraternal Orders 410 

Free and Accepted Masons 410 

French and Indian War 35 

French Gaims .. Z2 

Frontier Defenders - „ 286 

Fuller Murder Case 355 

Game-hunting Stories £13 

General Assemblies, First 43 

Geography of the County — Z§ 

Geology of County 65 

Georgetown „ — .208 

German Families 152 

German Methodist Church 402 

Gold Deposits „ - 62 

Governors of Indiana ~ — - 58 

Grand Army of the Republic 418 

Greendale 192, 459 

Griffin Family 155 

Guilford — 

Altitude 64 

Business Interests 229 

Churches „. ... 390 

Laid Out 229 

Origin of Name .... 22fi 

Population 229 

Schools _ 459 

Stockade _ „ 227 

Surveyed „ 229 

G» ion \ ill e ..l6l. lfi2 

Harbert, Ebenezer .„ 161 

Hardinsburg ..186. 392 

Hardships of Pioneers 118 

Harmans 64 

Harmar's Expedition 84 

Harrison - » i6q. 330. 399 

Harrison Township- 
Churches 396 

Creation of 162 

First Settler 167 

Land Entries 1 16, 162 

Location 162 

Reminiscences 167 

Schooli 458 

Settlers 169 

Hayes Family 120. 129, 183 

High Water 495 

Highways 437 

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Hogan Township — 

Boom, the First 

Early Families 

First Settlers 

Land Entries _. 

Location - ~ 


Pioneers • 


Hogan Valley, Settlers in . 


Holman Family 

Homes of the Pioneers 

Homesteads, Settlers Lose 


Hubbell's Cross Roads 









» US 

.. 4J2 




~ 433 


Improved Order of Red Men 418 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows 414 

Indian Invasions ..76, 82. 162 

Indian Lands 50 

Indian Struggles ~ „ ..„ 41 

Indian Wars 33 

Indiana, Capitals of 54 

Indiana, Changes in Boundaries 42 

Indiana, Governors of „ 58 

Indiana, Growth in Population 52 

Indiana, Natural Resources fia 

Indiana Political History „ 57 

Indiana Territory, Settlement in .... 45 
Indiana, Wealth of „„ 6q 

Indians in Dearborn County . 
Internal Improvements, State 



Jackson Family „„ 

Jackson Township- 
Boundaries 1 77 

Churches „ „ iflo 

Early Families 128 

German Emigration ~ I7.Z 

Land Entries 177 

Location !2Z 

Mill 128 

Schools ....180. 458 

Settlement ..177, 179 

Jail History ~ 133 

Journal of Lieut. Isaac Anderson .... fti 

Journal of Maj. Ebenezer Denny ... 04 

Judges, Associate „ „ 140 

Judges, Circuit „. 140 

Judges of Common Pleas Court 140 

Judges of Probate Court „ 140 

Judges, Territorial 139 

Judicial Circuits 332 

Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics 419 

Kelso Township- 

Early Settlement 

Name , 



Knights of Pythias 


Land Elevations I 64 

Lane Family 346 

Land Slips — „. _.. 68 

Lands Purchased from Indiana 51 

Laughery, Col. Archibald ..87. 9J 

Laughery Valley, Settlers in ij_5 

Laughery's Creek, Battle of 87 

Lawrence Families 177 

Lawrenceburg — 

Additions to _ „ _ 256 

Altitude „. 64 

Banks -235. 4*0, 427 

Business Directory, i860 249 

Business Directory, 191 5 „ 263 

Business Men, 1839 „ 245 

Canal _ -244, 24S, 444 

Cemeteries „ 260 

Churches 236, 2421 386, 392, 392, 

399. 401 .- 406 

Clubs „ _ 482 

County Seat 133 

Description of Land 230 

Dog Leg Society „ 511 

Early Citizens „. 232 

Early Commerce 239 

Early Growth „ 231 

Early Industries ..244, 258 

Early Real Estate Values 233 

Fire Department 249 

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First Houses 

First Things 

Floods 240^ 244. 

Hard Times 

Land Entered 


Library , , 

Lodges — 4IO, 

New Orleans Trade 


Patriotism of People 


Prices, Early 



River Trade 

Schools ~456. 

Town Government 

Town Site 

Trade Center, An Early . 

Lawrenceburg Academy 

Lawrence burg Institute 

24^ 248, 486 

-237. 246 


-.. 230 


- 236 
414, 4l6, 418 


^aj^ 322 


i» ■■■■ 



Logans Cross Roads - 196 

Lutheran Churches — 30(3 

.248, 254 

„237. 239 

45Q, 464, 467 






Lawrenceburg Township- 
Churches .180, 401 

Early Families 183 

Land Entries 183 

Pioneer History 183 

Reminiscences - 100 

Settlement 183 

Lawrenceville ..179, 395 

Lawyers of the County 339 

Legislative Council, First 


Legislature, First Territorial 48 

Legislature, State 141 

Limestone Soil 68 

Lincoln, Abraham, Visit of 505 

Lincoln's Assassination „ 328 

Location of Dearborn County 63 

Lodges 410 

Logan Township — 

Boundaries 195 

Churches 325 

Early Business Interests 106 

Early Families 195 

Land Entries „.n6. IQS 

Mill 196 

Organization 105 

Schools 458 

Settlement 195 


McCIure, William .. 
McGuire, James 



Mail Routes 440 

Maine Emigrants 198 

Major, Daniel S. 351 

Manchester — 

Churches - 390 

Lodges 411 

Roads 442 

Schools, Early „.. 450 

Settlement 198 

Manchester Township — 

Area 102 

Changes in Territory » 197 

Character of Population 204 

Churches „ .202 400 

Early History 197 

Emigrants from Maine 198 

First Cabin 198 

First Events 204 

Land Entries 152 

Pleasant View Debating Club 204 

Schools 1,, 458 

Settlement 197 

Stories of Early Settlers 109 

Market Conditions, Early 429 

Masonic Order 410 

Medical Fees _ 358 

Medical Profession „ 356 

Methodist Episcopal Churches 

1 $3, 168, 18& 214, 219, 224, 242, 385 

Methodist Protestant Church 215 

Mexican War 2M 

Miami Bottoms, Settlers in n$ 

Miami Gay Loam Soil 68 

Military History 2^ 

Military History of Indiana 55 

Militia 132 

Miller Township- 
Boundaries 205 

Church History 214 

Creation of 205 

Election, First 212 



English Settlers 212 

Entries of Land 2QD. 

Family of Patriots 2_u 

First Settlers 202 

Influential Men 208. 

Land Purchases 205 

Organization _ 205 

Pioneer Girl's Experience 2ifl 

Schools iia 

Settlement 205 

Mills i6l i6i 16^ LZ^t \£Zl 212, 218, 273 

Minerals 66. 

Moore, John C 3IQ 

Moores Hill — 

Altitude 64 

Bank 426 

Churches ..3Qi. 291 

College 21Q, 472 

Early Business Interests „ 22a 

First Stores 220 

Laid Out 219 

Location 218 

Methodist Settlement - 210. 

Name 219 

Population 219 

Town Government 22Q 

Moores Hill College 421 

Morgan's Raid .jfig. 329, Si6 

Morgantown 129. 

Mound Builders _ ..74. 170 

Murder by Indians LL2 


Name of Dearborn County 132 

Natural Resources of State 6n 

New Alsace 181. 408 

Newspapers ..234. 274, 221 

Northwest Territory 2A 

Northwest Territory, Capitals of .... 54. 

Northwest Territory, Census of 44 

Northwest Territory, Organization 
of _ 42 


Odd Fellows, Order of 414 

Officers of the County, First LI? 

Ohio Company, the „ 104. 

Old-time Ailments 364, 

Ordinance of 1787 8a 

Organization of Counties ..43. 51 

Organization of Northwest Terri- 
tory „ 42 

Organization of the County 132 

Orpheus Club 484. 


Patrons Mutual Fire Ins. Co 102 

Pauper for Sale 381 

Pel la 2in 

Petersbuig 158 

Physicians 3j6 

Pike Family 130 

Pioneer Bar 341 

Pioneer Cabin 1A2 

Pioneer Customs 122 

Pioneer Days 114 

Pioneer F.xperiences l£u 

Pioneer Farming Conditions 43Q. 435 

Pioneer Girl's Experience 310 

Pioneer Homes 152 

Pioneer Newspaper, Typical 379 

Pioneers. Hardships of i_l8 

Pioneers, Sidelights on 127 

Pleasant View Debating Club 204 

Political History of Indiana 52 

Pontiac's Conspiracy 36 

Population of Indiana 52 

Population. Territorial 45 

Presbyterian Churches 307 

Present Members of the Bar 356 

Present Physicians 371 

Press, the -234. -T4. 37-' 

Prices, Early 235 

Primitive Domicile 121 

Probate Judges 140 

Produce, Price of L2D 

Prosecuting Attorneys L45 


Quebec Act 36 


Railroads ..248. 254. 445 

Recorders, County 145 

Red Men, Improved Order of 418 

"Redstone." Ill-Fated 306 

Related State History 2A 

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Removal of County Seat 133 

Representative Stage of Government 42 

Representatives 141 

Review Club - 483 

Revolutionary Period — 36 

Revolutionary Soldiers 2&2 

River Changes - 64 

River Trade 2j£ 

River Transportation 446 

Road, First Permanent 437 

Roberts, George M 252 

Rocks, the ~ 65 

Ross Family 160. 

Runaway Slave Story 5JJ 

St. Cecelia Musicale 482 

St. Clair's Defeat ^ 85 

St. Leon 6& 18^ -joy 

Scenery of the County 63 

School Superintendent, County 145 

Schools 4S3 

Schwartz. John - 252. 

Secret Societies • 410 

Seminary, County 457 

Settlement in Indiana Territory 45 

Settlement of Dearborn County .... 99 
Settlers L=Zi 14& L5Z± Ufii l^SL ML 
177. l8l. 183. 103. 107. 205. 217, 221 

Settlers. First Actual ..... -107, Ufi 

Sheriffs 143 

Sidelights cn Dearborn History 505 

Sidelights on Pioneers 127. 

Size of Dearborn County 63 

Slavery. Efforts to Establish 50 

Soil Analysis 21 

Soils 68 

Spanish- \merican War 56, 336 

Sparks. Judge Elijah 343 

Sparta .220, 303 

Sparta Township — 

Boundaries 21& 

Churches 210. 

Description 216 

Distillery 21& 

Land Entries 2lh 

Mills ilB 

Origin of Settlers itB 

Schools 458 

Settlement 217 

Spooner, Col. Benjamin J 352 

Stage Routes _ „ 440 

State Benevolent Institutions 61 

State Educational System 61 

State History „ „ 33 

State Legislature 141 

State Medical Society 359 

State Military History 55 

State Political History 52 

State Road, the ..... 442 

Stockade at Guilford 222 

Stratified Rocks „ 65 

Superintendent of Schools, County 145 

Survey of Dearborn County ..128. 130 

Surveyors, County 146 

Surveys, First Territorial .... 39 

Symmes Purchase, Settlements on lqq. 

Tanner's Station ..127. 158 

Taverns „ 442 

Teachers, Early 455 

Territorial Congressional Delegates 49, 

Territorial Election, First 48 

Territorial Government - 46 

Territorial Judges 13J) 

Territorial Legislatures ._43_. y_i 

Territorial Surveys, First 22. 

Territory Northwest of the Ohio .... 2A 

Thomas, Jesse B 344 

Topography of County- ..63. 66 

Transportation 437 

Treasurers, County 144 

Treaty of Ft. Finney t>4 

Treaty of Greenville 80. 

Tribute to the Early Settler 125 


United Brethren Church ..178. ifii 

Vance, Capt. Samuel C. 

139, 186, 230, 2J9, 24L 354, 438, 462 

Vincennes, Capture of 21 

Vincennes, Settlement of 38 

Volunteers from Dearborn County 290 
Votes for Constitutional Convention 52 




War of 1812 285 

War of the Rebellion „ 296 

War with Mexico ~ 288 

War with Spain 336 

Wars, Indiana's Part in „ 55 

Wars with Indians 3.3 

Washington Agricultural School .... 467. 
Washington Township — 

Churches 224 

Creation of „ 221 

Description of 221 

Land Entries _ 221 

Location 221 

Pioneers, the 223 

Reminiscences - 222 

Settlement 221 

Watts Family 150 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony 41 

Wealth of Indiana ~ 60. 

Weaver Family 184 

Weisburg J>4> lit 

West Harrison ....116, 170 

Whitewater Canal — 444 

Wild Fruit 156 

Wild Game „ 120. 156 

Wilmington — 
Additions to , — 170 

Churches 391 

County Seat .._ .133, 176 

County Seminary .176. 453, 457 

Early Business Interests 176 

Laid Out „I74, 176 

Lodges „ -413. 416 

Newspaper — 376 

Population 176 

Public Buildings _ „ „ 126 

Schools 452i 450 

Transportation 441 

Wilmington Seminary 457 

Wolf Den. In a SIS 

Woman's Research Club, Aurora. ... 485 
Women's Clubs .'. 48J 


York Township — 

Burying Ground, Old 228 

Cabin, First — 228 

Creation of 226 

Land Entries 226 

Name ~ 226 

Schools, Early „ 458 

Settlement 226 

Stockade, Old 227 

Yorkville . 226. 220, joq 




Abraham, William L — . 611 

Alig, Philip H. „ 642 

Andres, John A „ 651 

Andres, Rev. Martin 683 

Axby, Joseph L., D. V. S 523 


Backman, Co. John Jeremiah ..1039 

Bailey, Edgar U 692 

Barker, Edward ~ 994 

Bauer, Jacob M. — „ 874 

Bayly, Miss Eva „ 671 

Bennett, Adolphus W 603 

Bennett, Mrs. Margaretha 863 

Berg, Philip „ 1036 

Berner, Herman 985 

Berkermeier, Charles iL 861 

Bidnrr, Peter -1058 

Bielby, Hon. Estal G £2g 

Bigney, Prof. Andrew J 803 

Bishop, Charles R 644 

Bittner, Frank 624 

Bloom, Benjamin F &10. 

Bobrink. John A 6fk> 

Bockhorst. Henry D 622 

Bond, Marc L., M. D 696 

Borgerding, Mrs. Emma C 705 

Bowers, Charles M 

Braun, Philip C £6j 

Brown. Robert L 865 

Bruce, Adam 882 

Bruce. Martin V 25§ 

Hunger. Wesley G .jojo. 

Burlingame, Harry S 

Busse, George F 560 

Busse, Henry C 765 

Basse. Henry P 851 

Busse, William F „ 6qj 


Calhoun, William S — 895 

Canfield, Mrs. Elizabeth 757 

Canfield, Perry 8jx* 

Canfield, Vanden B. ..1006 

Carter, Julius P 256 

Cass, Robert Barr ,1056 

Chance, Robert H. 242 

Clemenz, Edward C ~ ~ 212 

Cobb, Louis W „ 699 

Cole, George C 536 

Conaway, Mrs. Anna Smith 7J9 

Conaway. Preston H, — 858 

Cones, Louis £L „ q68 

Cook, August D _iDfki 

Cooper, Edward, D. V. S 59J 

Cottingham, Thomas Beaton 2°8 

Cox, Frank M ... 843. 

Creath, William A „ . ioii 


Darragh, Charles B 925 

Dashiell. Rev. John W.. D. D 824 

Davies, Llewellyn E 614 

Deao, Willard M 840 

Decker, Carl W ojj 

Detnas, George _ 838 

Diefenbaugh, George F 594 

Diehl. Clifford S 892 

Dietrich, Albert IL ..1042 

Dietrich, George August „ 21A 

Dietz, Albert V 728 

Dils, Clifford J „ 884 

Dittmer, John F ..qq8 

Dober, Edward 766 

Dorman, J. S 1015 

Downey, Charles A 563 

Duncan, William F., M. D ..1051 




Ebel, Arthur IL S34 

Rberhart. Charles 774 

Ellinghausen, Henry IL — — 589 

Emerson, William A 922 

Emmert, Philip J 1019 

Kr.yart. William E 944 


Faber, Henry — — 720 

Fagaly, Arthur T., M. D 793 

Feist, Joseph P 7JZ 

Fischvogt, Louis F 653 

Fisher, Harry E 581 

Fitch, Thomas A. „ 915 

Folke, Henry IL js_i 

Foulk, Louis M 738 

Fuller, Elijah 602 

Gardner, Robert R 

Gear, Henry „ 

Givan, John F „.. 

Givan, Martin J 

Givan, Hon. Noah Samson 

Glover, William G 

Gooden, William T 

Greene, William EL _ 

Grcenham, Claude D. _ 

Greenham, Edward .„ 

Grelle, Fred 

Gridley, Albert T. „ 

Groff, Joseph ...... 

Hall, John C «. 

Harsch, Christian G , 

Hauck, Judge Warren N. 

Hayes, Edward 

Hayes, Ezra P. — _.. 

Headley, Enoch 

Heffelmire, Frank . — 

Heibeck, Frederick 

Helmuth, Lewis IL 

Hill, Capt. Abram 

Hill, Adam K. „., 

Hill, Lew W. 

. 819 

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• yjz 

. 554 

- 5J2 

. 221 

■ 599 
. 583 

■ I* 
. 680 



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Hodell, Henry 905. 

Hoffmeier, Anthony 933 

Holthause, Edward 836 

Homann, John F „ tn£ 

Hooper, James N. 751 

Hornbach, Jacob — 853 

Hornberger, John „ 719 

Hornberger, John F. ._ ^4j 

Hornberger, William „.. 722 

Hoskins, William L. 54^ 

Houston, Joseph R. t A. M 701 

Housmyer, John F. „ 799 

Howrey, Weldon E. 630 

Hueseman. Ernst HL _ 754 

Huschart, Michael M 936 

Jackson, John M , M. D 642 

James, Anderson M. T „ 966 

Jaquith, Orville S-, M. D z89 

Johnston, Columbus ™ „ 712 

Johnston, David E., M. D 996 

Johnston, Ella Jane Z12 

Johnston, George „ &j3 

Johnston, George W m _ 565 

Johnston, Robert L _ „. 569 

Johnston, Thomas 677 

Jones, Sylvester D. 1068 

Kammeyer, Albert HL 995 

Kemp, Charles O. 778 

Kennedy, John B „ „ „. 910 

Kimball. William H. 798 

King, Harry A.. D. D. .„ 628 

Knippenberg, Henry H. 6j_6 

Knippenberg, John N 940 

Kruse, Mrs. Laura E (uj 

Kuhn, Edward .„ 771 

Kunz, George .~ 829 

Lamar, Edward B 848 

Larimer, Major James E 9S6 

Lauman, Henry F 706 

Leive, Herman IL 657 

Leive, William EL 850 

Lewis, George IL 744 

Lieberman, Charles R 74J 

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Loftus, James 736 

Lommel, Edward G Z§5 

Longcamp, Henry J., D. D. S QQ9 

Lotshaw, Hannah _ 627 

Lotshaw, Oscar 622 

Lowe, Roger William, Sr .1044 

Luke, Charles F. „ 6j8 

Lusk, Prof. Robert W $22 


MacElvain, Ben R 829 

McCullough, John 698 

McCune, William H. .1032 

McElroy, Dr. Jesse L 540 

McKinney, William Holman 1050 

McKinzie, Daniel E 685 

Maloney, Michael E 556 

Marlowe, Ernest O - 9_7_9_ 

Mathias, Albert IL 86_z 

Mendell, William IL 616 

Meyer, George Henry — . 211 

Meyer, Henry -~ -1070 

Meyer, John F 668 

Meyers, William ....1030 

Miller, Clay J 579 

Miller, Thomas M 7j6 

Moeller, Herman IL ~ ^iqqi 

Moore, Capt. Hansen D. 872 

Moore, Richard C. 914 

Mosmeier, Charles * - 686 

Mulford, Morton C. 953 

Mulford, William Charles 1033 

Murdock, James 597 


Xeukom, W. J 664 

Xieman, Charles IL 625 

Xiemeyer, George 859 

Xolte, John IL 816. 

Nolte. John L 666 

Xowlin, Ambrose E 52J 

Xowlin, Harry Langdale 001 


Oberting. John W .1067 

O'Brien, Cornelius ..1025 

O'Brien, Hon. William H. 1007 

Oertling, Ernest Grant t033 

Olcott, Morris D 8i£ 

Opp, Charles A 655 

Parks, Joseph G. 
Parrott, J. W. .. 


- — 1047 

Pieper, Henry 248 

Probst, John 885 

Reagan, Peter 970 

Rees, Martha and Mary E ~ 710 

Richmond, Prof. Nathan L - 963 

Richmond, Reuben M. 952 

Riggs, George A 762 

Rodenberg, Louis F .1017 

Roehm, John M 54^ 

Rohlfing, Edward Otto ...IQ49 

Ruble, William 832 

Rueter, Jt-sse 828 

Ruhlman, Louis B 817 

Rullmann, Henry KL 688 

Ruppert, George W 046 

Sawdon, George W „ 703 

Schipper, Frank A. „ 5_7_5_ 

Schleicher, Joseph 796 

Schmutte, Frederick „ 66j 

Schulz, Edward - 847 

Schumacher, Henry F. 761 

Schuman, Joseph A „. 921 

Scripture, Ira A 813 

Seifert, Joseph ..1037 

Shaw, Archibald 552 

Sherrod, Albert G 783. 

Shockley, Clarence M 8qi 

Shuter, William 87J 

Shutts, James H. 615 

Siekerman. William 821 

Sims, Amos W 586 

Slater, Frederick 882 

Small, Elias 618 

Small, Mrs. Emma 612 

Small, Joseph C 639 

Smith, Mrs. Ermina C 6x2 

Smith, ^eorge F., M. D 562 

Sondermann, Kev. Frank H, 961 

Sondermann, Rev. John F 822 

Spaeth, Capt. Henry P sj«> 

Spanagel, Albert 542 

Squibb, George L. P 827 

Squibb, Horace G $21 

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Squibb, Nathaniel E 008 

Squibb, William P 831 

Stark, Ambrose E 630 

Stedman, Nathan „ 694 

Steuver, Mrs. Amelia E „ 882 

Stevens, Carroll L. 648 

Stier, John IL S2J 

Stoll, Louis D. 844 

Sutton, George, M. D 584 

Sutton, Miss Georgians £38 

Sutton, Harley IL, M. D 776 

Swarthout, Ernest W 544 


Terrill, Thomas E 856 

Theobald, John 090 

Torbet, Charles Edgar 730 

Trennepohl, J. IL Z55 

Treon, James F., M. D. 806 

Turner, William T dm 


Van Dolah, Mrs. Nancy L. 609. 

Van Horn. Samuel A Q12 

Van Osdol, Charles L., D. D. S. 723 

Vesenmeir, Adam 922 

Vinup, John F. 834 

Vonholt Brothers „ 1029 

Voshell, Charles L „ „ 672 


Walker, Emily E. (Hubbartt) „ Z46 

Werner, Henry 650 

Wescott, William IL 2^3 

Wheeler, Henry C <j8j 

White, Richard 950 

Whiteford, William R 623. 

Wilkin, Stanley E „ 942 

Williams, Wilbur A ..ioos 

Wilson, Clarence B „ 524 

Wilson, Robert P 577 

Wood, George iL 918 

Wright, Hewson ..1071 


Zimmer, Nicholas ..1013 






The first white men to set foot upon the Northwest Territory were 
French traders and missionaries under the leadership of La Salle. This was 
about the year 1670 and subsequent discoveries and explorations in this 
region by the French gave that nation practically undisputed possession of 
all the territory organized in 1787 as the Northwest Territory. It is true 
that the English colonies of Virginia, Connecticut and Massachusetts claimed 
that their charters extended their grants westward to the Mississippi river. 
However, France claimed this territory and successfully maintained posses- 
sion of it until the close of the French and Indian War in 1763. At that 
time the treaty of Paris transferred all of the French claims east of the 
Mississippi river to England, as well as all claims of France to territory on 
the mainland of North America. For the next twenty years the Northwest 
Territory was under the undisputed control of England, but became a part 
of the United States by the treaty which terminated the Revolutionary War 
in 1783. Thus the flags of three nations have floated over the territory now 
comprehended within the present state of Indiana — the tri-color of France, 
the union jack of England and the stars and stripes of the United States. 

History will record the fact that there was another nation, however, 
which claimed possession of this territory and, while the Indians can hardly 
be called a nation, yet they made a gallant fight to retain their hunting 
grounds. The real owners of this territory struggled against heavy odds 
to maintain their supremacy and it was not until the battle of Tippecanoe, in 
the fall of 181 1, that the Indians gave up the unequal struggle. Tecumseh, 
the Washington of his race, fought fiercely to save this territory for his 
people, but the white man finally overwhelmed him, and "Lo, the poor Indian" 
was pushed westward across the Mississippi. The history of the Northwest 
Territory is full of the bitter fights which the Indians waged in trying to drive 
the white man out and the defeat which the Indians inflicted on General 
St. Clair on November 4, 1792, will go down in the annals of American 

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history as the worst defeat which an American army ever suffered at the 
hands of the Indians. The greatest battle which has ever been fought in the 
United States against the Indians occurred in the state of Ohio. This was 
the battle of Fallen Timbers and occurred August 20, 1794, the scene of 
the battle being within the present county of Defiance. After the close of the 
Revolutionary War the Indians, urged on by the British, caused the settlers in 
the Northwest Territory continued trouble and defeated even- detachment sent 
against them previous to their defeat by Gen. Anthony Wayne at the battle of 
Fallen Timbers in 1794. Although there was some trouble with the Indians 
after this time, they never offered serious resistance after this memorable de- 
feat until the fall of 181 1, when Gen. William Henry Harrison completely 
routed them at the battle of Tippecanoe. 


Ohio was the first state created out of the old Northwest Territory, 
although Indiana had been previously organized as a territory. When the 
land comprehended within the Northwest Territory was discovered by the 
French under La Salle about 1670, it was a battle-ground of various Indian 
tribes, although the Eries. who were located along the shores of Lake Erie, 
were the only ones with a more or les* definite territory. From 1670 to 
1763, the close of the French and Indian War. the French were in possession 
of this territory and established their claims in a positive manner by exten- 
sive exploration and scattered settlements. The chief centers of French 
settlement were at Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Fort Crevecour 
and at several missionary stations around the shores of the great lakes. The 
French did not succeed in doing this without incurring the hostility of the 
Iroquois Indians, a bitter enmity which was brought about chiefly because 
the French helped the Shawnees, Wyandots and Miami's to drive the Iroquois 
out of the territory west of the Muskingum river in Ohio. 

It must not be forgotten that the English also laid claim to the North- 
west Territory, basing their claim on the discoveries of the Cabots and the 
subsequent charters of Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut. These 
charters extended the limits of these three colonies westward to the Pacific 
ocean, although, as a matter of fact, none of the three colonies made a settle- 
ment west of the Alleghanies until after the Revolutionary War. New York 
sought to strengthen her claim to territory west of the Alleghanies in 1701. 
by getting from the Iroquois, the bitter enemies of the French, a grant to the 

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territory from which the French and their Indian allies had previously ex- 
pelled them. Although this grant was renewed in 1726 and again confirmed 
in 1744. it gave New York only a nominal claim and one which was never 
recognized by the French in any way. 

English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began in 1730 to pay 
more attention to the claims of their country west of the Alleghanies and 
north of the Ohio river. When their activities reached the ears of the French 
the governor of French Canada sent Celeron de Bienville up and down the 
Ohio and the rivers and streams running into it from the north and took 
formal possession of the territory by planting lead plates at the mouth of 
every river and stream of any importance. This peculiar method of the 
French in seeking to establish their claims occurred in the year 1749 and 
opened the eyes of England to the necessity of taking some immediate action. 
George II, the king of England at the time, at once granted a charter, for the 
first Ohio Company (there were two others by the same name later organ- 
ized) composed of London merchants and enterprising Virginians, and the 
company at once proceeded to formulate plans to secure possession of the ter- 
ritory north of the Ohio and west of the Mississippi. Christopher Gist was 
sent down the Ohio river in 1750 to explore the country as far west as the 
mouth of the Scioto river, and made several treaties with the Indians. Things 
were now rapidly approaching a crisis and it was soon evident that there 
would be a struggle of arms between England and France for the disputed 
region. In 1754 the English started to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, on the site of the present city of Pitts- 
burgh, but before the fort was completed the French appeared on the scene, 
drove the English away and finished the fort which had been begun. 


The crisis had finally come. The struggle which 'followed between the 
two nations ultimately resulted in the expulsion of the French from the 
mainland of America as well as from the immediate territory in dispute. 
The war is known in America as the French and Indian War and in the 
history of the world as the Seven Years' War, the latter designation being 
due to the fact that it lasted that length of time. The struggle developed 
into a world-wide conflict and the two nations fought over three continents, 
America, Europe and Asia. It is not within the province of this resume of 
the history of Indiana to go into the details of this memorable struggle. It is 

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sufficient for the purpose at hand to state that the treaty of Paris, which 
terminated the war in 1763, left France without any of her former posses- 
sions on the mainland of America. 


With the English in control of America east of the Mississippi river and 
the French regime forever ended, the Indians next command the attention 
of the historian who deals with the Northwest Territory. The French were 
undoubtedly responsible for stirring up their former Indian allies and Pontiac's 
conspiracy must be credited to* the influence of that nation. This formidable 
uprising was successfully overthrown by Henry Bouquet, who led an expedi- 
tion in 1764 into the present state of Ohio and compelled the Wyandots, Dela- 
ware* and Shawnees to sue for peace. 


From 1764 to 1774, no events of particular importance occurred within 
the territory north of the Ohio river, but in the latter year (June 22, 1774) 
England then at the breaking point, with the colonies, passed the Quebec 
act, which attached this territory to the province of Quebec for administrative 
purposes. This intensified the feeling of resentment which the colonies bore 
against their mother country and is given specific mention in their list of 
grievances which they enumerated in their Declaration of Independence. The 
Revolutionary War came on at once and this act, of course, was never put 
into execution. 


During the War for Independence (1775- 1783), the various states with 
claims to western lands agreed with the Continental Congress to surrender 
their claims to the national government. In fact, the Articles of Confedera- 
tion were not signed until all of the states had agreed to do this and Mary- 
land withheld her assent to the articles until March 1, 1780, on this account. 
In accordance with this agreement New York ceded her claim io the United 
States in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 
1786, although the latter state excepted a one-hundred-and-twenty-mile strip 
of three million five hundred thousand acres bordering on Lake Eric. This 
strip was formally relinquished in 1800, with the understanding that the 

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United States would guarantee the titles already issued by that state. Vir- 
ginia was also allowed a reservation, known as the Virginia Military Dis- 
trict, which lay between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, the same being 
for distribution among her Revolutionary veterans. There is one other fact 
which should be mentioned in connection with the territory north of the 
Ohio in the Revolutionary period. This was the memorable conquest of the 
territory by Gen. George Rogers Clark. During the year 1778 and 1779, 
this redoubtable leader captured Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes and 
thereby drove the English out of the Northwest Territory. It is probable 
that this notable campaign secured this territory for the Americans and that 
without it we would not have had it included in our possessions in the treaty 
which closed the Revolutionary War. 


One of the most interesting pages of Indiana history is concerned with 
the capture of Vincennes by Gen. George Rogers Clark in the spring of 1779. 
The expedition of this intrepid leader with its successful results marked him 
as a man of more than usual ability. Prompted by a desire to secure the 
territory northwest of the Ohio river for the Americans, he sought and ob- 
tained permission from the governor of Virginia the right to raise a body of 
troops for this purpose. Early in the spring of 1778 Clark began collecting 
his men for the proposed expedition. Within a short time he collected about 
one hundred and fifty men at Ft. Pitt and floated down the Ohio to the 
falls near Jeffersonville. He picked up a few recruits at this place and in 
June floated on down the river to the mouth of the Tennessee river. His 
original intention was to make a descent on Vincennes first, but, having re- 
ceived erroneous reports as to the strength of the garrison located there, he 
decided to commence active operations at Kaskaskia. After landing his 
troops near the mouth of the Tennessee in the latter part of June, 1778, he 
marched them across southern Illinois to Kaskaskia, arriving there on the 
evening of July 4. The inhabitants were terror stricken at first, but upon 
being assured by General Clark that they were in no danger and that all he 
wanted was for them to give their support to the American cause, their fears 
were soon quieted. Being so far from the scene of the war, the French 
along the Mississippi knew little or nothing about its progress. One of the 
most important factors in establishing a friendly relation between the Amer- 
icans and the French inhabitants was the hearty willingness of Father Gibault, 

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the Catholic priest stationed at Kaskaskia, in making his people see that their 
best interests would be served by aligning themselves with the Americans. 
Father Gibault not only was of invaluable assistance to General Clark at 
Kaskaskia, but he also offered to make the overland trip to Vincennes and 
win over the French in that place to the American side. This he successfully 
did and returned to Kaskaskia in August with the welcome news that the 
inhabitants of Vincennes were willing to give their allegiance to the 

However, before Clark got his troops together for the trip to Vincennes, 
General Hamilton, the lieutenant-governor of Detroit, descended the Wabash 
and captured Vincennes (December 15, 1778). At that time Clark had only 
two men stationed there, Leonard Helm, who was in command of the fort, 
and a private by the name of Henry. As soon as Clark heard that the British 
had captured Vincennes. he began to make plans for retaking it. The terms 
of enlistment of many of his men had expired and he had difficulty in getting 
enough of them to re-enlist to make a body large enough to make a successful 
attack. A number of young Frenchmen joined his command and finally, in 
January, 1779, Clark set out from Kaskaskia for Vincennes with one hundred 
and seventy men. This trip of one hundred sixty miles was made at a time 
when traveling overland was at its worst. The prairies were wet, the 
streams were swollen and the rivers overflowing their banks. Notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties which confronted him and his men, Clark advanced rapidly 
as possible and by February 23, 1779, he was in front of Vincennes. Two 
days later, after considerable parleying and after the fort had suffered from 
a murderous fire from the Americans, General Hamilton agreed to surrender. 
This marked the end of British dominion in Indiana, and ever since that day 
the territory now comprehended in the state has been American soil. 


Historians have never agreed as to the date of the founding of Vin- 
cennes. The local historians of that city have always claimed that the 
settlement of the town dates from 1702, although those who have examined 
all the facts and documents have come to the conclusion that 1732 conies 
nearer to being the correct date. It was in the latter year that George Wash- 
ington was born, a fact which impresses upon the reader something of the age 
of the city. Vincennes was an old town and had seen several generations 
pass away when the Declaration of Independence was signed. It was in 

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Vincennes and vicinity that the best blood of the Northwest Territory was 
found at the time of the Revolutionary War. It was made the seat of justice 
of Knox county when it was organized in 1790 and consequently it is by 
many years the oldest county seat in the state. It became the first capital of 
Indiana Territory in 1800 and saw it removed to Corydon in 1813 for the 
reason, so the Legislature said, that it was too near the outskirts of civiliza- 
tion. In this oldest city of the Mississippi valley still stands the house into 
which Governor flarrison moved in 1804, and the house in which the Terri- 
torial Legislature held its session in 1805 is still in an excellent state of 

Today Vincennes is a thriving city of fifteen thousand, with paved 
streets, street cars, fine public buildings and public utility plants equal to any 
in the state. It is the seat of a university which dates back more than a 


The next period in the history of the territory north of the Ohio begins 
with the passage of a congressional act (May 20, 1785), which provided for 
the present system of land surveys into townships six miles square. As soon 
as this was put into operation, settlers — and mostly Revolutionary soldiers — 
began to pour into the newly surveyed territory. A second Ohio Company 
was organized in the spring of 1786, made up chiefly of Revolutionary 
officers and soldiers from New England, and this company proposed to estab- 
lish a state somewhere between Lake Erie and the Ohio river. At this junc- 
ture Congress realized that definite steps should be made at once for some 
kind of government over this extensive territory, a territory which now in- 
cludes the present states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and 
about a third of Minnesota. Various plans were proposed in Congress and 
most of the sessions of 1786 and the first half of 1787 were consumed in 
trying to formulate a suitable form of government for the extensive terri- 
tory. These deliberations resulted in the famous Ordinance of 1787, which 
was finally passed on July 13, 1787. 


There have been many volumes written about this instrument of gov- 
ernment and to this day there is a difference of opinion as to who was its 
author. The present article can do no more than merely sketch its outline 
and set forth the main provisions. It was intended to provide only a tern- 

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4 o 


porary government and to serve until such a time as the population of the 
territory would warrant the creation of states with the same rights and 
privileges which the thirteen original states enjoyed. It stipulated that not 
less than three nor more than five states should ever be created out of the 
whole territory and the maximum number was finally organized, although it 
was not until 1848 that the last state, Wisconsin, was admitted to the Union. 
The third article, "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of educa- 
tion shall forever be encouraged," has given these five states the basis for 
their excellent system of public schools, state normals, colleges and uni- 
versities. Probably the most widely discussed article was the sixth, which pro- 
vided that slavery and involuntary servitude should never be permitted within 
the territory and by the use of the word "forever" made the territory free 
for all time. It is interesting to note in this connection that both Indiana 
and Illinois before their admission to the Union sought to have this pro- 
vision set aside, but every petition from the two states was refused by Con- 
gress in accordance with the provision of the Ordinance. 


The ordinance contemplated two grades of territorial government. Dur- 
ing the operation of the first grade of government the governor, his secre- 
tary and the three judges provided by the ordinance were to be appointed by 
Congress and the governor in turn was to appoint "such magistrates and 
other civil officers in each county and township as he shall deem necessary 
for the preservation of the peace and good will of the same." After the 
federal government was organized a statutory provision took the appoint- 
ment of these officers out of the hands of Congress and placed it in the hands 
of the President of the United States. All executive authority was given 
to the governor, all judicial authority to the three judges, while the governor 
and judges, in joint session, constituted the legislative body. This means 
that during the first stage of territorial government the people had absolutely 
no voice in the affairs of government and this state of affairs lasted until 
1799, a period of twelve years. 


The second stage of government in the territory was to begin whenever 
the governor was satisfied that there were at least five thousand free male 
inhabitants of the age of twenty-one and above. The main difference be- 

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tween the first and second stages of territorial government lay in the fact 
that the legislative functions were taken from the governor and judges and 
given to a "general assembly or legislature." The ordinance provided for 
the election of one representative for each five hundred free male inhabitants, 
the tenure of the office to be two years. While the members of the lower 
house were to be elected by the qualified voters of the territory, the upper 
house, to consist of five members, were to be appointed by Congress in a 
somewhat complicated manner. The house of representatives was to select 
ten men and these ten names were to be sent to Congress and out of this 
number five were to be selected by Congress. This provision, like the ap- 
pointment of the governor, was later changed so as to make the upper house 
the appointees of the President of the United States. The five men so selected 
were called councilors and held office for five years. 


The first governor of the newly organized territory was Gen. Arthur 
St. Clair, a gallant soldier of the Revolution, who was appointed on October 
5, 1787, and ordered to report for duty on the first of the following February. 
He held the office until November 22, 1802, when he was dismissed by Presi- 
dent Jefferson "for the disorganizing spirit, and tendency of every example, 
violating the rules of conduct enjoined by his public station, as displayed in 
his address to the convention." The governor's duties were performed by 
his secretary, Charley W. Byrd, until March 1, 1803, when the state officials 
took their office. The first judges appointed were Samuel Holden Parsons. 
James Mitchell Varnum and John Armstrong. Before the time came for 
the judges to qualify, Armstrong resigned and John Cleves Symmes was ap- 
pointed in his place. The first secretary was Winthrop Sargent, who held 
the position until he was appointed governor of Mississippi Territory by the 
President on May 2, 1798. Sargent was succeeded by William Henry Har- 
rison, who was appointed by the President on June 26, 1798, and confirmed 
by the Senate two days later. Harrison was later elected as the first dele- 
gate of the organized Northwest Territory to Congress and the President 
then appointed Charles Willing Byrd as secretary of the Territory, Byrd's 
appointment being confirmed by the Senate on December 31, 1799. 


The Northwest Territory remained under the government of the first 
stage until September 16, 1799, when it formally advanced to the second or 

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4 2 


representative stage. In the summer of 1798 Governor 'St. Clair had ascer- 
tained that the territory had a population of at least five thousand free male 
inhabitants and, in accordance with the provisions of the Ordinance of 1787. 
was ready to make the change in its form of government. On October 29, 
1798, the governor issued a proclamation to the qualified voters of the terri- 
tory directing them to choose members for the lower house of the territorial 
Legislature at an election to be held on the third Monday of the following 
December. The twenty-two members so elected met on January 16. 1799. 
and, pursuant to the provisions of the ordinance, selected the ten men from 
whom the President of the United States later chose five for the Legislative 
Council. They then adjourned to meet on September 16. 1799, but since 
there was not a quorum on that day they held adjourned sessions until the 
23rd, at which time a quorum was present. 

At the time the change in the form of government went into effect there 
were only nine counties in the whole territory. These counties had been 
organized either by the governor or his secretary. The following table gives 
the nine counties organized before 1799 with the dates of their organization 
and the number of legislators proportioned to each by the governor: 

Date of Number of 

County. Organization. Representatives. 

Washington July 27, 1788 a 

Hamilton January 4, 1790 7 

St. Clair Aprirl 27, 1790 I 

Knox June 20, 1790 1 

Randolph October 5, 1795 1 

Wayne August 6, 1796 3 

Adams July 10, 1797 2 

Jefferson July 29, 1797 1 

Ross August 20, 1798 4 


The twenty-two representatives and five councilors were the first rep- 
resentative body to meet in the Northwest Territory and they represented a 
constituency scattered over a territory of more than two hundred and sixty- 
five thousand square miles, an area greater than Germany or France, or even 
Austria-Hungary. It would be interesting to tell something of the delibera- 

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tions of these twenty-seven sterling pioneers, but the limit of the present 
article forbids. It is necessary, however, to make mention of one important 
thing which they did in view of the fact that it throws much light on the 
subsequent history of the Northwest Territory. 

division of 1800. 

The Legislature was authorized to elect a delegate to Congress and two 
candidates for the honor presented their names to the Legislature. William 
Henry Harrison and Arthur St. Clair, Jr., the son of the governor. The 
Legislature, by a joint ballot on October 3, 1799, elected Harrison by a vote 
of eleven to ten. The defeat of his son undoubtedly had considerable to do 
with the subsequent estrangement which arose between the governor and hi* 
Legislature and incidentally hastened the division of the Northwest Terri- 
tory. Within two years from the time the territory had advanced to the 
second stage of government the division had taken place. On May 7, 1800. 
Coiigress passed an act dividing the Northwest Territory by a line drawn 
from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Fort Recovery, in Mercer county, 
Ohio, and thence due north to the boundary line between the L'nited States 
and Canada. Governor St. Clair favored the division because he thought it 
would delay the organization of a state and thus give him a longer lease on 
his position, but he did not favor the division as finally determined. He was 
constantly growing in disfavor with the people on account of his overbearing 
manner and he felt that he would get rid of some of his bitterest enemies if 
the western inhabitants were set off into a new territory. However, the 
most of the credit for the division must be given to Harrison, who. as a dele- 
gate to Congress, was in a position to have the most influence. Harrison also 
was satisfied that in case a new territory should be formed he would be ap- 
pointed its first governor and he was not disappointed. The territory west 
of the line above mentioned was immediately organized and designated as 
Indiana Territory, while the eastern portion retained the existing govern- 
ment and the old name — Northwest Territory. It is frequently overlooked 
that the Northwest Territory existed in fact and in name up until March 1. 


The division of 1800 left the Northwest Territory with only about one- 
third of its original area. The census of the territory taken by the United 
States government in 1800 showed it to have a total population of forty-five 

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thousand three hundred and sixty-five, which fell short by about fifteen thou- 
sand of being sufficient for the creation of a state as provided by the Ordi- 
nance of 1787, which fixed the minimum population at sixty thousand. The 
counties left in the Northwest Territory, with their respective population, 
are set forth in the appended table, all of which were within the present state 
of Ohio, except Wayne : 

Adams 3,432 

Hamilton 14,632 

Jefferson 8,766 

Ross •*•••••.•••..•..•....••...• 8,^40 

Trumbull 1 ,302 

Washington 5427 

Wayne 3,206 

Total 45,365 

The population as classified by the census with respect to age and sex is 
interesting and particularly so in showing that considerably more than one- 
third of the total population were children under ten years of age. 



• 9>362 


Whites from ten to sixteen 

• 3»647 


Whites from sixteen to twenty-six 

• 4.636 


Whites from twenty-six to forty-five. . 

• 4333 


• 1.955 







The above table shows in detail the character and distribution of the 
population of the Northwest Territory after the division of 1800. It is at 
this point that the history of Indiana properly begins and it is pertinent to set 
forth with as much detail as possible the population of Indiana Territory at 

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that time. The population of 5,641 was grouped about a dozen or more 
settlements scattered at wide intervals throughout the territory. The follow- 
ing table gives the settlements in Indiana Territory in 1800, with their re- 

spective number of inhabitants : 

Mackinaw, in northern Michigan 251 

Green Bay, Wisconsin 50 

Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 65 

Cahokia, Monroe county, Illinois 719 

Belle Fontaine, Monroe county, Illinois 286 

L'Aigle, St. Clair county, Illinois 250 

Kaskaskia, Randolph county, Illinois 467 

Prairie du Rocher, Randolph county, Illinois 212 

Settlement in Mitchel township, Randolph county, Illinois 334 

Fort Massac, southern Illinois 90 

Clark's Grant, Clark county, Indiana 929 

Vincennes, Knox county, Indiana 714 

Vicinity of Vincennes (traders and trappers) 819 

Traders and trappers at Ouitenon and Fort Wayne 155 

Fur traders, scattered along the lakes 300 

Of this total population of nearly six thousand, it was about equally 
divided between what is now Indiana and Illinois. There were one hun- 
dred and sixty-three free negroes reported, while there were one hundred and 
thirty-five slaves of color. Undoubtedly, this census of 1800 failed to give 
all of the slave population, and it is interesting to note that there were efforts 
to enslave the Indian as well as the negro. 

All of these settlements with the exception of the one in Clark's Grant 
were largely French. The settlement at Jeffersonville was made in large 
part by soldiers of the Revolutionary War and was the only real American 
settlement in the Indiana Territory when it was organized in 1800. 


The government of Indiana Territory was formally organized July 4. 
1800, and in a large book kept in the secretary of state's office at Indianapolis, 
there appears in the large legible hand of John Gibson the account of the first 
meeting of the officials of the Territory. It reads as follows : 

"St. Vincennes, July 4. 1800. This day the government of Indiana 
Territory commenced, William Henry Harrison having been appointed 

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governor, John Gibson, secretary, William Clarke, Henry Vanderburgh & 
John Griffin Judges in and over said Territory." 

Until Governor Harrison appeared at Vincennes, his secretary, John 
Gibson, acted as governor. The first territorial court met March 3, 1801, 
the first meeting of the governor and judges having begun on the 12th of the 
preceding January. The governor and judges, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Ordinance of 1787, continued to perform all legislative and 
judicial functions of the territory until it was advanced to the representative 
stage of government in 1805. The governor had sole executive power and 
appointed all officials, territorial and county. 


During this period from 1800 to 1805, the territory of Indiana was con- 
siderably augmented as result of the organization of the state of Ohio in 
1803. At that date Ohio was given its present territorial limits, and all of 
the rest of the Northwest Territory was included within Indiana Territorv 
from this date until 1805. During this interim Louisiana was divided and 
the northern part was attached to Indiana Territory, for purposes of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction. This was, however, only a temporary arrangement, 
which lasted only about a year after the purchase of Louisiana from France. 
The next change in the limits of Indiana Territory occurred in 1805, in 
which year the territory of Michigan was set off. The southern line of 
Michigan was made tangent to the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, and 
it so remained until Indiana was admitted to the Union in 1816. From 1805 
to 1809 Indiana included all of the present states of Indiana, Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin and about one-third of Minnesota. In the latter year Illinois was set off 
as a territory and Indiana was left with its present limits with the exception 
of a ten-mile strip along the northern boundary. This strip was detached 
from Michigan and this subsequently led to friction between the two states, 
which was not settled until the United States government gave Michigan a 
large tract of land west of Lake Michigan. Thus it is seen how Indiana has 
received its present boundary limits as the result of the successive changes 
in 1803, 1805. 1809 and 1816. 


The Ordinance of 1787 provided that whenever the population of the 
territory reached five thousand free male inhabitants it should pass upon the 
question of advancing to the second or representative stage. Governor Mar- 

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rison issued a proclamation August 4, 1804, directing an election to be held 
in the various counties of Indiana Territory on the nth of the following 
month. In the entire territory, then comprehending six counties, there were 
only three hundred and ninety-one votes cast. The following table gives 
the result of the election : 

County. For Advance. Against Advance. Total 

Clark 35 13 48 

Dearborn o 26 26 

Knox 163 12 175 

Randolph 40 21 61 

St. Clair 22 59 81 

Wayne o o o 

Total 260 131 391 

It will be noticed that there is no vote returned from Wayne and this is 
accounted for by the fact that the proclamation notifying the sheriff was not 
received in time to give it the proper advertisement. Wayne county at that 
time included practically all of the present state of Michigan and is not to 
be confused with the Wayne county later formed within the present limits of 
Indiana. As result of this election and its majority of one hundred and 
twenty-nine in favor of advancing to the second stage of government, the 
governor issued a proclamation calling for an election on January 3, 1805, of 
nine representatives, the same being proportioned to the counties as follows : 
Wayne, three: Knox, two; Dearborn, Clark, Randolph and St. Clair, one 
each. The members of the first territorial Legislature of Indiana convened 
at Vjncennes on July 29, 1805. The members of the house were as follows: 
Dr. George Fisher, of Randolph ; William Biggs and Shadrach Bond, of St. 
Clair; Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of Knox; Davis Floyd, of Clark, 
and Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn. This gives, however, only seven repre- 
sentatives, Wayne county having been set off as the territory of Michigan 
in the spring of this same year. A re-apportionment was made by the 
governor in order to bring the quota of representatives up to the required 

The Legislative Council consisted of five men as provided by the Ordi- 
nance of 1787, namely: Benjamin Chambers, of Dearborn; Samuel Gwath- 
mey, of Clark: John Rice Jones, of Knox; Pierre Menard, of Randolph, and 
John Hay, of St. Clair. It is not possible in this connection to give a detailed 

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history of the territory of Indiana from 1805 until its admission to the Union 
in 1 816. Readers who wish to make a study of our state's history can find 
volumes which will treat the history of the state in a much better manner 
than is possible in a volume of this character. It may be noted that there 
were five general assemblies of the Territorial Legislature during this period 
of eleven years. Each one of the five general assemblies was divided into 
two sessions, which, with the dates, are given in the appended table : 

First, General Assembly — First session, July 29, 1805 ; second session, 
November 3, 1806. 

Second General Assembly — First session, August 12, 1807; second 
session, September 26, 1808. 

Third General Assembly — First session, November 12, 1810; second 
session, November 12, 181 1. 

Fourth General Assembly — First session, February 1, 1813; second 
session, December 6, 181 3. 

Fifth General Assembly — First session, August 15, 1814; second session. 
December 4, 181 5. 


Indiana Territory was allowed a delegate in Congress from 1805 until 
the close of the territorial period. The first three delegates were elected by 
the Territorial Legislature, while the last four were elected by the qualified 
voters of the territory. The first delegate was Benjamin Parke, who was 
elected to succeed himself in 1807 over John Rice Jones, Waller Taylor and 
Shadrach Bond. Parke resigned March 1, 1808, to accept a seat on the 
supreme judiciary of Indiana Territory, and remained on the supreme bench 
of Indiana after it was admitted to the Union, holding the position until his 
death at Salem. Indiana. July 12. 1835. Jesse B. Thomas was elected Octo- 
ber 22. 1808, to succeed Parke as delegate to Congress. It is this same 
Thomas who came to Brookville in 1808 with Amos Butler. He was a 
tricky, shifty, and. so his enemies said, an unscrupulous politician. He was 
later elected to Congress in Illinois and became the author of the Missouri 
Compromise. In the spring of 1809 the inhabitants of the territory were 
permitted to cast their first vote for the delegate to Congress. Three candi- 
dates presented themselves for the consideration of the voters, Jonathan 
Jennings. Thomas Randolph and John Johnson. There were only four 
counties in the state at this time. Knox. Harrison. Clark and Dearborn. Two 
counties. St. Clair and Randolph, were a part of the new territory of Illinois. 

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which was cut off from Indiana in the spring of 1809. The one newspaper 
of the territory waged a losing fight against Jennings, the latter appealing for 
support on the ground of his anti-slavery views. The result of the election 
was as follows: Jennings, 428; Randolph, 402; Johnson, 81. Jonathan 
Jennings may be said to be the first successful politician produced in Indiana. 
His congressional career began in 1809 and he was elected to Congress four 
successive terms before 1816. He was president of the constitution conven- 
vention of' 1816, first governor of the state and was elected a second time, but 
resigned to go to Congress, where he was sent for four more terms by the 
voters of his district. 


The Ordinance of 1787 specifically provided that neither slavery nor any 
voluntary servitude should ever exist in the Northwest Territory. Notwith- 
standing this prohibition, slavery actually did exist, not only in the North- 
west Territory, but in the sixteen years while Indiana was a territory as well. 
The constitution of Indiana in 181 6 expressly forbade slavery and yet the 
census of 1820 reported one hundred and ninety slaves in Indiana, which 
was only forty-seven less than there was in 1810. Most of these slaves were 
held in the southwestern counties of the state, there being one hundred and 
eighteen in Knox, thirty in Gibson, eleven in Posey, ten in Vanderburgh, and 
the remainder widely scattered throughout the state. As late as 181 7 Frank- 
lin county- scheduled slaves for taxation, listing them at three dollars each. 
The tax schedule for 18 15 says that the property tax on "horses, town lots, 
servants of color and free males of color shall be the same as in 1814." 
Franklin county did not return slaves at the census of 1810 or 1820, but the 
above extract from the commissioners' record of Franklin county proved con- 
clusively that slaves were held there. Congress was petitioned on more 
than one occasion during the territorial period to set aside the prohibition 
against slavery, but on each occasion refused to assent to the appeal of the 
slavery advocates. While the constitution convention of 1816 was in session, 
there was an attempt made to introduce slavery, but it failed to accomplish 


The United States government bought from the Indians all of the land 
within the present state of Indiana with the exception of a small tract around 
Vincennes, which was given by the Indians to the inhabitants of the town 

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about the middle of the eighteenth century. The first purchase of land was 
made in 1795, at which time a triangular strip in the southeastern part of the 
state was secured by the treaty of Greenville. By the time Indiana was ad- 
mitted to the Union in 1816, the following tracts had been purchased : Vin- 
cennes tract, June 7, 1803: Vincennes treaty tract, August 18 and 27, 1804; 
Grouseland tract. August 21, 1805 ; Harrison's purchase. September 30, 1809; 
Twelve-mile purchase, September 30, 1809. 

No more purchases were made from the Indians until the fall of 1818, 
at which time a large tract of land in the central part of the state was pur- 
chased from the Indians. This tract included all of the land north of the 
Indian boundary lines of 1805 and 1809, and south of the Wabash river with 
the exception of what was known as the Miami reservation. This treaty, 
known as St. Mary's, was finally signed on October 6. 18 18. and the next 
Legislature proceeded to divide it into two counties, Wabash and Delaware. 


As fast as the population would warrant, new counties were estab-. 
lished in this New Purchase. Newton county (December 9, 1859) was 
the last county to be organized in the state. It had been first established 
by the legislative act of January 29, 1839, but within a year it was found that 
the population was too sparse to justify its separate existence, so it was 
attached to Jasper county and it was not until about twenty years later that 
its population was sufficient to make a separate county of it. Howard 
county was first organized as Richardville county (May 1, 1844), but its 
name was changed by the legislative act of December 28, 1846, to Howard. 
For purposes of reference, a list of the counties, with the dates of their 
establishment, is here appended. The dates given represent the time the 
organization became effective, since in many instances it was from a few 
months to as much as seven years after the act establishing the county was 
passed before it became effective. 

1. Knox June 20, 179*1 

2. Clark Feb. 3, 1801 

3. Dearborn Mch. 7, 1803 

4. Harrison Dec. 1, 1808 

5. Jefferson Feb. 1, 181 1 

6. Franklin Feb. 1, 181 1 

7. Wayne Feb. 1, 181 1 










.... Jan. 




• • ■ • ^)ct. 












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I s. 




Sullivan . . . 

. . . . Jan. 

1 ^. 

1 7 

Tennincs . 

■ V t 4 > l » * Ilk w • • • 

. . . Feb. 







Daviess .... 


I S. 










. . . Feb. 




I ; 



VI Oil IVIVI . . 




. . . Mch. 



























* * 










. . . Feb. 





. . . Feb. 









I S. 


Decatur .... 

. . . Mch. 




. . . Apr. 







I , 

* 9 






4 v 


. . . Mch. 








. . July 



. . .Feb. 










Tippecanoe . 

. . . Mch. 




*J 1 









Delaware . . 

.... Apr. 



















* * 




St. Joseph 
















* 9 








Lagrange . . 

. . . .Apr. 






.... Dec. 










.... Apr. 








* 9 




Porter , , . 


































Kosciusko . 

























Jasper .... 








.... Apr. 





Blackford . . 

. .After pub., 1839 







. . . .Feb. 18, 1840 























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The first thirteen counties in the above list were all that were organized 
when the territory of Indiana petitioned Congress for an enabling act in 1815. 
They were in the southern part of the state and had a total population of 
sixty-three thousand eig J * hundred and ninety-seven. At that time the total 
state tax was only atxx. live thousand dollars, while the assessment of the 
whole state in 181 6 amounted to only six thousand and forty-three dollars and 
thirty-six cents. 


The Constitution of 1816 was framed by forty-three delegates who met 
at Corydon from June 10 to June 29 of that year. It was provided in the 
Constitution of 181 6 that a vote might be taken every twelve years on the 
question of amending, revising or writing a wholly new instrument of gov- 
ernment. Although several efforts were made to hold constitution conven- 
tions between 1816 and 1850, the vote failed each time until 1848. Elections 
were held in 1823, 1828, 1840 and 1846, but each time there was returned 
an adverse vote against the calling of a constitutional convention. There were 
no amendments to the 1816 Constitution, although the revision of 1824. by 
Benjamin Parke and others was so thorough that it was said that the revision 
committee had done as much as a constitution convention could have done. 

It was not until 1848 that a successful vote on the question of calling a 
constitution convention w r as carried. There were many reasons which in- 
duced the people of the state to favor a convention. Among these may be 
mentioned the following: The old Constitution provided that all the state 
officers except the governor and lieutenant-governor should be elected by the 
Legislature. Many of the county and township officers were appointed by 
the county commissioners. Again, the old Constitution attempted to handle 
too many matters of local concern. All divorces from 18 16 to 185 1 were 
granted by the Legislature. Special laws were passed which would apply to 
particular counties and even to particular townships in the county. If NoWes- 
ville wanted an alley vacated or a street closed, it had to appeal to the Legis 
lature for permission to do so. If a man wanted to ferry people across a 
stream in Posey county, his representative presented a bill to the Legislature 
asking that the proposed ferryman be given permission to fern' people across 
the stream. The agitation for free schools attracted the support of the edu- 
cated people of the state, and most of the newspapers were outspoken in their 
advocacy of better educational privileges. The desire for better schools, for 

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freer representation in the selection of officials, for less interference by the 
Legislature in local affairs, led to a desire on the part of the majority of the 
people of the state for a new Constitution. 

The second constitutional convention of Indiana met at Indianapolis. 
October 7, 1850, and continued in session for four months. The one hun- 
dred and fifty delegates labored faithfully to give the state a Constitution 
fully abreast of the times and in accordance with the best ideas of the day. 
More power was given the people by allowing them to select not only all of 
the state officials, but also their county officers as well. The convention of 
1850 took a decided stand against the negro and proposed a referendum on 
the question of prohibiting the further emigration of negroes into the stale 
of Indiana. The subsequent vote on this question showed that the people 
were not disposed to tolerate the colored race. As a matter of fact no negro 
or mulatto could legally come into Indiana from 1852 until 1881, when the 
restriction was removed by an amendment of the Constitution. Another 
important feature of the new Constitution was the provision for free schools. 
What we now know as a public school supported at the expense of the state, 
was unknown under the 1816 Constitution. The new Constitution estab- 
lished a system of free public schools, and subsequent statutory legislation 
strengthened the constitutional provision so that the state now ranks among 
the leaders in educational matters throughout the nation. The people of the 
state had voted on the question of free schools in 1848 and had decided that 
they should be established, but there was such a strong majority opposed to 
free schools that nothing was done. Orange county gave only an eight per 
cent, vote in favor of free schools, while Putnam and Monroe, containing 
DePauw and Indiana Universities, respectively, voted adversely by large 
majorities. But, with the backing of the Constitution, the advocates of free 
schools began to push the fight for their establishment, and as a result of the 
legislative acts of 1855, 1857 and 1867, the public schools were placed upon 
a sound basis. 

Such in brief were the most important features of the 1852 Constitution. 
It has remained substantially to this day as it was written sixty-five years 
ago. It is true there have been some amendments, but the changes of 1878 
and 1881 did not alter the Constitution in any important particular. There 
was no concerted effort toward calling a constitutional convention until the 
Legislature of 1913 provided for a referendum on the question at the polk 
November 4, 1914. Despite the fact that all the political parties had de- 
clared in favor of a constitutional convention in their platforms, the question 

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was voted down by a large majority. An effort was made to have the ques- 
tion submitted by the Legislature of 191 5, but the Legislature refused to 
submit the question to the voters of the state. 


The present state of Indiana was comprehended within the Northwest 
Territory from 1787 to 1800, and during that time the capital was located 
within the present state of Ohio. When the Ordinance of 1787 was put in 
operation on July 17, 1788, the capital was established at Marietta, the name 
being chosen by the directors of the Ohio Company on July 2, of the same 
year. The name Marietta was selected in honor of the French Queen, Marie 
Antoinette, compounded by curious combination of the first and last syllables 
of her name. 

When Indiana was set off by the act of May 7, 1800, the same act 
located the capital at Vincennes, where it remained for nearly thirteen years. 
The old building in which the Territorial Assembly first met in 1805 is still 
standing in Vincennes. In the spring of 1813 the capital of the territory 
was removed to Corydon, and it was in that quaint little village that Indiana 
began its career as a state. It remained there until November, 1824, when 
Samuel Merrill loaded up all of the state's effects in three large wagons and 
hauled them overland to the new capital — Indianapolis. Indianapolis had 
been chosen as the seat of government by a committee of ten men, appointed 
in 1820 by the Legislature. It was not until 1824, however, that a building 
was erected in the new capital which would accommodate the state officials 
and the General Assembly. The first court house in Marion county was built 
on the site of the present building, and was erected with a view of utilizing 
it as a state house until a suitable capitol building could be erected. The state 
continued to use the Marion county court house until 1835, by which time an 
imposing state house had been erected. This building was in use until 1877, 
when it was razed to make way for the present beautiful building. 


Indiana has had some of its citizens in four wars in which United States 
has engaged since 1800: The War of 181 2. the Mexican War. the Civil 
War, and the Spanish-American War. One of the most important engage- 
ments ever fought against the Indians in the United States was that of the 
battle of Tippecanoe, November 7, 181 1. For the two or three years pre- 

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ceding, Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, had been getting the Indians 
ready for an insurrection. Tecumseh made a long trip throughout the west- 
ern and southern part of the United States for the purpose of getting the 
Indians all over the country to rise up and drive out the white man. While 
he was still in the South, Governor Harrison descended upon the Indians at 
Tippecanoe and dealt them a blow from which they never recovered. The 
British had been urging the Indians to rise up against the settlers along the 
frontier, and the repeated depredations of the savages but increased the hos- 
tility of the United States toward England. General Harrison had about 
seven hundred fighting men, while the Indians numbered over a thousand. 
The Americans lost thirty-seven by death on the battlefield, twenty-five mor- 
tally wounded and one hundred and twenty-six more or less seriously 
wounded. The savages carried most of their dead away, but it is known that 
about forty were actually killed in the battle and a proportionately large num- 
ber wounded. In addition to the men who fought at Tippecanoe, the pio- 
neers of the territory sent their quota to the front during the War of 1812. 
Unfortunately, records are not available to show the enlistments by counties. 

During the administration of Governor Whitcomb (1846-49) the United 
States was engaged in a war with Mexico. Indiana contributed five regi- 
ments to the government during this struggle, and her troops performed with 
a spirit of singular promptness and patriotism during all the time they were 
at the front. 

No Northern state had a more patriotic governor during the Civil War 
than Indiana, and had every governor in the North done his duty as conscien- 
tiously as did Governor Morton that terrible struggle would undoubtedly 
have been materially shortened. When President Lincoln issued his call on 
April 15, 1861, for 75,000 volunteers, Indiana was asked to furnish 4,683 
men as its quota. A week later there were no less than 12,000 volunteers 
at Camp Morton at Indianapolis. This loyal uprising was a tribute to the 
patriotism of the people, and accounts for the fact that Indiana sent more 
than 200,000 men to the front during the war. Indiana furnished prac- 
tically seventy-five per cent, of its total population capable of bearing arms, 
and on this basis Delaware was the only state in the Union which exceeded 
Indiana. Of the troops sent from Indiana, 7,243 were killed or mortally 
wounded, and 19,429 died from other causes, making a total death loss of 
over thirteen per cent, for all the troops furnished. 

During the summer of 1863 Indiana was thrown into a frenzy of excite- 
ment when it was learned that General Morgan had crossed the Ohio with 

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2,000 cavalrymen under his command. Probably Indiana never experienced 
a more exciting month than July of that year. Morgan entered the state in 
Harrison county and advanced northward through Corydon to Salem in 
Washington county. A<* his men went along they robbed orchards, looted 
farm houses, stole all t: ._ horses which they could find and burned consider- 
able property. From Salem, Morgan turned with his men to the east, having 
been deterred from his threatened advance on Indianapolis by the knowledge 
that the local militia of the state would soon be too strong for him. He hur- 
ried with his men toward the Ohio line, stopping at Versailles long enough 
to loot the county treasury. Morgan passed through Dearborn county over 
into Ohio, near Harrison, and a few days later, Morgan and most of his band 
were captured. 

During the latter part of the war there was considerable opposition to 
its prosecution on the part of the Democrats of this state. An organization 
known as the Knights of the Golden Circle at first, and later as the Sons of 
Liberty, was instrumental in stirring up much trouble throughout the state. 
Probably historians will never be able to agree as to the degree of their 
culpability in thwarting the government authorities in the conduct of the war. 
That they did many overt acts cannot be questioned and that they collected 
fire arms for traitorous designs cannot be denied. Governor Morton and 
General Carrington, by a system of close espionage, were able to know at all 
times just what was transpiring in the councils of these orders. In the cam- 
paign of 1864 there was an open denunciation through the Republican press 
of the Sons of Liberty. On October 8 of that year the Republican news- 
papers carried these startling headlines: "You can rebuke this treason. The 
traitors intend to bring war to your home. Meet them at the ballot box 
while Grant and Sherman meet them on the battle-field." A number of the 
leaders were arrested, convicted in a military court and sentenced to be shot. 
However, they were later pardoned. 

The Spanish- American War of 1898 has been the last one in which 
troops from Indiana have borne a part. When President McKinley issued 
his call for 75,000 volunteers on April 25, 1898, Indiana was called upon to 
furnish three regiments. War was officially declared April 25, and formally 
came to an end by the signing of a protocol on August 12 of the same year. 
The main engagements of importance were the seat battles of Manila and 
Santiago and the land engagements of El Caney and San Juan Hill. Ac- 
cording to the treaty of Paris, signed December 12, 1898. Spain relinquished 
her sovereignty over Cuba, ceded to the United States Porto Rico and licr 

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other West India Island possessions, as well as the island of Guam in the 
Pacific. Spain also transferred her rights in the Philippines for the sum of 
twenty million dollars paid to her for public work and improvements con- 
structed by the Spanish government. 


It is not possible to trace in detail the political history of Indiana for the 
past century and in this connection an attempt is made only to survey briefly 
the political history of the state. For more than half a century Indiana has 
been known as a pivotal state "in politics. In 1816 there was only one political 
party and Jennings, Noble, Taylor, Hendricks and all of the politicians of 
that day wer.e grouped into this one — the Democratic party. Whatever 
differences in views they might have had were due to local issues and not to 
any questions of national portent. Questions concerning the improvements 
of rivers, the building of canals, the removal of court houses and similar 
questions of state importance only divided the politicians in the early history 
of Indiana into groups. There was one group known as the White Water 
faction, another called the Vincennes crowd, and still another designated as 
the White river delegation. From 1816 until as late as 1832, Indiana was 
the scene of personal politics, and during the years Adams, Clay and Jackson 
were candidates for the presidency on the same ticket, men were known 
politically as Adams men, Clay men or Jackson men. The election returns 
in the twenties and thirties disclose no tickets labeled Democrat, Whig or 
Republican, but the words, "Adams," "Clay," or "Jackson." 

The question of internal improvements which arose in the Legislature 
of 1836 was a large contributing factor in the division of the politicians of 
the state. The Whig party may be dated from 1832, although it was not 
until four years later that it came into national prominence. The Democrats 
elected the state officials, including the governor, down to 183 1, but in that 
year the opposition party, later called the Whigs, elected Noah Noble gov- 
ernor. For the next twelve years the Whigs, with their cry of internal 
improvements, controlled the state. The Whigs went out of power with 
Samuel Bigger in 1843, and when they came into power again they appeared 
under the name of Republicans in 1861. Since the Civil War the two parties 
have practically divided the leadership between them, there having been seven 
Republicans and six Democrats elected governor of the state. The following 
table gives a list of the governors of the Northwest Territory, Indiana Terri- 

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tor)- and the state of Indiana. The Federalists were in control up to 1800 
and Harrison and his followers may be classed as Democratic-Republicans. 
The politics of the governors of the state are indicated in the table. 


Of the Territory Xorthwest of the Ohio- 
Arthur St. Clair : 1787-1800 

Of the Territory of Indiana — 

John Gibson (acting) July 4, 1 800-1 801 

William H. Harrison 1801-1812 

Thomas Posey 1812-1816 

Of the State of Indiana- 
Jonathan Jennings, Dem 1816-1822 

Ratliff Boon. Dem September 12 to December 5. 1822 

William Hendricks. Dem 1822-1825 

James B. Ray (acting). Dem Feb. 12 to Dec. 11, 1825 

James B. Ray. Dem 1825-183 1 

Noah Xoble, Whig 1831-1837 

David Wallace, Whig 1837-1840 

Samuel Bigger, Whig 1840-1843 

James Whitcomb, Dem 1843-1848 

Paris C. Dunning (acting). Dem 1848-1849 

Joseph A. Wright, Dem 1849-1857 

Ashbel P. Willard, Dem 1857-1860 

Abram A. Hammond (acting), Dem 1860-1861 

Henry S. Lane, Rep January 14 to January 16, 1861 

Oliver P. Morton (acting). Rep 1861-1865 

Oliver P. Morton, Rep 1865-1867 

Conrad Baker (acting). Rep 1867- 1869 

Conrad Baker. Rep 1869- 1873 

Thomas A. Hendricks, Dem 1873-1877 

James:D. Williams. Dem 1877-1880 

Isaac P. Gray (acting)'. Dem 1880-1881 

Albert G. Porter, Rep 188 1 -1885 

Isaac P. Gray, Dem 1885-1889 

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Alvin P. Hovey, Rep 1889-1891 

Ira J. Chase (acting), Rep Nov. 24, 1891, to Jan. 9, 1893 

Claude Matthews, Dem 1893-1897 

James A. Mount, Rep 1 897-1 901 

Winfield T. Durbin, Rep 1901-1905 

J. Frank Hanly, Rep 1905-1909 

Thomas R. Marshall, Dem 1909-1913 

Samuel R. Ralston, *Dem 1913- 


Indiana was the first territory created out of the old Northwest Territory 
and the second state to be formed. It is now on the eve of its one hundredth 
anniversary, and it becomes the purpose of the historian in this connection to 
give a brief survey of what these one hundred years have done for the state. 
There has been no change in territory limits, but the original territory has 
been subdivided into counties year by year, as the population warranted, until 
from thirteen counties in 18 16 the state grew to ninety-two counties by 1859. 
From 1816 to 1840 new counties were organized even' year with the exception 
of one year. Starting in with a population of five thousand six hundred and 
forty-one in 1800, Indiana has increased by leaps and bounds until it now has 
a population of two million seven hundred thousand eight hundred and sev- 
enty-six. The appended table is interesting in showing the growth of popu- 
lation by decades since 1800: 

Per Cent. 

Census Decades. Population. Increase. of Increase. 

1800 5,641 

1810 24.520 18.879 334.7 

1820 147.178 122,658 500.2 

1830 343.031 195.853 I33-I 

1840 685,866 342,835 09.9 

1850 988,416 302,550 44.1 

i860 1,350,428 362,012 36.6 

1870 1,680,637 330,209 24.5 

1880 1,978,301 297,664 17.7 

1890 2,192,404 214,103 10.8 

1000 2,516,462 324,058 14.8 

1910 2,700,876 184,414 7.3 

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Statistics are usually very dry and uninteresting, but there are a few 
figures which are at least instructive if not interesting. For instance, in 1910, 
1,143,835 people of Indiana lived in towns and cities of more than 2,500. 
There were 822,434 voters, and 580,557 men between the ages of eighteen and 
forty-four were eligible . r military service. An interesting book of statistics 
from which these figures are taken covering every phase of the growth of the 
state is found in the biennial report of the state statistician. 

The state has increased in wealth as well as population and the total state 
tax of six thousand forty-three dollars and thirty-six cents of 1816 increased 
in 191 5 to more than six million. In 18 16 the only factories in the state were 
grist or saw-mills ; all of the clothing, furniture and most of the farming tools 
were made by the pioneers themselves. At that time the farmer was his own 
doctor, his own blacksmith, his own lawyer, his own dentist, and, if he had 
divine services, he had to be the preacher. But now it is changed. The spin- 
ning wheel finds its resting place in the attic ; a score of occupations have arisen 
to satisfy the manifold wants of the farmer. Millions of dollars are now in- 
vested in factories, other millions are invested in steam and electric roads, still 
other millions in public utility plants of all kinds. The governor now receives 
a larger salary than did all the state officials put together in 1816, while the 
county sheriff has a salary which is more than double the compensation first 
allowed the governor of the state. 

Indiana is rich in natural resources. It not only has millions of acres of 
good farming land, but it has had fine forests in the past. From the timber 
of its woods have been built the homes for the past one hundred years and, if 
rightly conserved, there is timber for many years yet to come. The state has 
beds of coal and quarries of stone which are not surpassed in any state in the 
Union. For many years natural gas was a boon to Indiana manufacturing, 
but it was used so extravagantly that it soon became exhausted. Some of the 
largest factories of their kind in the country are to be found in the Hoosier 
state. The steel works at Gary employs tens of thousands of men and are 
constantly increasing in importance. At Elwood is the largest tin plate fac- 
tory in the world, while Evansville boasts of the largest cigar factory in the 
world. At South Bend the Studebaker and Oliver manufacturing plants turn 
out millions of dollars' worth of goods every year. When it is known that 
over half of the population of the state is now living in towns and cities, it 
must be readily seen that farming is no longer the sole occupation. A sys- 
tem of railroads has been built which brings every corner of the state in close 
touch with Indianapolis. In fact, every county seat but four is in railroad 

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connection with the capital of the state. Every county has its local telephone 
systems, its rural free deliveries and its good roads unifying the various 
parts of the county. All of this makes for better civilization and a happier 
and more contented people. 

Indiana prides herself on her educational system. With sixteen thousand 
public and parochial school teachers, with three state institutions of learning, a 
score of church schools of all kinds, as well as private institutions of learning, . 
Indiana stands high in educational circles. The state maintains universities 
at Bloomington and Lafayette and a normal school at Terre Haute. Many of 
the churches have schools supported in part of their denominations. The 
Catholics have the largest Catholic university in the United States at Notre 
Dame, while St. Mary's of the Woods at Terre Haute is known all over the 
world. Academies under Catholic supervision are maintained at Indianapolis, 
Terre Haute, Ft. Wayne, Rensselaer, Jasper and Oldenburg. The Method- 
ists have institutions at DePauw, Moore's Hill and Upland. The Presby- 
terian schools are Wabash and Hanover colleges. The Christian church is 
in control of Butler and Merom colleges. Concordia at Ft. Wayne is one 
of the largest Lutheran schools in the United States. The Quakers support 
Earlham College, as well as the academies at Fairmount, Bloomingdale, 
Plainfield and Spiceland. The Baptists are in charge of Franklin College, 
while the United Brethren give their allegiance to Indiana Central University 
at Indianapolis. The Seventh-Day Adventists have a school at Boggstown. 
The Dunkards at North Manchester and the Mennonites at Goshen maintain 
schools for their respective churches. 

The state seeks to take care of all of its unfortunates. Its charitable, 
benevolent and correctional institutions rank high among similar institutions 
in the country. Insane asylums are located at Indianapolis, Richmond, Lo- 
gansport, Evansville and Madison. The State Soldiers' Home is at Lafayette, 
while the National Soldiers' Home is at Marion. 

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home at Knightstown, is main- 
tained for the care and education of the orphan children of Union soldiers 
and sailors. The state educates and keeps them until they are sixteen years 
of age if they have not been given homes in families before they reach that 
age. Institutions for the education of the blind and also the deaf and dumb 
are located at Indianapolis. The state educates all children so. afflicted and 
teaches them some useful trade which will enable them to make their own 
way in the world. The School for Feeble Minded at Ft. Wayne has had 
more than one thousand children in attendance annually for several years 

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Within the past few years an epileptic village has been established at New- 
Castle, Indiana, for the care of those so afflicted. A prison is located at 
Michigan City for the incarceration of male criminals convicted by any of 
the courts of the state of treason, murder in the first or second degree, and 
of all persons convicteu of any felony who at the time of conviction are 
thirty years of age and over. The Reformatory at Jeffersonville takes care 
of male criminals between the ages of sixteen and thirty, who are guilty of 
crimes other than those just mentioned. The female criminals from the 
ages of fifteen upwards are kept in the women's prison at Indianapolis. A 
school for incorrigible boys is maintained at Plainfield. It receives boys be- 
tween the ages of seven and eighteen, although no boy can be kept after he 
reaches the age of twenty-one. Each county provides for its own poor and 
practically every county in the state has a poor farm and many of them have 
homes for orphaned or indigent children. Each county in the state also 
maintains a correctional institution known as the jail, in which prisoners are 
committed while waiting for trial or as punishment for convicted crime. 

But Indiana is great not alone in its material prosperity, but also in those 
things which make for a better appreciation of life. Within the limits of 
our state have been born men who were destined to become known through- 
out the nation. Statesmen, ministers, diplomats, educators, artists and literary 
men of Hoosier birth have given the state a reputation which is envied 
by our sister states. Indiana has furnished Presidents and Vice-Presidents, 
distinguished members of the cabinet and diplomats of world-wide fame; 
her literary men have spread the fame of Indiana from coast to coast. 
W ho has not heard of Wallace, Thompson, Nicholson, Tarkington, Mc- 
Cutcheon, Bolton, Ade, Stratton-Porter, Riley and hundreds of others who 
have courted the muses ? 

And we would like to be living one hundred years from today and see 
whether as much progress will have been made in the growth of the state as hi 
the first one hundred years of its history. In 2015 poverty and crime will be 
reduced to a minimum. Poor houses will be unknown, orphanages will have 
vanished and society will have reached the stage where happiness and con- 
tentment reign supreme. Every loyal Hoosier should feel as our poetess, 
Sarah T. Bolton, has said : 

"The heavens never spanned, 
The breezes never fanned, 
A fairer, brighter land 
Than our Indiana." 

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Dearborn county is in the extreme southeastern corner of Indiana, being 
bounded on the east by Ohio and the Ohio river, and on the south by Ohio 
count)'. The extreme length of Dearborn county is about twenty-six miles 
and breadth about sixteen miles, with an area of approximately three hun- 
dred and fifteen square miles. 


Dearborn county possesses a very diversified topography and has within 
its borders an equally diversified soil. The county has some seven miles front 
on the Ohio river; considerable of its surface is river an^l creek hills and 
an extensive portion is upland flats, where originally, in a state of nature, the 
water stood the most of the year. There are extensive low bottom lands, ter- 
races higher above the rivers and creeks, steep hillsides, broken uplands and up- 
land flats. The county contains some of the richest land in the state, and 
some that might be classed as thin land. Most of the county, however, is made 
up of warm limestone soil or river bottoms. The upland flats, it has been 
found, by proper draining and fertilizing, can be developed into very profitable 
farming land. Picturesque scenery is to be found along the Ohio and the 
streams that flow into it and on the uplands there are many pleasant vistas 
that any artist would hail with joy. It is claimed by many that the Ohio river 
hills are unsurpassed in beauty anywhere on the globe and the traveler who 
has girded the earth, when he rests his eyes upon such visions of loveliness a> 
can be surveyed from the top of Ludlow's hill, from the residence of Dr. H. 
H. Sutton, on the hilltop west of Aurora, or from the survey of the Great 
Miami river from the hilltops at the state line on the lands of Thomas and 
Joseph Fitch, will readily acknowledge that nowhere in all his travels has he 
seen anything that equals it in beauty, loveliness or fertility. The roads lead- 

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ing from the river to the higher lands pass along the beds of streams, between 
the hills, which are often beautifully rounded, while the ridges slope gracefully 
to the bottoms. The Big bottoms of the Great Miami river are on the eastern 
side of the county and the Whitewater river flows through the northeast part 
of the county. Tanner's .reek empties into the Ohio about two miles below 
Lawrenceburg and heads well back in the county. North and South Hogan 
unite and flow into the Ohio at Aurora. The beautiful Laughery, winding in 
and out among the hills, flows south through Ripley county and forms the 
boundary between Dearborn and Ohio counties. The floods back the water 
from the Ohio up all these streams, the flood of 1884 reaching to Guilford, 
in Tanner's creek, and to the Ripley county line on Laughery. The streams 
all have considerable fall and were, in pioneer days, utilized for water power, 
but as the forests have been cleared away the water supply has become more 
uncertain and the mills have all been abandoned. The advent of steam and its 
more certain and more dependable power have also had an effect in driving 
the water power out of use. 


The Ohio river, with its periodic rising and falling, its great floods 
and swift current, at such times has caused great changes along its banks, by 
the washing away of large tracts and in other places, by filling. The state 
road from Aurora to Lawrenceburg at one time followed the bank of the 
Ohio, but the river has crumbled the bank until it has all disappeared, all 
traces of it being gone and the road long since abandoned. At the mouth 
of the Big Miami, the river has changed very much. The entrance to the 
Miami has gradually worked up the Ohio and the Great Miami, that at one 
time made a horseshoe bend and flowed by the once-busy hamlet of Hardins- 
burg, now has left that place some two miles to the westward of its bed. The 
higher flood levels of recent years have caused residents along the banks of the 
Ohio to abandon their property and seek higher elevations. 


The height or elevation of the land of the county above sea level at dif- 
ferent places is about as follow, taken from surveyors' readings-. Lawrence- 
burg, 500 feet; Guilford, 520 feet; Harmans. 759 feet; Weisburg. 941 feet; 
Moore's Hill. 1,000 feet and Dillsboro. 785 feet. 

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The stratified rocks of Dearborn county belong to the series formerly 
known as the blue limestone or Hudson River group, sometimes now called 
the Cincinnati group. They belong to the lower Silurian strata and the Paleo- 
zoic age. The strata of the Cincinnati group form the floor of nearly the whole 
of Dearborn county. The bluish tinge of the rocks is said to be due to the pres- 
ence of oxide of iron. Exposure to the air changes its color to a stone gray. 
The rocks of the Dearborn county formation are full of fossils, which can be 
seen by the most careless observer on the rocks by the wayside. The lime- 
stone seldom is found in layers of more than from six to eight inches in thick- 
ness. In the old quarries at Lawrenceburg, some was found of greater thick- 
ness, but it generally was found to have a clay vein or parting when closely 
investigated. At the old quarry at St. Leon, earlier writers claimed that the 
stone would bear hammer dressing on account of its dense nature. On account 
of the great development of the cement industry, the quarrying of stone has 
largely ceased, except for construction of highways in surfacing. 

This county is very near the center of the Cincinnati dome. The Ohio 
river has cut a deep gorge through the comparatively soft rocks of this dome 
— a gorge which in this county averages some three hundred and fifty feet 
in depth. The smaller streams in this area, then, are compelled to main- 
tain a pretty rapid course by the steepness of their slopes. At the very edge 
of the river, where the river channel is deepest, the lowest rocks exposed 
are the Utica shales. These are soft, blue shales, often soft enough to cut 
readily with a knife; at other places, where freshly exposed, still somewhat 
hard. These shales contain many thin beds of limestone (mostly impure) 
interbedded with the shale. This shale formation forms the bottom layer 
in nearly every creek bottom as one passes back into the hills away from the 
river. Thus on Tanner's creek, these shales can be traced in the creek bot- 
tom beyond Guilford, or about eight miles, in direct line, from the river. 
On Hogan creek these shales are found at about the same distance from the 
Ohio ; and on Laughery, a larger stream, the shales extend back at least six- 
teen miles. Down near the river the lower forty feet of the bluffs are made 
up of this shale. 

Next above the Utica shales in these counties comes the Lorraine lime- 
stone. In Dearborn county about one-half the surface is underlain with this 
rock. In this part of the county it is merely a matter of courtesy to call this 
formation a limestone. A typical section of it shows a good deal moi e shale 


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* • 

than limestone, and what there is of the latter is usually so impure that it 
is of no practical use, either for building stone or lime. There are occasional 
thin layers of hard, crystalline limestone which are put to use as road mate- 
rial, but they do not form one per cent, of this entire formation. This rock 
extends up the creek to a distance of sixteen to eighteen miles on Tanner's 
and Hogan, and on Laughery beyond this county and twelve miles into Ripley. 
Between the latter creek and Hogan this rock is the capping layer of all the 
hills; but between Hogan and Tanner's creek the divide is capped with the 
limestones of the Hudson river group. These, like the Lorraine group, are 
mostly shale and impure limestone, soft, easily weathered and of little prac- 
tical use. In the northwest corner of Dearborn county, the surface formation 
is glacial in origin and conceals the rocks. 

The topography of this county is entirely a product of the softness of 
the rock and the proximity of the river. The latter has a deep gorge, and 
the creeks from the back county have had to maintain steep courses in cutting 
down to the river level. Thus Tanner's creek in sixteen miles falls four hun- 
dred feet ; Hogan creek in the same distance falls four hundred and twenty- 
five feet, or falls of about twenty-five feet per mile. Even a small stream 
with such a fall is capable of carrying large loads and of digging out a deep 
gorge. Then the smaller streams which flow into the creeks named above 
have even steeper slopes, and of course are able to work with amazing power. 
It comes as a surprise to see for the first time what enormous bl»x:ks of 
stone one of these hill torrents can carry ; but after seeing that, one is not sur- 
prised that the country should be so rough. 

The general expression of the topography here is of long, high ridges, 
with deep gorges between. Only the upper third of the ridges, in most 
places, is gently sloping enough for cultivation, and even that, in many places, 
is too steep for plowed soil to stick. Near the Ohio, and on the lower courses 
of the larger creeks, the hills are steeper than in the back country, at least 
for the lower half of the ridges; and in most places no attempt is made to 
cultivate these slopes. 


No metals, in sufficient quantities to be valuable for mining, have ever 
been found within the confines of Dearborn county. Occasionally it is claimed 
there is a thin vein of bog iron found, but the stratum is generally too light and 
confined to too narrow limits to be of value. Salt was found in pio- 
neer days near the state line on Double Lick run, and it is said that section 

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25, township 6. range 1. was at one time set aside as a salt reservation. There 
is more or less drift on the highlands. Northwest of Manchester the limestone 
is overland with unstratified blue clay, containing pebbles and boulders, many 
of which bear glacial scratches. It is the impervious nature of this clay that has 
given to these localities the name of "crawfish" flats. Years ago. below YVeis- 
burg. a piece of native copper was found said to weigh twenty-six ounces, 
which must have been brought in the drift from the copper regions of Lake 
Superior. The Greendale ridge is composed of gravel, probably brought 
down from the north during the glacial period. 

Along the banks of Laughery, near Hartford, there is a remarkable ac- 
cumulation of drift. Between the bottoms and the hilltop, the deposit is 
about two hundred feet high, with a surface divided by narrow dells. An out- 
crop through the soil shows nothing but cemented gravel. In times past it was 
thought lead could be found there, but, after time and labor had been given it, 
the work was abandoned. In regard to gold-bearing drift, we cannot do better 
than quote a paper by the late George Sutton, M. D.. on the "Gold Bearing 
Drift of Indiana." read before the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science at Cincinnati in August. 1881 : 

"Along the valley of Laughery creek, a stream which enters the Ohio 
river a few miles below the mouth of the Miami, may be seen deposits of this 
auriferous drift. They are not stratified like the terrace formations seen along 
our rivers, but lie in irregular accumulations along the valley. At the bottom 
of the small streams that have cut across this drift are seen deposits of black 
sand, already alluded to, which principally consist of magnetic iron ore. It is 
in this sand that gold is found. Seven miles from the mouth of Laughery 
may be seen a deposit of this drift about a mile and a half in length, nearly a 
half mile in width, and about a hundred feet in thickness. Some portions of 
this Laughery drift are so rich in gold that it is seen with the unaided eye and 
almost pays a fair remuneration for washing for it. My attention was directed 
a few weeks since, by the owner of the farm on which this drift is found, to 
a small excavation which had been made in washing for gold. It was by 
measurement six feet long, five feet broad and about two feet deep. He in- 
formed me that from this place eight dollars worth of gold had been obtained 
and that a man had washed from the drift on his farm gold to the value of six- 
teen dollars and fifty cents. The gold is found in the form of dust, flattened 
scales and small nuggets. Only that which could be seen with the unaided eye 
was saved." 

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A common phenomenon among the river hills is the land slip, especially on 
the steeper places. When the frost is coming out of the ground in the early 
spring the clay underneath generally becomes saturated with water, and from 
its nature is too slippery to support the weight of the soil above it. Part of the 
hillside slips by its own weight and a bench is formed upon which material ac- 
cumulates. On this account, a greater depth of soil is found upon these benches 
than elsewhere on the side of the hills. 


In this county there are not many distinct types of soil. In the first 
place, there is little variety in the underlying rocks and there could, there- 
fore, be little variety in the soils resulting from their decay. In order of 
area covered, these soils can be classified to follow: (i) Limestone up- 
land, which occupies at least two-thirds of the area of these counties; (2) 
the Miami clay loam, which occupies nearly one-third the area ; (3)' Waverley 
clay loam, the bottom soil along the Ohio river and creeks; (4)' Waverley 
gravel, the terrace soils. 


This soil may be divided into two general groups, depending upon 
whether the rocks from which it was derived were limestone chiefly or shale. 
In the first class comes most of the soil mapped as limestone upland. It is 
the great upland soil in this county, formed by the decay of the Hudson 
river and Lorraine limestones and shales. It is yellow to brown in color, 
markedly darker than the Miami soils to the west. It is principally a slope 
soil, and in nearly every locality is much mixed with flat fragments and 
plates of limestone. In many places these fragments are so numerous and 
large as seriously to interfere with plowing. Often they are gathered to- 
gether and built into fences. Near the Miami areas there is often a mixture 
of that soil and the limestone soil. Where pure this soil is fertile and 
loamy. On the steeper slopes it is usually sown to grass, wheat or rye, since 
these crops assist in holding the soil on the hills. Where the slopes are gentle, 
or in small bottoms, corn is grown successfully. This soil is excellent for 
small fruits, berries, etc., and for orchards. It is an excellent soil for most 

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farming purposes. Being shallow, it is, however, subject to drought, with late 
maturing crops. There is a strong tendency to wash, and every community 
contains abandoned fields where the forces of erosion overcame the rate of 
decay of the rock. The small bottoms along the creeks in this region are 
peculiar in their formation. At least fifty per cent, of the bottom material 
consists of flat plates of rock, tilted at an angle of about thirty degrees, 
with soil between the plates. As a result, the plowing of these small bottoms 
is almost as difficult as hillside plowing. 

The most fertile soils in this county are undoubtedly the shale soils, or 
the limestone upland soils on the lower portions of the slopes. When freshly 
cleared, these soils resulting from the decay of the shales have no superior 
in fertility in the state. They are dark brown or black, from the high per- 
centage of humus which they contain, but after being cropped for three or 
four years they become somewhat lighter in color. It is often mixed with 
fragments of limestone from the slopes above. It is a loose soil, from one to 
four feet in depth, deeper at the foot of the slopes. It is in this soil that 
the tobacco of Dearborn county is raised — the most profitable crop that 
can be raised in Indiana soil, but exhausting to the ground. This soil raises 
excellent corn, or anything else that requires a strong soil. Wherever it is 
possible to retain this soil, it does not seem to diminish in fertility, but its 
situation is bad, being subject to erosion, soil creep and freezing and thaw- 
ing. Unless exceptionally well cared for within five or six years after clear- 
ing practically all of the soil is gone, washed into the creeks and carried 
down into the river. 


This soil, the second in extent in this county, is similar to the Miami 
clay loam of Ripley county, of which it is merely an extension. In this county, 
as in Ripley, this soil lies flat, with poor drainage. It is a compact, yellow 
clay soil, nearly white when dry. In the subsoil there are mottles, and some- 
times a blue till at the base. This soil bears a marsh vegetation, sweet gum, 
beech, etc. It is a good grass soil, here as elsewhere, and fairly good for 
wheat when fertilized. It invariably requires tiling and careful rotation of 
crops to yield profitable results. The town of Dillsboro. in Dearborn county, 
is on the line separating the Miami clay from the limestone upland. It is 
a matter of common remark that east of Dillsboro corn is better than west, 
while the soils on the west produce better wheat and grass. 

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7 o 



The principal development of Waverley soils in this county is in the 
"bottoms" of the Ohio and the creeks just as they leave the hills for the 
river plain. In Dearborn county the principal area of Waverley soils has 
been known for a hundred years as the "Big Bottoms." This comprises 
a body of about seventy-two hundred acres of land, lying between the Miami 
river and the Ohio, crossed by Hogan and Tanner's creeks. It is likely that 
this great alluvial plain is due to deposition of silt from the waters of the 
Miami, the Ohio and the two creeks in times of high water, when the smaller 
streams had their currents checked by the back-waters of the Ohio. At any 
rate, this result follows during every flood, when a thin layer of silt is de- 
posited over the entire plain. From the fact that the lower parts of this soil 
contain much sand and pebbles foreign to the uplands, it seems certain that 
a large part of this bottom land was laid down in the period of the ice in- 
vasion, and that these Waverley soils are in part due to glacial floods and in 
part to the annual flood of the Ohio. 

This flat-floored valley, with its hills conveniently near, offered an at- 
tractive place for settlement to the early emigrants from the East. The first 
clearing was made in the "Big Bottoms" in 1794, and it has been perma- 
nently occupied since then. For a hundred years this land was planted in 
corn, some portions of the valley having certainly been planted to that crop 
every year of the century. In late years the bottoms have not been so fertile, 
or, at any rate, the corn crops have not been so large. This is probably due 
to lack of rotation and can be mended by some attention to that phase of 
good farming. In one recent summer, while there was a great deal of corn 
in this valley, probably one-third of the bottoms were in grass, wheat or oats. 
Physically, no soil could be better. It is fine, loamy, easily plowed and 
cultivated, deep enough to withstand drought, and fertile beyond most soil. 
It is close to a good market, and, indeed, has but one danger — that of over- 
flow. This, however, is in part counterbalanced by the increase in fertility 
due to the silt left behind, and is the original source of the bottom. 


Agriculture is difficult in such a country as that of Dearborn county 
in the rough portions. The soil when freshly cleared is usually fertile enough, 
but incessant care is required to keep it from washing away. In many places 
this can be prevented by growing such crops as require little plowing and 

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loosening of the soil. These slopes have, in the past, been famous for their 
hay and their small grain, but hay is exhaustive to soil, and the best hay 
crops are things of the past in this area. Corn is not a good crop, for the 
looseness of soil necessary for that grain offers too great a chance for the 
washing of the earth into the valleys. The fact that these hillsides sooner 
or later become bare has led to a very destructive method of farming in some 
localities. There is little wonder that the hill country in this county is grow- 
ing constantly poorer. The worst feature of the case is that there seems to 
be no remedy, unless the growing of alfalfa will improve matters. In recent 
summers, however, alfalfa on these hillsides was apparently dying, and if 
it should turn out impossible to grow successfully here, the case will be des- 
perate. Unless some remedy is found it is only a question of time until 
these farms will have to be abandoned. Residents are free enough in saying 
that their farms are losing in value year by year. Perhaps the intensive 
farming methods of Switzerland and mountainous Germany, with their ter- 
racing and stone walls, might be of service here; but such methods are not 
to be expected in a country of cheap lands. 

In the river bottoms, where the soil is. or was, the equal of any in the 
country, a near-sighted policy of farming very nearly ruined much of the 
soil. Com was profitable in this easily-tilled soil, and much of it was practi- 
cally tilled to death in corn. Only when much of it was practically exhausted 
did the farmers awake to the necessity of fertilization. Now one sees a rea- 
sonable rotation of clover with more exhausting crops, and in course of time 
these bottoms can be brought to their ancient fertility. 

Transportation facilities are poor for a great part of this county, hauls 
of eight to ten miles to market being not uncommon. Ten miles through 
these hills are equal to fifteen miles in smoother country. For this reason 
and for the further reason that such crops need little stirring of the soil, it 
has been suggested that an attempt be made to grow fruit extensively in this 
region. Even with the little care now given to fruit trees, exceptionally fine 
peaches and apples grow here, and it is possible that the fruit crop will one day 
be the salvation of these hillsides. 



Moisture at 105 0 C 2.63 

Total soil nitrogen 1^0 

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Reaction of soil to litmus Acid 

Volatile and organic matter 5-94° 

Insoluble in Hcl (1.115 S P- 6*0 85.270 

Soluble silica 071 

Ferric oxide (FeO) 3.047 

Alumina (AK>) 3-253 

Phosphoric acid anhyd (P.O.) 275 

Calcium oxide (CaO) 1.162 

Magnesium oxide (MgO) 437 

Sulphuric acid anhyd (SO) 050 

Potassium oxide (KO) 321 

Sodium oxide (NaO) 171 

Total 99-997 


Moisture at 105° C 4.73 

Total soil nitrogen 116 

Reaction of soil to litmus Very faintly acid 

Volatile and organic matter 4.353 

Insoluble in Hcl (I.IIJ sp. gr.) 78695 

Soluble silica 076 

Ferric oxide (FeO) 5.370 

Alumina (AiO) 8.588 

Phosphoric acid anhyd. (PO») 210 

Calcium oxide (CaO) 764 

Magnesium oxide (MgO)'. 859 

Sulphuric acid anhyd. (SO») 036 

Potassium oxide (K«0) 726 

Sodium oxide (NaO) 252 

Total 99 929 

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The nrysterious people called, for want of a more definite name, "The 
Mound Builders," must have inhabited Dearborn county at some period in 
its past. The evidences left by them would lead us to believe that the 
county must have been as thickly, if not more thickly, settled than it is now. 
On nearly every commanding position, the county over, may be found mute, 
but certain, evidence that these people lived here. The hillsides are not the 
only places, however, for in the valleys of the creeks, on every knoll that is 
elevated a little above the surrounding country, are mounds showing that a 
people have lived here. Who these people were, has so far been a mystery. 
Many hold that they were the early Indian race, who have degenerated into the 
nomadic conditions, by years of war with each other. Some believe they were 
the Aztecs of Mexico, who, after years of war with the Indian, as we know 
him, was either destroyed or compelled to. emigrate to the South. Still others 
there are, who think they were people who had come originally from Asia and 
were akin to the Chinese. Others hold that at one time, many thousand years 
ago, there was a true Atlantis; that Europe and Africa were connected with 
this country by an unbroken, continuous continent, that was sunk under the 
ocean by some awful cataclysm. However, whatever theory is correct, if any, 
the evidences of the existence of some pre-historic race can be found on every 

One of the most extensive evidences of the existence of this pre-historic 
people can be found on the hilltop overlooking the mouth of the Big Miami 
and immediately overlooking Lawrenceburg Junction, on the Chicago, Cin- 
cinnati, Cleveland & St. Louis railway. It encloses some twenty or more acres 
of ground and a bank of earth, plainly visible, can be traced about the whole 
enclosure. At the most eastern point there seemed to have been a gateway or 
entrance of some kind; at the western part, there is a mound or redoubt,. just 
outside of the wall. At some places the bank is yet some six or eight feet in 
height Large trees are growing on the earthworks — or were, some of it 
having been cleared. The timber is just as large on the inside of the inclosure 
as on the outside, and on the bank, in places, are trees just as large as any in 
the woods. Samuel Morrison at one time made a survey of the inclosure and 

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drew a map of it which can be found in some of the early histories of the 
Ohio valley. One thing is distinctly noticeable, namely, that some of the 
mounds along the river are placed in such a position that other mounds can 
be seen from them, and it is the theory advanced by some, that these are in- 
tended as signal mounds. It is claimed by some archaeologists that there is a 
system of signal mounds extending along the Ohio from Pittsburgh to Cairo. 

The New "American Encyclopedia" claims that none of these monuments 
is less than two thousand years of age. This, however, is assumed from their 
best judgment of the erosion that would occur in that time. But it must be 
admitted that it is difficult to form any judgment of the length of time since 
these mounds were built. The elements are so destructive that in a few days 
the work of years may be effaced ; then, for years there might be no perceptible 
difference in the erosion. But "by whom built, whether their authors mi- 
grated to remote lands under the combined attractions of a more fertile soil 
and more genial climate, or whether they disappeared beneath the victorious 
arms of an alien race, or were swept out of existence by some direful epidemic 
or universal famine, are questions probably beyond the power of human investi- 
gations to answer. History is silent concerning them and their very name is 
lost to tradition itself." 

Gen. William H. Harrison took a deep interest in these works. "The 
work at the mouth of the Great Miami (Fort Hill)." he wrote to Samuel 
Morrison, "was a citadel more elevated than the Acropolis at Athens, although 
easier of access, as it is not. like the latter, a solid rock, but on three sides as 
nearly perpendicular as could be, composed of earth. A large space of lower 
ground was, however, inclosed by walls uniting it from Miami river to the 
Ohio. The foundation of that being of stone, as well as those of the citadel 
that forms the western defence, is still very visible where it crosses the Miami, 
which, at the period of its erection, must have discharged itself into the Ohio 
much lower down than it does now. I have never been able to discover the east- 
ern wall of the enclosure, but if its direction from the citadel to the Ohio, 
was such as it should have been, to embrace the largest space with the least 
labor, there would not have been less than three hundred acres enclosed. The 
same land at this day, under the best cultivation, will produce from seventy 
to one hundred bushels of corn per acre. Under such as was then probably 
bestowed upon it, there would be much less, but still enough to contribute to the 
support of a considerable number of people, remarkable beyond all others for 
abstemiousness in their habits." 

There are a number of mounds about Aurora and there was said to have 

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been quite a large one within the city limits which has been almost entirely 
removed by excavations in grading. Jonathan B. Gerard, a citizen of Hart- 
ford, some thirty years ago opened a mound near the mouth of Laughery 
creek which was about one hundred feet in diameter and fifteen feet high. Hu- 
man bones, one whole earthen pot and a great many fragments of pottery were 
all that was found. In the same mound two more pots were found afterwards. 
It is no uncommon thing to find, where the water of the Ohio has caved the 
bank, ancient fireplaces, where mussels and other things could be cooked with- 
out attracting attention. Among the most interesting things found are the 
utensils, implements, weapons and personal ornaments of pre-historic times. 
Some of these, no doubt, belonged to the Indian tribes, but the greater number 
were contemporary with the mounds and other evidences of the earlier race. 
Not long ago, in grading some lots in Greendale, on the lands of Warren 
Tebbs, a copper chisel was found in a good state of preservation. Stone pipes 
are frequently found, thus showing that these people were tobacco users. 

At the state line, near the monument erected to mark the line between 
the states of Ohio and Indiana, on the farm of Thomas and Joseph Fitch, there 
seems to be a burial ground. In excavating for a barn foundation graves were 
found at regular intervals of about thirty inches, in rows, the bodies lying with 
their heads to the west, facing the east. They were all of the same character, 
with the exceptidn of one grave, which had two bodies in it, one with its cheek- 
on that of the other, and on their chests was a bowl or pot made of shells 
and clay, pieces of which material are strewn over the top of the ground 
thereabouts. It seemed, according to the judgment of the physicians who 
examined them, that the upper skeleton was that of a female. In other places 
adjacent, in a space of two or three acres, skeletons are found wherever any ex- 
cavating has been done. The same is true in Greendale and other places where 
the soil is gravelly and high above the river. It is evident from the number 
of buried that the country must have been thickly populated about the mouth 
of the Miami, and close to all the streams, at least. But who they were, what 
their history, where they went, or how they came to disappear, is a closed 
volume. If the American Indian ever made Dearborn county a place of 
permanent residence, it must have been long before the advent of the white 
man. The earliest traveler gives no word of finding Indians along the Ohio 
in this locality, except in hunting or war parties. There are no relics in this 
vicinity, nor traditions of any Indian villages ever existing within the borders 
of Dearborn county, except temporarily when out hunting or en route to hunt- 
ing grounds or to attack an enemy. 

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In the division of lands among the Indian tribes in their western confed- 
eracy, the lands in this part of Indiana were supposed to have been allotted to 
the Shawanese. They never resided in Dearborn county permanently, but 
hunted over it, considering it their exclusive territory, and would make forays 
here during their hunting season. It was on account of the rich alluvial bot- 
toms and dense forests on the uplands, that it was known as fine hunting 
grounds. Tben, too, the licks, or places where springs abounded, and which 
were impregnated with salt, drew the wild animals to these places, where the 
hunter could easily ambush the game. 

Whatever of claim the Indians had on the lands lying within Dearborn 
county, were all rendered void by the terms of Wayne's treaty and thereafter 
there was no contention about it. The Great Miami was one of the streams 
used by them a great deal, both in war and in their hunting excursions. Ken- 
tucky was claimed by all the adjacent tribes as their hunting grounds and the 
tribes whose residence was on the upper tributaries of the Miami and White- 
water would float down these rivers into the broader Miami, and thence out 
into the Ohio, then down to the Kentucky, which they would ascend to the 
locality in which they desired to hunt. In war, when opposing the Cherokees, 
Creeks or other Southern tribes, they would take the same routes. 

In June, 1780, the most formidable invasion Kentucky ever suffered from 
the Indians and British occurred. Colonel Byrd, a British officer, accompanied 
by six hundred Canadians and Indians, floated down the waters of the Big 
Miami, ascended the Ohio to the Licking and marched up the valley of the 
Licking, to attack the little outposts. They appeared before what was called 
Riddle's Station, on the south fork of the Licking river, on the 22nd day of 
June. The British had several cannon with them and the place could not 
hold out against such weapons. Marshall's Station, on the same stream was 
also captured ; then, much to the relief and surprise of the settlers, the expedi- 
tion, for some reason never understood, retreated. They had come from De- 
troit, thence by lake to the Maumee and over the portage into the headwaters 
of the Miami. This was perhaps, the largest body of men that ever floated 
on the bosom of that stream at one time and must have made a formidable ap- 
pearance. Six hundred men would require more than fifty boats and the 
cannon and provisions would call for many more. 

The encroachments of the settlers were resented and the struggle for the 
supremacy lasted from the close of the Revolutionary War until the treaty fol- 
lowing Wayne's victory. One of the things that illustrate the fierceness of 
the struggle, that forced the Indians to give up the valley of the Ohio and re- 

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tire to the high uplands, is the names of the little streams that empty into the 
Ohio. Nearly all are named for some person or persons who lost their lives 
in engagements with the Indians, on the banks of the streams. Laughery is 
named for the commander of the force that engaged in the battle at the mouth 
of that stream. Hogan creek is supposed to have been named for two brothers 
by the name of Hogan, who lost their lives in an engagement with the Indians 
at the mouth of that stream. A like tradition is given for the name of Wil- 
son creek, and Tanner's creek is named for the son of the man who founded 
Tanner's station (now Petersburg, Kentucky). Two of his little boys were 
captured at the mouth of that stream while hunting. One succeeded in escaping, 
but the other lived the rest of his life among the Indians. No other engage- 
ments were ever fought within the confines of the county — at least, no record 
of any has been handed down to the present generation. And, year by year, 
the redmen roamed among the whites, exchanging their trinkets for powder 
and rum, and trinkets grew more and more uncommon, until they ceased to be 
seen entirely. 

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Dearborn county is the most southeastern county in the state of Indiana. 
It is bounded on the north by the county of Franklin, from which it is sepa- 
rated by the north line of congressional township 7, ranges 1 and 2, and con- 
gressional township 8, range 3, west of the principal meridian. It is bounded 
on the east by Hamilton county, Ohio, from which it is separated by the first 
principal meridian, which was run from the mouth of the Big Miami by Israel 
Ludlow in 1798. It is bounded on the southeast by Boone county, Kentucky, 
from which it is separated by a low water mark on the northerly side of the 
Ohio river. On the south it is bounded by Ohio county, Indiana, from which 
it is set apart by the center line of Laughery creek. On the west, it fronts 
on Ripley county, Indiana, from which it is separated by the old Indian 
boundary line, which was run from a point on the Ohio river opposite the 
mouth of the Kentucky river northeast, through Ft. Recovery on the Mau- 
mee river, to the south line of Canada, in accordance with Gen. Anthony 
Wayne's treaty with the Indians. 

Three centuries ago the above, which is the present geographical descrip- 
tion of Dearborn county, would not have been in any way accurate. In 
the year 1609, King James I of England granted a charter to the colony of 
Virginia and granted territory for "four hundred miles along the sea and 
extending up into the land throughout, from sea to sea." Thus it will be 
seen that what is now Dearborn county was included in this territory and that 
it was a part of Virginia. During a period of one hundred and sixty years 
no attempt was made by Virginia to exercise the authority she possessed over 
the western frontier. But in 1769 the House of Burgesses passed an act 
establishing the county of Botetourt, with the Mississippi river as its western 
boundary. Fincastle. Virginia, was designated as the seat of justice of this 
extensive domain. Nine years later an act was passed providing that "all the 
citizens of the commonwealth of Virginia, who are already settled, or shall 
hereafter settle on the western side of the Ohio, shall be included in a distinct 
county, which shall be called Illinois county." Col. John Todd was appointed 

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by the governor of Virginia to serve as civil commandant and lieutenant of 
Illinois. He served as such until his death, at the battle of Blue Lick, in 1782. 


Largely because of the explorations and settlements established by La 
Salle in 1679, the French claimed the territory east of the Mississippi. La 
Salle had come down from Canada, crossed the Great Lakes and descended 
the Illinois river. The Indians living in that country did not oppose his inva- 
sion and he pushed forward rapidly, sending exploring parties in all direc- 
tions. Their only mode of travel was by canoes and these were carried over 
portages, one from the St. Joseph river to the Kankakee, the other was from 
the Maumee, near Ft. Wayne, to the Wabash. Missions were established 
along the route of travel to the mouth of the Mississippi. The French claim 
to this land opened by La Salle was continually disputed by the British and 
was finally settled in 1763 by the treaty of Paris, in which the French relin- 
quished their claim to land east of the Mississippi. This removal of dispute 
and contest for the title to the land proved a great boon to adventurers and 
frontiersmen. Dating from that time, the great Middle West began to be 
populated. In this year Daniel Boone, the renowned pioneer and woodsman, 
made his first trip into Kentucky in quest of adventure and bent on discovery. 
So great did the spirit of adventure take root, that enterprises were set afoot 
that would seem foolhardy in their daring and recklessness. A General 
Lyman, with about four hundred families, passed down the Ohio and founded 
a settlement at Natchez, Mississippi. And the post established by these ad- 
venturers had something to do with the United States finally gaining posses- 
sion of the Louisiana Territory in 1803. 

Retrograding a few years, the great extent of Botetourt county, reaching, 
as it did, to include what is now West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Mich- 
igan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, made it necessary for the passage of many 
curious acts for its government. Among them is the following provision : 

"And. whereas, the people situated on the Mississippi, in the said county 
of Botetourt, will be very remote from the court house, and must necessarily 
become a separate county as soon as their numbers are sufficient — which prob- 
ably will happen in a short time: Be it therefore enacted by the authority 
aforesaid (House of Burgesses) that the inhabitants of that part of said 
county of Botetourt, which lies on said waters, shall be exempted from the 
payment of any levies to be laid by the said county court, for the purpose of 
building a court house and prison for said county." 

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The county of Illinois remained intact from October, 1778, until July 31. 
1790, when Knox county was formed by a proclamation from Gen. Arthur Sr. 
Clair, then governor of'the Northwest Territory. This great territory was 
formed by act of Congress in the summer of 1787 and comprised what are 
now the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and a part of 
Minnesota. The act itself is best known as the Ordinance of 1787. General 
St. Clair entered upon his duties as governor of the territory at Marietta in 
1788. There was no fixed capital and whatever laws were found to be neces- 
sary were passed by the governor and judges when they happened to meet. 
Some of these laws were enacted at Marietta, some at Cincinnati, and some 
at Vincennes. 

Three years following Gen. Anthony Wayne's treaty with the Indians 
at Greenville. Ohio, in 1795, which treaty established the line already referred 
to from the Kentucky river through Ft. Recovery to Canada, General St 
Clair, in a proclamation, extended Hamilton county west to this line. Thus 
did Knox lose what is now Dearborn county and it became a part of Hamil- 
ton county, so remaining until April 30, 1802. A special provision had, how- 
ever, been made by General St. Clair to the effect that when the territory cf 
Ohio should be admitted into the Union its westerly boundary should begin 
at the confluence of the Big Miami and Ohio rivers and follow the tracery of 
the Miami northward. This ruling saved Dearborn* county from being a 
part of the state of Ohio. 


From April 30. 1802. to January 24, 1803, there was no organization of 
any character in Dearborn county. In order to clear up this situation, it was 
attached to Clark county and remained so until March 7, 1803. On the lattei 
date, by a proclamation of Gen. William Henry Harrison, governor of Indi 
ana Territory, the county of Dearborn was formed and named in honor of 
Maj.-Gen. Henry Dearborn, at that time secretary of war under President 
Jefferson. Thus what is now Dearborn county passed successively through 
history, first as part of Virginia, then Botetourt county, then Illinois, Knox, 
Hamilton, nine months of no authoritative government, then part of Clark 
county, and finally Dearborn. 

The bounding line between Jeffer«on and Dearborn counties, estab- 

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lished by act of November 23, 181 o, commenced on the Ohio river at the 
mouth of Log Lick, now in Switzerland county; thence to the old Indian 
boundary ; thence with said boundary to the northeast corner of the Grousland 
purchase. A portion of this territory was taken from Jefferson and attached 
to Dearborn by act of 1814, and later, December 27, 1816, a portion of this 
addition was taken away to form a part of Ripley county. Franklin county 
was detached from Dearborn in 181 1, when the present northern boundary 
line of the county was established. 

In 1814 the line between sections 19 and 30, township 4, range 3 west, 
was extended east to the Ohio river and now forms the north boundary of 
Switzerland county. By act of January 7, 184s, all that part of Dearborn 
county south of Laughery creek was detached from Dearborn and added to 
Ohio county, thus leaving Dearborn county with its present boundary lines. 


During the early period of many changes, the subjection of the great 
Northwest Territory was prosecuted by the determined pioneers under the 
able leadership of such men as George Rogers Clark, Benjamin Logan, Arthur 
St. Clair, Anthony Wayne, William Henry Harrison, Charles Scott, Daniel 
Boone, James Wilkinson, Josiah Harmar, Simon Kenton and others. 

The first expedition of import in the territory of Indiana against the 
Indians was the unsuccessful one that George Rogers Clark prosecuted 
against the Wabash Indians in 1786. Depredations in Kentucky had been 
numerous, and in many instances atrocious, and the stealthy Indians always 
made their escape good by crossing the Ohio into Indiana after plundering, 
burning and scalping. Chief among these bands were members of the Miami 
and Wabash tribes. The treaty at Ft. Finney had failed in its effort to 
secure a lasting peace and, driven by the seriousness of the situation, Congress 
ordered two companies to descend the Ohio to the falls and on June 30, 1786, 
ordered the raising of militia in Kentucky for the invasion of the country of 
the hostile tribes. This expedition was organized into two parties, one under 
Clark and the other under Col. Benjamin Logan. Clark was directed to 
march against the strongholds in the headwaters of the Wabash, and Logan 
was ordered to subjugate the tribes along the upper Wabash. 

Colonel Logan proceeded from Maysville, Kentucky, with about five 
hundred mounted riflemen, crossed the Ohio and struck directly into the 
heart of the country he was to conquer. He succeeded in destroying several 
villages and taking upwards of seventy prisoners and killing about twenty. 


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Such good fortune, however, did not attend the efforts of General 
Clark. Accompanied by one thousand men. he moved from Louisville to V in- 
clines, arriving there in October. Supplies for his army had been sent 
thither by water and low river stages held up the transports in many places, 
causing delay, embarrassment and downright hunger. The men were put on 
half rations and they promptly became dissatisfied and bordered on mutiny. 
After waiting ten days, ihe provisions arrived, and it was found that the 
long exposure of the meat to the hot weather had spoiled it. and the men were 
left with rations for three days' subsistence. With a two hundred-mile march 
ahead, General Clark was in a quandary. He persuaded, cajoled and pleaded, 
but, one day later, three hundred men. together with some officers of high 
rank, mounted their horses and turned back for their homes. Open mutiny 
now prevailed and even the tears of the leader were of no avail. There was 
no alternative but to immediately abandon the expedition. So. with the rem- 
nant of his hungry men, they struggled back to the falls, chagrined at his 
failure. It was the last expedition ever undertaken by the most brilliant and 
versatile leader of his day, and, to his credit let it be said, the only one with 
such an ending. 

Restless tribes of Indians continued to commit acts of savagery along 
the western frontier, and in January, 1791, President Washington took the 
matter in hand and directed a communication to Congress, stating that an- 
other campaign against the Wabash Indians was necessary. He outlined the 
plan by saying that the strength of the tribe was about one thousand one hun- 
dred, and to this, in war time, would be added about one thousand from 
other tribes. The President took the stand that a move in the winter time 
was imperative because, if left to their own devices, they would collect 
strength during the winter for fresh attacks on settlements in the spring. 

Acting on this statement, Congress authorized the President to raise an 
army of three thousand men, to be placed under the command of General 
St. Clair, who was appointed a major-general, and also a corps of Kentucky 
volunteers for the purpose of a rapid march and an immediate attack on the 
Wabash. This corps was placed under the command of Gen. Charles Scott. 

With a force of eight hundred mounted sharpshooters, General Scott, on 
May 23, 1791, crossed the Ohio just above the mouth of the Kentucky river 
and plunged into the Indiana wilderness with all the speed possible. On 
June 1 they reached the Wabash river and came within sight of two Indian 
villages. The Indians, who had been apprised of the coming of the enemy, 
were making their escape in canoes when discovered, and were killed by the 

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accurate fire of the Kentuckians. Across the river were two Kickapoo villages 
and from these. Indians returned the fire, but two companies succeeded in 
crossing the river and driving them from their homes. The following 
day another strong village was encountered and was taken, the Indians losing 
heavily in men killed and taken. On the day following they continued their 
march and overtook Cel. James Wilkinson, with three hundred and sixty 
men. Together, they marched on a large Tippecanoe village, which they cap- 
tured and destroyed, taking great quantities of provisions. Continuing their 
march, they arrived at the Ohio river on June 1 1 without having lost a single 
man, and having had only four wounded. But they had done what they set 
out to do. 

The remarkable success of General Scott fired the Kentucky board of 
war with the resolve to undertake another like movement without delay. On 
the recommendation of General St. Clair, the command was given to Col. 
James Wilkinson and, with five hundred and twenty-five men at his back, he 
set out to destroy the Eel river towns. They left Cincinnati on August 1. 
1791, taking provisions for thirty days. A long detour by way of Ft. 
Wayne was taken in order to mislead the enemy by avoiding the beaten paths 
leading to the hunting grounds of southeastern Indiana, which was their 
objective point. After they had traveled northward for three days and made 
about seventy miles, they turned their course northwestward and on August 
7 reached the Wabash river, near the mouth of Eel river. Here the men 
made a furious charge on a village and, taking the Indians completely by 
surprise, captured the village, killed six and took thirty-four. Colonel Wilk- 
inson then led his men into the open prairie, where Kickapoo villages were 
thickly sprinkled, but made another detour and made for the Tippecanoe 
village, which he had helped destroy in June. Here it was found that the 
Indians had replanted corn and beans. These were cut down again. About 
this time Colonel Wilkinson began to hear sounds of discontent among his 
men and a quiet inquiry developed the startling fact that two hundred and 
seventy horses were lame and scarcely fit for service, and that provisions were 
running low and would hardly last five days. Therefore he was compelled 
to give up returning against the Kickapoo towns, but satisfied himself with 
the destruction of one good-sized Kickapoo village and the destruction of 
much growing crops. Then the jaded army turned its face toward Kentucky 
and arrived at the falls on August 21. having traversed the path made by 
General Scott on his June expedition. The movement, while not entirely suc- 
cessful, was not without a considerable measure of success. The men had 


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covered four hundred and fifty-one miles in twenty-one days, and were the 
objects of much praise from their commander for their untiring service. Many 
prisoners were taken, among whom were sons and sisters of the king of 
the Ouiatenon nation. In every attack the men were given stringent orders 
to spare women and children. This rule obtained in even' expedition sent 
out against hostile tribes, but occasionally, through an inadvertence, the de- 
fenceless ones, were made victims. In the first village the army of Colonel 
Wilkinson attacked, two Indian women and one child were killed during the 
hurry and confusion. It was the only marring feature of the raid. 

One of the oldest and most important of the Miami tribes was at the 
town situated at the junction of the St. Joseph and St. Mary, where they 
meet to form the Maumec. This particular neighborhood was more thickly 
populated with Indians than any in Indiana. The sagacity and far-seeing 
alertness of President Washington quickly saw what a strategic location this 
spot was for a fortification of some magnitude. A plan was inaugurated for 
making a campaign with the Miami tribes in that locality with the end in 
view of establishing a strong fortification there and connecting it with Ft. 
Washington at Cincinnati by a chain of intermediate stations. 

harmar's expedition. 

The first of these campaigns was given into the hands of Gen. Josiah 
Harmar. He left Cincinnati in September, 1790, and was misdirected by 
guides, so that he took a route far longer than was necessary. All in all. 
he had probably the worst army ever led out of Ft. Washington. Of the 
one thousand three hundred men in his command, nearly all of them were raw 
troops, inexperienced, badly armed and poorly equipped. The camp utensils 
and all other appurtenances were of poor quality and were not numerous. A 
great number of the men were unused to the discharge of fire-arms, and at 
the first sight of Indians they dropped their arms and fled in confusion. On 
October 13 the army reached a point about thirty miles from Ft. Wayne. 
Here Col. John Hardin, with six hundred militiamen, and one company of 
regulars, were sent forward to surprise the enemy and keep them in their 
forts until the main body with artillery could come up. To their surprise, 
however, the villages were found to be deserted. On the 17th the main body 
arrived and five or six towns were destroyed and about twenty thousand 
bushels of com in the ear cut down. On the 21st the army started back to 
Cincinnati. . 

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8 5 

The following day, Colonel Hardin convinced General Harmar that an- 
other attempt ought to be made against villages just destroyed on the 
theory that the Indians might have since returned to secure what salvage 
they could. He took a detachment of three hundred and forty militiamen and 
sixty regulars. The Indians were there, but they were prepared and they 
fought bravely and with savage ferocity. The troops were defeated, many 
of the militiamen and most of the regulars being killed. Broken in spirit by 
this reverse and by dissensions among his officers, Harmar arrived in Cin- 
cinnati. The expedition is known as Harmar's defeat. But it was a distinct 
success in so far that it accomplished its purpose, namely, not the intimida- 
tion of the hostile Miami tribes, but the destruction of the villages. The In- 
dians looked upon the expedition as a dismal failure and almost an utter rout 
and they followed up their belief by growing bolder and striking more fre- 
quently at frontier towns. Looking to carrying out a regular plan of pillage 
and destruction, Little Turtle, chief of the Miamis, Blue Jacket, chief of the 
Shawnees, and Buckongahelas, chief of the Delawares, formed a coalition to 
drive the whites beyond the Ohio. 

st. clair's defeat. 

General St. Clair, himself, organized and led an expedition in 1791. The 
war department had ordered him to prepare for a quick march against the 
strong village at the head of the Maumee in order to establish a military post 
there and to locate proper places along the march frbm Cincinnati for auxiliary 
posts. He was to take up and put through the work attempted by General 
Harmar the year previous. The war department urged the founding of the 
post at the Maumee at all hazards, considering it to be the most strategic 
point in the northern Indian country. 

On November 3, General St. Clair arrived at the banks of a creek which 
he supposed to be St. Mary's river, one of the tributaries of the Maumee. 
Afterward it was found to be a branch of the Wabash. He encamped there 
for the night, and early the next morning was taken by surprise by ambushed 
savages and the army met with a crushing defeat. Of upwards of one thou- 
sand five hundred men actually engaged in the battle, more than half of them 
were either killed or wounded. This defeat was the most disastrous suffered 
yet by whites at the hands of the Indians, and it served to discourage and dis- 
hearten the pioneers of the Northwest Territory. For a time following, it 
was thought that further efforts in the direction of subjecting the Indians in 
that section would be abandoned. The battle which occurred on the old Indian 
line in Mercer county marks the spot of Ft. Recovery. 

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However, the gloom which prevailed after the great failure of General 
St. Clair, soon was dispelled by drastic action by the federal government. 
It was readily seen that a hurried or makeshift campaign was of no avail 
against a foe that fought with all the treacherous tricks known to the savage. 
This time a force was organized under Gen. Anthony Wayne and in about 
three years he had them drilled, disciplined and completely equipped. His 
army numbered more than three thousand men when he set out in the summer 
of 1794. Carefully feeling his way northward, Wayne led his men around 
the pitfalls encountered by the leaders of other campaigns. On August 20. 
1794, he threw his entire army against the Indians at Maumee Rapids, in 
Wood county, Ohio, and won the decisive victory which has since been known 
as Fallen Timbers, and sometimes the Maumee battle. The Indians had 
gone forth with full strength from their Indiana villages to meet the advanc- 
ing army. If they had remained at home the battle would have taken place 
on Indiana soil. The victory brought with it an end to the long and bloody 
Indian wars, and a treaty of peace was entered into which was not violated, 
only in minor instances, until the battle of Tippecanoe, in November, 181 1. 

The space devoted to recounting these Indian wars is justified by the 
far-reaching importance of the engagements. Settlers from the Eastern 
states had brought their families to this new country and, in most cases, 
were unable to properly defend themselves from the brutal attacks of the 
Indians. They depended upon the armies of their country for protection and, 
although the quality of the armies sent in such crises was not always good 
enough to withstand the savage in battle, yet the fact that the expeditions 
were sent out for that purpose had its effect. The movement begun and com- 
pleted successfully by General Wayne was the only one that was well planned 
and well executed. Consequently, more depends on the result of that action. 

The victory of General Wayne at Fallen Timbers paved the way for the 
opening of the great Middle West. It brought home to the savage red man 
the cold fact that he had met his master and that he must retire. Civilization 
began in this region immediately after that battle was won and the peace pact 
agreed upon. As soon as the news of the victory had spread ov er the Eastern 
states and the significance of it became apparent, a rush was started that from 
that time to this has never ceased. The westward movement of population 
began then and has never stopped. Settlers poured into Ohio. Indiana and 

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The accounts of Indian engagements already delineated deal, in their 
effect, with the general upbuilding of the Middle West, which accordingly 
affected Dearborn county. But there were two events that happened at the 
very doors of the present borders of Dearborn county that were significant 
to an extent hardly measured by the historians of the day. They were the 
treaty with the Indians at Ft. Finney, on January 31, 1786, and the disas- 
trous defeat of Col. Archibald Laughery and his men at the mouth of the 
creek bearing his name. With the latter we will treat first. 

Col. George Rogers Clark had long concerned himself with a campaign 
against Detroit. After the fall of Vincennes he was forced to abandon it, but 
he began at once, although an inquiry dated at the falls of the Ohio, Novem- 
ber 16, 1779, to ascertain the strength of the post and the difficulty of getting 
there, the number of men necessary, etc., to reduce it. This inquiry secured 
information from frontier settlements that caused him to set out for Virginia, 
where, in 1780. he secured the approval of Governor Thomas Jefferson for 
the proposed movement against Detroit. Governor Jefferson laid the matter 
before General Washington and the latter replied in a letter dated at New 
Windsor, December 28. 1780, stating, in part: "I have ever been of the 
opinion that the reduction of Detroit would be the only certain means of 
giving peace and security to the whole western frontier, and I have conse- 
quently kept my eye open upon that object; but such has been the reduced 
state of our continental force, and such the low ebb of our funds, especially 
of late, that I have never had it in my power to make the attempt. I shall 
think it a most happy circumstance, should your state, with the aid of conti- 
nental stores which you require, be able to accomplish it. I am so well con- 
vinced of the general public utility with which the expedition, if successful, 
will be attended, that I do not hesitate a moment in giving directions to the 
commandant at Ft. Pitt to deliver to Colonel Clark the articles which you 
request, or so many of them as he may be able to furnish. I have also directed 
him to form such a detachment of continental troops as he can safely spare, 
and put them under the command of Colonel Clark. There is a continental 
company of artillery at Ft. Pitt, which I have likewise ordered upon the ck- 

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pedition, should it be prosecuted. The officers of this company will be com- 
petent to the management of the mortar and howitzers. * * * " 

In pursuance of this unmistakable conviction on the part of General 
Washington and Governor Jefferson, the two foremost men of the day, ar- 
rangements were perfect a for the mobilization of upwards of two thousand 
drilled men and the getting together of provisions sufficient to make the expe- 
dition a success. Governor Jefferson, acting on a suggestion from General 
Washington, secured permission from Baron Steuben for Col. John Gibson, 
one of his most capable leaders, to join Clark's men to act as officer in charge 
in case of an accident befalling Clark. Gibson was detailed to proceed to Bal- 
timore and personally superintend the transportation of powder to Ft. Pitt. 

This was the zenith of the enthusiastic preparations. The great require- 
ments of the War of the Revolution, which was rapidly drawing to a crisis, and 
with the end practically in sight, the ardor of those who saw the project 
through such roseate views a little while before, now came to look at it in an 
entirely different manner. In February, 1781, an effort was made to draft 
militia for the expedition, but it met with dismal failure. Next came the 
trouble with worthless paper money, with which Clark was supposed to defray 
the expenses of recruiting and equipping an army. But he bore up under these 
vexing disappointments with a fortitude lhat was peculiar to him throughout 
his •military career. He went to Ft. Pitt, fully expecting to find Colonel 
Broadhead, who was in charge, ready to offer the services of Colonel Gibson 
and his men. Here he was again disappointed. 

Here he again faced the herculean task of raising a company or two of 
volunteers. The draft was of no avail, persuasion was almost useless, and 
there was no law in force by which an emergency for the good of public wel- 
fare could be conjured up to operate in the time of need. Yet the people 
generally agreed that the proposed movement was a good thing, and should by 
all means be prosecuted. However, when confronted by the stern reality of 
going to the front, they stood behind the fact that they had to go only if they 
wanted to go. And most of them didn't. 

Several months were put in at this sort of work and the result achieved 
was enough to deter any man of weaker purpose than George Rogers Clark. 
He persevered and, on August 4. 1 781 , we find him writing to Governor. 
Jefferson from Wheeling, stating that he had abandoned the plan he had of 
mobilizing a large force and would proceed down the river with what men 
he had. numbering about four hundred. These consisted of Crockett's regi- 
ment, Craig's artillery and volunteers. Part of the men which General Clark 

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expected to join him at Wheeling, which was then called Ft. Henry, were 
those under the command of Col. Archibald Laughery, and were recruited 
largely in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania. 

In the command of Colonel Laughery were a company of volunteer rifle- 
men raised by Capt. Robert Orr, two companies of rangers under Capts 
Samuel Shannon and Thomas Stockley, and a company of horse under the 
leadership of Capt. William Campbell. These companies were not full, be- 
cause when they embarked there were only one hundred and seven men in 
the party. This force, which was intended to join Clark's troops at Wheeling, 
was forced to take to boats and pursue a hurried journey in the hope of over- 
taking General Clark. 

General Clark's original intention was to rendezvous at the mouth of the 
Great Miami and proceed up that river with his expedition, but subsequently 
he changed his plan and ordered Colonel Laughery to follow him to the falls 
of the Ohio. Colonel Laughery's force was brought together at Carnahan's 
block house, from which place they proceeded on July 24, for Ft. Henry, by 
way of Pittsburgh. On arriving at Wheeling, he found that Clark had 
started down the river about twelve hours before and had left instructions for 
him to follow with all speed. Then a delay in preparing transports was expe- 
rienced and it was ten days later before they set out to join General Clark. 

When Colonel laughery arrived at the mouth of the Kanawha he ex- 
pected to find Clark waiting for him, but was disappointed, finding only a 
letter directing him to follow and stating that threatened desertion among his 
men caused him to give up the plan of waiting. Provisions were running low 
and there was no store from which to replenish them save by overtaking Clark. 
The low stage of the river and the unfamiliarity with the channel prevented a 
rapid descent of the river. So, instead of gaining on Clark's men, Colonel 
Laughery lost ground every day of the voyage. In great despair, Captain 
Shannon and four men were dispatched in a small boat to overtake General 
Clark. But they had n6t proceeded far when they were captured by the band 
of Indians that had been following both Clark's and Laughery's progress 
down the stream. With Captain Shannon was captured a letter from Colonel 
Laughery to General Clark, telling of the pitiable plight of his (Laughery's) 
men. 'About the same time, Colonel Laughery arrested nineteen deserters 
from Clark's army, whom he afterwards released because he could not feed 
them, and they immediately joined the Indians. The savages, thus fully in- 
formed of the strength and purpose of the whites, began to assemble with 
more confidence and prepared to strike when the chance should come. They 
had not long to wait. 

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At last Colonel Laughery despaired of overtaking Clark's men before 
reaching the falls of the Ohio and, to obtain forage, they made a landing about 
ten o'clock in the morning on August 24. 1781. on the north bank of a wide- 
mouthed creek, about seven miles below the mouth of the Great Miami. Here 
they loosed their horses and let them graze in the tall grass. One of the 
party shot a buffalo and all, except a few detailed to watch the horses, were 
busy around the fire preparing a feast from the animal. Of a sudden and 
without warning, a withering volley of rifle balls poured from the shelter of 
the green wood which thickly covered the high bank. In an instant there ap- 
peared Indians in vast numbers, fully armed and ready to close in on the un- 
prepared whites. But, instead of stampeding or surrendering without struggle, 
the men ran to their boats, seized their guns and defended themselves as best 
they could under such circumstances. But the boats were unwieldy, the 
water shallow and their force so greatly weakened by the deadly fire from the 
ambuscaded savages that surrender was inevitable. 

The Indians at once fell upon Colonel Laughery and massacred him. 
together with several other prisoners. More atrocities would have been com- 
mitted but for the arrival of the commanding chief, the celebrated Brant, who 
afterward apologized for the massacre. He declared that he did not approve 
of such wanton conduct, but that it was impossible to entirely control his 
Indians. They had murdered the white prisoners to avenge the massacre of 
Indian prisoners taken by General Broadhead's army on the Muskingum a 
few months previous. The Indians under Brant numbered upwards of three 
hundred and consisted of members of various tribes, among whom the prison- 
ers and plunder were divided in proportion to the number of warriors of each 
tribe engaged. 

On the following day the Indians set out to return to the Delaware towns 
with their prisoners. There they were met by a party of British and Indians, 
commanded by Colonel Caldwell and accompanied by the famous renegades, 
Simon and James Girty and McKee, who claimed that they were on their way 
to the falls to attack George Rogers Clark. Thereupon, Brant, with the 
greater part of the Indians under him, turned with Colonel Caldwell toward 
the falls of the Ohio. Only enough of a force was left to take charge of the 
prisoners and spoils, which they separated and took to the towns to which 
they were assigned. The prisoners remained in captivity until the following 
year, which brought the Revolutionary War to a close. More than one-half 
of the number who left Pennsylvania under Colonel Laughery never returned. 

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This account of the expedition is taken from the story written by Captain 
Orr. Another version was that of Lieut. Isaac Anderson, who kept a daily 
journal from the time he set out on the expedition until he returned. This is 
published in McBride's "Pioneer Biographies." The following excerpt from 
this diary is taken verbatim : 


"August 1 st, 1 78 1. — We met at Colonel Carnahan's in order to form a 
body of men to join General Dark on the expedition against the Indians. 
"Aug. 2d. — Rendezvoused at said place. 

"Aug. 3rd. — Marched under command of Colonel Laughery to Maracle's 
mill, about 83 in number. 

"Aug. 4th.— Crossed Youghagania river. 
"Aug. 5th. — Marched to Devor's ferry. 
"Aug. 6th. — To Raccoon settlement. 
"Aug. 7th. — To Captain Mason's. 

"Aug. 8th.— To Wheeling Fort, and found Clark was started down the 
river about twelve hours. 

"Aug. 9th. — Col. Laughery sent a quartermaster and officer of the 
horse after him, which overtook him at middle Island and returned; then 
started all our foot troops on seven boats and our horses by land to Grave 

"Aug. 13th. — Moved down to Fishing Creek; we took up Lieut. Baker 
and 16 men, deserting from Gen. Clark, and went that day to middle of Long 
Reach, where we stayed that night. 

"Aug. 15th. — To the Three Islands, where we found Major Creacroft 
waiting for us with a horse-boat. He, with his guard, six men, started that 
night after Gen. Clark. 

"Aug. 16th. — Colonel Laughery detailed Capt. Shannon with 7 men and 
letter after Gen. Clark, and we moved that day to the little Connaway (Kan- 
ahwa) with all our horses on board the boats. 

"Aug. 17th. — Two men went out to hunt who never returned to us. 
We moved that day to Buffalo Island. 

"Aug. 1 8th.— To Catfish Island. 

"Aug. 19. — To Bare Banks. 

"Aug. 20th. — We met with two of Shannon's men, who told us they had 
put to shore to cook, below the mouth of the Siotha (Scioto) where Shannon 
sent them and a sergeant out to hunt. When they got about half a mile in the 

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9 2 


woods they heard a number of guns fire which they supposed to be Indians 
firing on the rest of the party, and they immediately took up the river to 
meet us; but, unfortunately, the sergeant's knife dropped on the ground and n 
ran directly through his foot, and he died of the wound in a few minutes. 
We sailed all night. 

"Aug. 2 1 st. — We moved to the Two Islands. 

"Aug. 22nd. — To the Sassafres Bottom. 

"AUg. 23rd. — We went all day and all night. 

"Aug. 24th. — Col. Laughery ordered the boats to land on the Indian 
shore, about ten miles below the mouth of the great Meyamee (Miami) river 
to cook provisions and cut- grass for the horses, when we were fired on by a 
party of Indians from the bank. We took to our boats, expecting to cross 
the river, and was fired on by another party in a number of canoes, and wc 
soon became a prey to them. They killed the Col. and a number more after 
they were prisoners. The number of our killed was about forty. They 
marched us that night about eight miles up the river and encamped. 

"Aug. 25. — We marched eight miles up the Meyamee river and en- 

"Aug. 26th. — Lay in camp. 

"Aug. 27th.— The party that took us was joined by one hundred white 
men under command of Capt. Thompson and three hundred Indians under 
command of Capt. McKee. 

"Aug. 28th. — The whole of the Indians and whites went down against 
the settlements of Kentucky, excepting a sergeant and eighteen men, which 
were left to take care of sixteen prisoners and stores that were left there. We 
lay there until the fifteenth of Sept. 

"Sept. 15th. — We started toward the Shawna towns on our way to 

In brief, the remainder of the journal follows: Lieutenant Anderson ar- 
rived at Detroit, October 11, and was confined to the citadel; was taken in a 
sloop to Ft. Niagara; thence to Montreal, where he succeeded in. scaling the 
pickets and finally made his way back to his home in Pennsylvania, where he 
arrived in July, 1782. 

Lieutenant Anderson did not forget the beautiful and fertile country 
which, as an Indian captive, he was forced to traverse northward from the 
battle at the mouth of the creek which was afterward to bear the name of 
Laughery. Several years after his return, he purchased a section of land on 
the west bank of Great Miami river, near the mouth of Indian creek, in Butler 

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county, Ohio, and in 1812 removed thither with his family. There he resided 
until his death, in 1839, in his eighty-second year. 

The battle in which Colonel Laughery was so disastrously defeated was 
the first conflict on record between the Indians and the whites on Indiana soil. 
It took place during the last year of the Revolutionary War and was in reality 
one of the battles of t the Revolution, because the Indians engaged were allies 
of the British. Indeed, had not the British and renegades, like the notorious 
Girty brothers, coached the Indians and urged them to wage the kind of war- 
fare for which the whites could not be prepared, the outcome of practically 
all the early expeditions against the Indians would have been favorable to 
the whites. 

But the far-reaching result of this conflict is only seen by hypothesis. 
Had Laughery and his men intact joined General Clark at the falls of the 
Ohio, there would have been a sufficient number to have undertaken the 
movement against Detroit. The latter post at that time was poorly garrisoned 
and was under incompetent command. The British were struggling des- 
perately in the East to hold their colonial possessions and had neither time 
nor men to waste on the defense of such a post as Detroit, which relatively 
was of no importance. Yet, Detroit was the key to the whole West and North 
at that time. With its fall would have passed into the hands of the continental 
authorities the absolute control of the western three of the great lakes and 
eventually, when the boundary treaty with England was struck, Canada would 
have been a part of the United States. 

To some, perhaps, these deductions may seem a trifle fanciful. Veiy 
well. Just consider the words of General Washington when he wrote to Gov- 
ernor Jefferson, saying : "I have ever been of the opinion that the reduction 
of Detroit would be the only certain means of giving peace and security to the 
whole western frontier, and I have consequently had my eye on that object." 
It was the one great objective point in the West. It was a recognized fact 
by such men as Washington and Jefferson that Gen. George Rogers Clark 
was the one man whose absolute familiarity with the West and with the 
Indian character fitted him to lead such an expedition. 

We have seen how General Clark endeavored to equip such an expedition. 
We have recounted the disheartening failures that he met with and how he 
determined to prosecute the plan at all events, no matter what the opposition 
was. Yet, even after he actually began his movement, he was harassed and 
embarrassed by desertion, insurrection and mutiny. Finally, however, he ar- 
rived at the falls of the Ohio to await the coming of Colonel Laughery and his 

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men. The utter failure of these reinforcements to come, spoiled what was 
destined to be the most daring and carefully-planned campaign of those 
stirring times. 

Today, a short distance below the mouth of Laughery creek, and the 
spot where the massacre took place, is located the beautiful and luxurious 
Laughery Club, which is owned and maintained by Cincinnati business men 
as a place for out-of-doors recreation. There is no more ideally situated 
country club in the whole country, and the luxury and liberal hospitality on 
fete occasions are well known from ocean to ocean. 

As for the battlefield itself, it is marked by a government light, placed 
high on the bank, where the Indians lay in ambush. Here the light shines 
forth at night as a guide to Ohio river pilots. 


Ft. Finney was erected in the autumn of 1785 for the purpose of pro- 
tecting the United States commissioners and troops during the negotiations 
with the Indians preliminary to the treaty there entered into on January 31, 
1786. The fort stood on the bank of the Ohio, just above the mouth of the 
Miami river. It had been resolved by Congress, in March, 1785, to hold a 
treaty with the Indians of the Wabash and other parts of Indiana at Vin- 
cennes, June 20, 1785. This place of meeting was afterward changed to 
the mouth of the Great Miami. The three men representing the United 
States were George Rogers Gark, Richard Butler and Samuel H. Parsons 
Unavoidable circumstances caused the date of the meeting to be postponed 
until the winter of 1785-86. The Wabash Indians refused to attend on ac- 
count of a growing spirit of hostility. But some of the chiefs and warriors 
of the Shawnees and a few Delawares and Wyandots finally met with the 

In i860 the journal of Maj. Ebenezer Denny was published by the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society and contained a detailed account of the 
movements of the troops during the negotiations opened by the commissioners 
with the tardily assembled Indians. 

In October, 1785, Lieutenant Denny was ordered to embark for the 
Great Miami in company with Generals Butler and Parsons, commissioners 
instructed to treat with the Wyandot, Delaware and Shawnee tribes of In- 
dians. The treaty proposed was to be supplementary to the one effected at Ft. 
Mcintosh in January, 1785, concerning which there had been complainrs 
among the Indians, and was principally intended to include the Shawnees 

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who were not included in the treaty at Ft. Mcintosh. The company to which 
Lieutenant Denny was attached was commanded by Captain Finney, and 
numbered about seventy men. The fleet bearing the commissioners and troops 
left Ft. Pitt early in October, and consisted of twelve small keel-boats and 
batteaux, bearing the troops and goods for the Indians, with two large Ken- 
tucky flats to carry horses, cattle, etc. The arrival at North Bend and the 
erection of Ft. Finney are given in the following extract from Denny's 
journal : 

"Oct. 22nd. — Arrived at mouth of Great Miami. Best ground for our 
station about a mile above the mouth where the boats were brought, and 
everything unloaded. All hands set to work chopping, clearing, etc., and 
preparing timber for block-houses and pickets, and on the 8th inst. (Novem- 
ber) had ourselves enclosed ; hoisted United States flag, and christened the 
place Fort Finney, in compliment to Lieut. Finney, the commanding officer. 
Our work is a square stockade fort, substantial block-houses, two stories, 
twenty-four by eighteen feet in each angle, contains about one hundred feet 
of stout pickets, four feet in the ground, and nine feet above, situated one 
hundred and fifty yards from the river on a rising second bank. A building 
eighteen by twenty feet, within the east and west curtains, for the accommo- 
dation and reception of contractors' stores and" Indian goods; and one small, 
but strong building, center of north curtain, for magazine. A council-house 
twenty by sixty, detached, but within gunshot. Commissioners and their 
followers pitch their tents within the fort, and erect wooden chimneys." 

The season was very favorable but cool, and the men were employed for 
some time finishing the block-houses and clearing off the timber and brush for 
some distance outside. Gen. George Rogers Clark came up from the falls of 
the Ohio and joined the other commissioners a few days later. On the 24th 
of November Major Denny noted the arrival of messengers, who set out from 
Pittsburgh to the Indian towns to invite the Indians to a treaty at Ft. Finney. 
They were accompanied by six chiefs of the Shawnees, Wyandot and Dela- 
ware nations, namely: Captain Johnny, Half King, Crane, Pipe, Wingman 
and White-Eyes, "all glad to see us, brothers" ; some grog and smoke were 
produced. On the 27th, "about one hundred Indians assemble and are camped 
a couple of miles from us; the greatest part Wyandots; a few Delawares." 
On the 5th of December Major Denny makes entry: "Generals Clark, But- 
ler and Parsons leave us on a visit to the falls of the Ohio, about one hundred 
and fifty miles below. Captain Finney, with a party of soldiers in boats, go to 
Big Bone Lick, thirty miles down ; dig up and collect some astonishing large 

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On the 20th of December the commissioners returned from the falls and 
were disappointed at not finding more Indians assembled. Those who had 
come were principally from the Wyandots and Delawares, with whom the 
treaty at Ft. Mcintosh was made. The Shawnees, for whom, primarily, the 
treaty was intended, were loath to attend. Later, it was ascertained that the 
notorious Simon Girty was again at the bottom of this, as he was of many 
of the inexplicable and discouraging affairs of that time. The renegade was 
using all of his nefarious powers of persuasion to prevent the Shawnee tribe 
from attending the treaty. 

Later, however, on January 14, 1786. there appeared at Ft. Finney about 
one hundred and fifty Shawnee men and eighty women, who visited the fort 
and were received with high honors. Thi commissioners directed that a party 
of soldiers should cook and serve out provisions for them in the council- 
house. As the Shawnees always selected their old and decrepid women to do 
the cooking, when they saw United States soldiers carrying kettles of pro- 
visions to them they laughed and shouted in derision. They approached the 
fort in a stately manner, with Indian music beaten on a keg drum and singing. 
The Wyandots separated themselves from the others by pitching their camp 
on the bank of the Great Miami about three miles from Ft. Finney. 

Of all the men of the earlier frontiersmen, there were none who, better 
than Gen. George Rogers Clark, knew the Indian character. During the 
proceeding about to begin it was that thorough knowJedge, gained throughout 
years of dealing with the wily and treacherous savage, that saved trouble 
with the assembled Indians on the spot and probably a severe loss of lives. 
General Clark was a short, thick-set man, with sandy hair, stern, cold blue 
eyes, and bore an air of one used to being obeyed. On account of some petty 
jealousies, he kept apart from his colleagues of the commission, but he was on 
very friendly and familiar terms with Lieutenant Denny and often invited him 
to spend his evening with him in his tent, where he talked freely concerning 
his adventures and varied experiences. 

The Shawnees, still keyed with the doubt and suspicion with which Simon 
Girty had poisoned them, came to the fort in no friendly spirit. Three hun- 
dred of their warriors, in their paint and feathers, on January 14, filed into 
the council-house. Their demeanor was sullen and haughty as they faced the 
commissioners, who sat at a table in the center of the chamber. The scene 
that followed is best described in the "Encyclopedia Americana." by an officer 
who was present : 

"On the part of the Indians, an old council sachem and a war chief took 

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the lead. The latter, a tall, raw-boned fellow with an impudent and villainous 
look, made a boisterous speech, which operated effectually on the passions of 
the Indians, who set up a prodigious whoop at every pause. He concluded by 
presenting a black and white wampum, to signify that they were prepared for 
either event, peace or war. Clark exhibited the same unaltered and careless 
countenance he had shown during the whole scene, his head leaning on his 
hand and his elbow resting on the table. He raised his cane a little and pushed 
the sacred wampum off the table with little ceremony. Every Indian at the 
same time started from his seat with one of those sudden, simultaneous and 
peculiar savage sounds which startle and disconcert the stoutest heart, and 
can neither be described nor "forgotten. 

"At this juncture Clark arose. The scrutinizing eye lowered at his 
glance. He stamped his foot on the prostrate and insulted symbol and ordered 
them to leave the hall. They did so, apparently involuntarily. They were 
heard all night, debating in the bushes near the fort. The raw-boned chief 
was for war: the old sachem was for peace. The latter prevailed and the 
next morning they came back and sued for peace." 

The troops remained at Ft. Finney for several months after the signing 
of the treaty, on January 31, 1786. A majority of the men in the garrison 
were Irish, and celebrated St. Patrick's day by getting drunk, in the evening 
only six men being fit for duty. One of the men died the next day from 
over-indulgence in liquor. On the 25th of March the block-house, on the 
bank of the river, was completed to guard the boats. The 4th of July was 
celebrated by firing three rounds from small arms and three from the field 
pieces. Lieutenant Denny's diary at the fort closes in July, 1786, when he 
was ordered to Ft. Harmar. Just at what time Ft. Finney was abandoned 
is not known, but it was before Judge John Cleves Symmes made his settle- 
ment at North Bend. 

By the treaty of Ft. Finney the United States were acknowledged to be 
the sole and absolute sovereign of all the territory ceded to them by the treaty 
with Great Britain in 1784. Hunting grounds, lying chiefly in Indiana, were 
allotted the Shawnees as follows: 

"The United States do allot to the Shawnee nation lands within said 
territory, to live and hunt upon, beginning at the south line of the lands 
allotted to the Wyandot and Delaware nations, at the place where the main 
branch of the Great Miami, which falls into the Ohio, intersects said line; 
thence down the river Miami to the fort of that river next below the old fort, 
which waS taken by the French in one thousand seven hundred and fiftv-two ; 


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thence due west to the river De La Pause; thence down that river to the 
Wabash; beyond which lines none of the citizens of the United States shall 
settle, nor disturb the Shawnees in their settlement possessions." 

The treaty at Ft. Finney entirely failed in securing peace, as the tribes 
more distant than the Shawnees were in no way disposed to cease their incur- 
sions. But this treaty, like other treaties, would have been of great importance 
if the provisions of it had been faithfully carried out by the Indians. The 
terms of the treaty clearly defined the territories to be occupied by them and 
provided against trespassing thereon by the whites, besides containing other 
salutary provisions. But, unfortunately, they were not lived up to in good 
faith, and there is considerable reason to suppose that those who signed the 
treaty did not intend to abide by its tenets. Another reason for the treaty of 
Ft. Finney, in common with almost every other Indian treaty, being broken, 
was that all Indian tribes had in their midst certain adventurers who eternally 
favored war and were open in their declaration that they would never be 
bound by a treaty. In fine, there seems to be plenty of reason to entertain 
the suspicion that the Indians attending the councils and signing the treaties 
that were entered into, were actuated more by a desire to receive the presents 
from the whites and to have a good time than to promote general peace or 
anything else. When hostilities ceased, many years after the ending of the 
Revolutionary War, it can hardly be said that the contest was ended. Rather 
was it suspended. But it cannot justly be said that the treaties were of no 
avail. On the contrary, each succeeding treaty brought the savage to a closer 
understanding of the ways of civilization and consequently gave impetus to 
the necessarily slow process of settling in a wilderness and building for the 
future with some idea of security. 



It is, perhaps, well, before beginning the story of the first settlements 
in Dearborn county, to narrate the trend of the advancing column of civiliza- 
tion which slowly felt its way down the Ohio river. Each fresh victory over 
the Indians by the military trail blazers gave fresh impetus to the movement. 
Slowly and gradually the lines widened, always pushing forward. The 
doubt and despair that at times threatened to conquer the ardor of the doughty 
adventurers were swept aside by the enthusiasm that they gained upon sight 
of the rich and fertile country confronting them. Stories of the vastness and 
remarkable fertility of the new country got back to "the old folks at home" 
and caused new expeditions to be fitted out. And so, founded in the begin- 
ning on the hope and faith of the Jason of old, the people came to find a ver- 
itable "golden fleece" in another form. 

We of today cannot and, perhaps, will refuse to try to appreciate what 
we owe to these people who made possible for us the things which we now 
enjoy. The hardships they suffered will never be known and the privations 
that were theirs were most of the time taxing the very limit of human endur- 
ance. But the general fortitude and indomitable courage, in the face of these 
disheartening crises, is proof in plenty that these men had a mission when 
they set out. They came to prepare a home for us, and — so far as they 
went — they succeeded. We who read the stories of other days know that 
they made mistakes. They founded town sites in places where it was phys- 
ically impossible to build a town that, growing with the country, should take 
its place among the cities. They made other mistakes, but it should not be 
for us to criticise too severely these little short-comings. We should rather 
look at the end they achieved. Measured by this, they were successful in that 
they did what they set out to do. 

The first settlement of importance along the Ohio river in the vicinity 
of Dearborn county was at Tanner's Station, where Petersburg, Kentucky, 
now stands. In April, 1785, a party from Pennsylvania, composed of John 
Hindman, William West, John Simmons, John Seft and the aged Mr. Carlin, 
together with their families, settled on the ground claimed by Rev. John 
Tanner, and cleared forty acres opposite the mouth of a creek which was 

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afterwards called Tanner's cretk. They remained there about a month and 
went to Ohio to arrange for making improvements in their new home. Two 
years later. Rev. John Tanner brought his two sons, John, Jr., aged nine 
years, and Edward, aged fifteen, to the station. The two boys wandered off 
to the river shore and were captured by Indians. Edward made his escape 
and returned home. John, however, was kept prisoner for twenty- four years 
before any word was secured from him. He spent his life among the Indians 
and in 1818 was selected as an interpreter by the United States government 
and stationed at Sault Ste. Marie. His father removed to New Madrid, Mo., 
in 1798, and died there a few years later. 

In April. 178S, an important settlement was made at Marietta, Ohio. 
This station was established and well fortified for absolute protection and. 
as a result, was made a base for future expeditions. When a company of 
settlers pushed out from Pittsburgh or W heeling, the first place to which they 
bent their course was Marietta. From there they planned their final desti- 

Now comes the first transaction of magnitude in the virgin Middle West. 
When Maj. Benjamin Stites, of Red Stone, Pennsylvania, heard that the 
treaty of Ft. Finney had been consummated, he undertook an exploring expe- 
dition in the region between the Miami livers. On his return to his home he 
gave the information he had gathered to Judge John Cleves Symmes, of Xew 
Jersey. The latter was very much impressed by the major's recital of what 
he saw and he immediately made a contract with the treasury board of the 
United States for the purchase of the lands. The lands that entered into the 
contract were about one million acres between the two Miamis. comprising 
what are now the counties of Hamilton, Butler, Preble, Montgomery, Greene, 
Clinton, Warren, Clermont and Brown. The purchase price was sixty-six 
cents per acre. 


Three parties were formed to occupy and improve separate portions of 
Symmes' purchase. The first, led by Benjamin Stites, consisted of twenty- 
two male persons, with the families of some of them, who. on November 18. 
1788, landed at the mouth of the Little Miami, and founded Columbia, within 
the limits of the tract of ten thousand acres deeded by Symmes to Stites. The 
second party was formed at Limestone under Mathias Denman and Robert 
Patterson, amounting to twelve or fourteen persons, and landed opposite the 

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mouth of the Licking near the close of December, 1788, and founded Cin- 
cinnati, first called Losantiville. The third party was under the immediate 
care and direction of Judge Symmes and left Limestone, January 29, 1789, 
and were delayed during their passage down the river by floating ice. Early 
in February they reached North Bend, above the mouth of the Great Miami, 
where Judge Symmes proposed to found a city. North Bend was so named 
from the fact that the river at that point made the most northerly bend be- 
low the mouth of the Great Kanawha. 

Judge Symmes laid out a village here, and gave each settler a lot, on 
condition that he improve it. But for the city of his dreams he had a great 
plan. The Miami river approaches the Ohio river very closely at the town of 
Cleves, but, instead of flowing into the great stream here, it makes an abrupt 
detour to the west and south and reaches the Ohio about eight miles farther 
on. Thus an inland peninsula is formed between the two rivers. On the high 
summit of this land, overlooking the states of Kentucky and Indiana and 
affording a wonderful view of the great valley of the Ohio, Symmes pro- 
posed to build a city. He named it Symmes City and intended that it be- 
come a monument to his memory as the first "big" settler in the West. 

However, the judge was wrong. Within a few years even the same of 
the projected city was forgotten. The town of North Bend endured. The 
judge returned to New Jersey so highly elated with his purchase that, on Sep- 
tember 22, 1789, he wrote to his associate, Gen. Jonathan Dayton, that he 
thought some of the land near the Great Miami "positively worth a silver 
dollar to the acre in its present state." Regarding these settlements between 
the Miami's, General Harmar, in a letter from Ft. Washington, dated January 
14, 1790. describes them as follows: "The distance between the Little and 
Great Miami is twenty-eight measured miles. Near the Little Miami there 
is a settlement called Columbia ; here, some miles distant from Columbia, there 
is another named Losantiville. but changed lately to Cincinnati, and Judge 
Symmes himself resides at the other, about fifteen miles from hence, called 
Miami City, at the north bend of the Ohio river. They are in general but 
small cabins, and the inhabitants of the poorer class of people." 

At the solicitation of Judge Symmes. General Harmar sent Captain 
Kearsey. with forty-eight rank and file, to protect the settlements begun in 
the Miami country. Part of the men were stationed at Columbia, but Judge 
Symmes soon had all of them brought to North Bend, where they arrived in 
February. 1789. The intention was for them to occupy Ft. Finney, which had 
been constructed three years before. But a high stage of the river made it 

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extremely difficult to reach the fort and Captain Kcarsey determined to depart 
for Louisville with the coming of spring. This resolve was made because of 
his acute disappointment in not finding a fort constructed and ready to re- 
ceive his troops. 

Judge Symmes at once reported to Major Willis that Captain Kearsey 
had been guilty of misconduct and explained how his settlers were exposed to 
constant danger on account of their lack of protection. Major Willis, sent 
Ensign Luce, with eighteen soldiers, to North Bend. 


The presence of troops at North Bend gave that place a decided advan- 
tage over the two settlements further north. Settlers came where the best 
protection was afforded. But Ensign Luce was obstinate and, despite the 
entreaties of Judge Symmes, he would not erect a permanent fort there. He 
built a temporary affair that was sufficient for sheltering his troops, but de- 
ferred building a permanent structure until he could get word from his supe- 
rior officers as to what sort of a fortification he was expected to build and 
where. On September 16, 1789, Major Doughty arrived in the Miami coun- 
try with instructions to erect a strong fort at the most suitable point. He 
spent a day in each of the three settlements and finally decided on Cincinnati, 
"as high and healthy, and abounding with never-failing springs, and the most 
proper position." The soldiers were removed from North Bend to Cincinnati, 
and most of the settlers followed them. That one move settled the destiny of 
Cincinnati, and the settlement there soon eclipsed all other settlements along 
the river below Pittsburgh and became, in fact, the "Queen City of the West.'" 

The bright future which Judge Symmes had pictured for North Bend 
began to wane with the departure of the troops for Cincinnati. Judge 
Symmes, however, had his residence at North Bend until his death. There, 
on a beautiful knoll that rises up from the sleepy town, is his grave, covered 
by a time-worn tablet on which can be read the following inscription : "Here 
rest the remains of John Cleves Symmes. who, at the foot of these hills, made 
the first settlement between the Miami rivers. Born on Long Island, State 
of New York, July 21, 1742; died at Cincinnati, February 26 A. D. 1814." 
Judge Symmes had been chief justice of New Jersey and, at the time he em- 
barked in his land speculation in the West, was a member of the colonial Con- 
gress. He was the father-in-law of President William Henry Harrison, 
whose remains are contained in a tomb about twenty rods from his own 
grave on the knoll about which his dreams of city-building were shattered. 

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Although Judge Symmes purchased the great tract of land at a very 
low figure, yet he was not financially successful in the venture. The settle- 
ment of the country was so long delayed by continued Indian hostilities that 
he was unable to meet his obligations with the government. Judge Symmes 
proposed to treat the Indians kindly and justly and to retain their friendship 
rather than needlessly be unfriendly with them. The very lands he had 'pur- 
chased were a part of the vast hunting grounds of the red man. This land, 
together with Dearborn, Ohio and Switzerland counties in Indiana, com- 
prised one of the chief ranges for the Indian and, although they had no 
permanent towns located here, still they often came in large numbers and 
encamped. They saw in the gradual encroaching of the white men in these 
hunting preserves a movement that would eventually deprive them of the use 
of the hunting grounds and they protested that the obligation in the treaty 
under which the government claimed the land was not binding. 

The Indians were further imposed upon by tricky white traders, who 
drove infamous bargains with them. This aroused in them a sense of re- 
venge that was already well-developed, if latent. The result was depredations 
of every sort. Then some worthless whites would pick off a lonely Indian, 
roaming through the woods, and for this act the inevitable corollary would 
be a similar one in retaliation. The dark cloud of war between the whites and 
Indians grew with time and all but eclipsed the bright hope of the settlers. 
Finally the war came and it lasted seven years before a lasting peace was 
concluded. But it was a fortunate thing for the Miami settlers in the end. 
After the Wayne treaty, a feeling of security prevailed everywhere along the 
frontier and civilization took root quickly and soon bore its fruit of progress. 
But Judge Symmes was ruined by the seven years of struggle. During all 
that time his land operations were practically at a standstill and his obliga- 
tions to the government fell due with monotonous regularity. Had he been 
able to finance the project, he would have been a Croesus. 


Although the first permanent settlements north of the Ohio river in 
Indiana were made just as soon as it became evident that the Indians were 
not only going to observe the treaty made with them by General Wayne in 
1795, but that they were glad to abide by it. Yet these were not the first 

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white men that had been on Indiana soil, by any means. It is very possible 
that the French voyageur, as early as La Salle's time, frequently, in his jour- 
neyings from the St. Lawrence country to the warmer and more desirable 
winter climate of New Orleans, floated his canoe down the Big Miami and 
out into the broader Ohio. The French at that time were great explorers and 
they knew every nook and corner of the Northwest Territory They at times 
used in their travels the portage, between the Maumee and the Miami. Both 
rivers were by them called the "Meyamee" and much confusion has arisen in 
regard to locations and routes of travel on account of that fact. The English 
sent explorers into the Ohio valley as early as 1700. and Pennsylvania traders 
had traversed the country long before the treaty of 1763, so that every desir- 
able point of occupancy was well known many years before settlers even 
thought of acquiring land here. The daims of both the English and French 
to the Ohio valley were flimsy, but where there were none but the Indians to 
protest, it was sufficient to establish a claim and that was all either nation 

The Ohio Company, that George Washington's brothers were interested 
in, claimed, from Virginia's grants to them, a wide scope of land in the valley, 
the extent of which and the boundaries they themselves could not describe. 
As early as 1740 traders from Pennsylvania had built a trading post at the 
forks of the Big Miami above Dayton. Ohio, which was called Loramies, 
after the trader who occupied it. The Ohio Company sent Christopher Gist 
out to investigate the merits of the valley and he was at Loramies about 175 1 . 
He had met George Croghan. a representative of the governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, and they were where the town of Piqua now stands, on the 17th day 
of February, 1751. Gist traveled down the Miami and crossed the Ohio 
near where Louisville now is, returning to the East through the gaps in the 
Cumberland range in eastern Kentucky, having been gone for several months. 
After Gist's reports of the fertility of the valley became known, many attempts 
were made to settle in the valley. Numerous explorers and adventurers 
swarmed over the country, examining it for the best locations. But the In- 
dians were vigilant and resented the incoming white men's encroachments. 
The French, too. in order to make a show of occupancy, were by no means 
blind to the endeavors of the English to occupy the country. They could see 
plainly that if the English once obtained a stronghold in the valley it would 
be impossible to eject them. On the 10th of May. 1744. the French governor 
of Canada. Yaudreuil. wrote home to the king of France that there was gra\e 
danger of the English gaining the ascendency in the valley and that it would 

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be a sad mistake for the French to yield. To more firmly establish their 
claim to the Ohio valley, the French governor, in 1749, sent Louis Celeron 
with a party of soldiers to place lead plates, on which were written out the 
claims of France, at the mouths of the rivers that emptied into the Ohio. 
One of these plates has (some seventy-five years ago) been found at the 
mouth of the Muskingum river. Shortly after these plates had been buried, 
William Trent, who was sent out by Virginia to conciliate the Indians, heard, 
through the friendly Indians, of the French action, and reported it. The 
struggle for the Ohio valley finally ended, in so far as the French were con- 
cerned, with the surrender of Quebec and the treaty of 1763. This relieved 
those from the Eastern states who desired to settle in so far as the French 
were concerned, but not so with the Indians. It soon was understood that 
the Indians must be reckoned with before a permanent settlement could be 
assured. From 1763 until 1775 the French were slowly letting go of the 
country and of their influence over the Indians. Then, the War of the Revo- 
lution coming on, it was not hard for the English influence to persuade the 
Indians that these settlers, explorers, long hunters and adventurers, were to 
be counted as enemies, while the Englishmen only represented" the small army 
that took possession of a post here and there and represented to the red man 
no menace of ever losing his hunting grounds. 

Daniel Boone and numerous other bold adventurers, however, did not 
listen to the claims of the Indian, or the English, but proceeded to occupy the 
land. Bold adventures, hunters and woodsmen thronged the valley the year 
round. Even through the perilous years of the Revolution, when every In- 
dian was an enemy and British influence did not hesitate to kill every Amer- 
ican found in the valley, plenty of men could be found who were familiar 
with the country, and who had traveled over it. Long hunters were common, 
men who, with gun and some powder, would stay for two or three years 
among the forests, living off of what they found in the way of game. A little 
more civilized than the Indian, they were the advance guard of the Amer- 
ican pioneer, and could give information in regard to the character of the 
country in most any direction. GeOrge Rogers Clark, in his expedition 
against Kaskaskia, found some of them and they were just as ready for an 
adventure like Clark's, as they were for hunting. A peculiar class were they, 
of a kind necessary for a country, a skirmish line between the enemy and the 
main line of the advancing army. After the War of the Revolution, these 
men became all the more numerous and the Ohio valley was full of them, like 
the approach of an advancing storm — first the scattering rain drops, then an 

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ever-increasing amount, until the final downpour. The war closed in 1782 
and the treaty with England was finally proclaimed on the 19th of April, 
1783. Yet, in 1785, when the treaty of Ft. Finney was made, we find this 
extract from the journal of General Butler, one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to make the treaty. "Sailed at half past one o'clock, the wind ahead 
Here is some very fine land, covered with ash and other timber. Pushed 
ahead to the Great Miami, above the mouth of which I ordered the whole 
command to camp, about five o'clock in the evening. I went out with Major 
Finney to examine the ground for a post. Saturday, October 22, 1785." On 
Sunday, October 23. General Butler, with some of the officers went down 
to call on Gen. George Rogers Clark, "who lodged at a place called a station, 
which is a few families collected for mutual safety to one place and a little 
fort erected." This shows that within a year and a half after peace was de- 
clared the outposts of the settlements in Kentucky had already advanced to 
the Ohio river. Rev. John Hindman, in his diary, says that with a party, 
consisting of John Simons, John Seft, William West and a Mr. Carlin, with 
their families, he left Washington county, Pennsylvania, in March, 1785. 
landing at Limestone, now Maysville, Kentucky, where they stayed two 
weeks. Next they landed at the mouth of the Big Miami. "We were the 
first company to land at that place. Soon after we landed, the Ohio river 
raised and covered all the bottoms at its mouth ; therefore we went over to 
the Kentucky side and cleared thirty acres of land. Sometime in May or 
June. 1785, we went up the Big Miami to make what we called improvements, 
so as to secure a portion of the land which we selected out of the best and 
broadest bottoms between Hamilton and the mouth of the river. We pro- 
ceeded up where Hamilton now is and made some improvements wherever 
we found bottoms finer than the rest, all the way down to the mouth of the 
Miami. I then went up the Ohio again to Buffalo, but the same fall re- 
turned and found Generals Clark, Butler and Parsons at the mouth of the Big 
Miami as commissioners to treat with the Indians. Major Finney was there 
also. I was in company with Symmes when he was engaged in taking the 
meanders of the Miami at the time John Filson was killed by the Indians." 

This story may not be clearly accurate, but it illustrates the truth that, 
outside of the organized and, in time, the effective settlements, roving, rest- 
less people were spying out the country and had their eyes on what they con- 
sidered desirable tracts, which they would lay claim to just as soon as events 
justified it. The earliest actual settler it is impossible to determine. Num- 
bers came into the country at about this same time. The close of the War of 

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the Revolution had set loose thousands of restless spirits. Men who had be- 
come accustomed to a life of adventure, to whom the quiet, after the storm of 
war, seemed burdensome. These people wandered to the West, looking for 
adventure more than a location for a home. Most of them were bound by no 
ties to any particular locality. Single men, full of adventure, ready for any 
hardship or any danger, they preferred to live off what the wild forest fur- 
nished rather than to settle down to the pursuits of civilized life. It was, no 
doubt, this class of men who kept the Indians incited to committing outrages 
on the frontier settlements. Many of them, at no time very scrupulous, the 
wild life of a courier de bois had added to their training. Not very well in- 
formed as to what the general government was doing to clear the path for the 
actual settler, they frequently took the matter of law into their own hands, 
with a one-sided idea of justice that gave themselves everything and the 
Indian nothing. The Indian retaliated by stealing any property the white 
men might be so fortunate as to be possessed of, such as horses and cattle, 
not stopping even at that, but very frequently destroying the lives of men 
women and children, to even up for what they deemed a trespass on their 
territory and a violation of the rights of property. Some of the earliest white 
squatters in this part of Indiana were men who had been captured by the In- 
dians in boyhood and, not liking their customs and ways of living, they pre- 
ferred to live by themselves, sometimes with an Indian wife and at other times 
alone, just the woods and the wild animals about to keep them company. 
These characters receded to the westward just behind the Indian and were 
part of the general plan, by which this great country became conquered so 


Accounts differ as to who was the first actual settler in the county. It 
will possibly never be determined ; neither is it at all material who he was. 
The fact may be that a number of people came into the county at practically 
the same time and, the means of travel being bad, they were unknown. Few 
records were kept in those days by the pioneers who were actual settlers. 
It was generally a mere matter of memory. It has been claimed, variously, 
that Adam Flake and family were the first settlers locating on South Hogan. 
It is claimed elsewhere that he did not arrive until 1796. Samuel Morrison, 
who devoted much time to such matters, says: "Early in January. 1796. 
Adam Flake and family settled on South Hogan creek. In February, 1796. 
Ephraim Morrison, a soldier of the Revolution, built the first log cabin and 

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cut away the first trees on the bank of the Ohio, just above the mouth of 
Hogan creek, where the city of Aurora now stands. Early in May, 1796. 
Capt. Joseph Hayes and family and Thomas Miller and family settled in the 
big bottoms, three and one-half miles north of Lawrenceburg." Samuel Mor- 
rison was a son of Ephraim Morrison and no better authority could be ob- 
tained that he. 

Shortly after Captain Hayes arrived, Henry Hardin and family settled 
on the site of Hardinsburg. William Gerard and family and George Crist 
and family were also settlers in the same vicinity in the year 1796. On 
Laughery creek, it is claimed that George Groves settled at its mouth in 1794 
and built the first cabin in the county. It is also claimed that Nicholas Cheek 
settled on Wilson creek in 1794, about the same time that George Groves was 
building his cabin on Laughery. Other authorities claim that Groves did not 
arrive until 1798. The treaty of Greenville was not signed until August 3, 
1795, and it is not very probable that any of these men would undertake to 
establish permanent homes until the full terms of the treaty were well known. 
It is more possible that these settlers were busy in 1795 raising crops for the 
coming winter, and that by the beginning of the winter they would be aware 
of that portion of the treaty ceding all the lands east of the line drawn 
from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Ft. Recovery, to the United States. 
This would naturally stimulate their desires to acquire some of this new coun- 
try. All who came into this county before the land office was opened at Cin- 
cinnati, April 9, 1801, were just "squatters" and were locating desirable ground 
to enter. None of them could possibly have established permanent homes. 
When the land office did open, many of these families were doomed to bitter 
disappointment, because others, more alert or blessed with more ready money, 
secured the very lands they had selected. The year 1796 was five years be- 
fore the land office was opened and that was a long time to wait for a chance, 
only, to secure the rewards for their patience and endurance. These "squat- 
ters" erected just an abiding place, made generally out of unhewn logs, wirh 
one or two rooms. The Indian had been so badly punished that it was antici- 
pated, and correctly, that it would be several years before he could recover 
enough self-confidence to make any more attempts against the settlements. 
The desire for securing the pick of the land brought these families into 
the county before the land could be purchased at the land office. It was nat- 
ural, for several reasons, that they keep close to the streams that enter the 
Ohio river and that, for the time, they remain near to navigation. At that 
time there was no outlet down the Mississippi that could be depended upon. 

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The Spanish were in possession of the mouth of the river and much difficulty 
was encountered in entering the domain of Spain, a short distance below 
Natchez. The nearest protection was the stockade at North Bend, or just 
across the river at Tanner's Station, now the thrifty little hamlet of Peters- 
burg, Kentucky. 

During Wayne's campaign, that general had detached a battalion of his 
men, under the command of Major Byrd, to occupy the high ground on the 
west bank of the Miami just above its mouth. Here the major erected a 
stockade and remained until the treaty of Greenville. The purpose of the 
occupancy of this place was to protect the keel boats that were carrying sup- 
plies from Cincinnati and Pittsburgh to Ft. Hamilton. While the Ohio and 
Miami were at a good stage, especially in the winter season, when the trail 
from Ft. Washington to Hamilton was almost impassable, the river route 
was found to be most convenient and the supplies for Wayne's army were 
taken by that route. The regiment from which the detail was made was 
called the "Rowdy Regiment." Wayne's army was nearly two years prepar- 
ing for the final and decisive campaign against the Indians and the camp 
was occupied during that time. The name "Rowdy Camp" is to this day ap- 
plied to the spot where the stockade stood. It is a narrow point of land just 
above the Baltimore & Ohio railway, where it crosses the old bed of the 
Miami, between the city of Lawrenceburg and the bridge over the Great 
Miami. The place is covered with forest to this day. The Dearborn county 
history, published in 1885, says, "In the summer of 1794 John Tanner, who 
had built the station where Petersburg now stands, ran a keel-boat from his 
station to Ft. Hamilton for the purpose of supplying the troops at that place 
with provisions. While rounding the island in the Great Miami, near the 
mouth of the Whitewater, the Indians in ambush fired on his boat, killing a 
colored man. his bowsman. That island ever since goes by the name of 
'Negro Island.' Not long after the above occurrence Eli Gerard, of the Hayes 
Station ( now known as the Goose Pond), was sent over west of the Miami 
river to hunt horses which had strayed off. Three Indians gave chase to 
him and pursued him to the Miami river. Gerard plunged into the river 
and swam across : when the Indians came upon the bank he was two-thirds of 
the way across and a tomahawk was thrown at him." This "Rowdy Camp" 
is not above extreme high water but moderate floods do not reach it. From 
the best information obtained the settlements established at the mouth of 
Laughery creek : at the mouth of the two Hogan creeks, and the families who 
settled at Hardinsburg and at the state line were made at near the same time. 

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Just which of the places was first cannot at this day be well determined. Cap- 
tain Hayes had been at North Bend and at the station erected by himself and 
Alexander Guard, about one mile above the mouth of the Miami, on the 
east bank, ever since the spring of 1791, and was familiar with every foot of 
ground on the west side; knew the height of the floods during those years, 
and where the best locations were to be found. It is very probable that just 
as soon as he learned of the terms of the treaty, he moved over to occupy the 
land he had selected. 


The first families to select locations in the broad bottoms at the mouth 
of the Big Miami are given in the Dearborn county history published in 1885, 
quoting from the writings of Samuel Morrison, as follows: "Early in the 
spring of 1796, Captain Hayes and family and the families of Joseph Hayes, 
Jr., and Thomas Miller, Sr., removed west of the Great Miami river, and set- 
tled in this county (then Knox county, Northwestern Territory)." The same 
authority says that "Alexander Guard, who had occupied the same station on 
the Miami one mile above its mouth with Hayes, settled on the west side of 
the Miami near where the town of Elizabethtown, Ohio, now stands." From 
the same source, the following is taken: "Among others living at the 
(Hayes) station referred to, who moved into the county in 1796 and set- 
tled in the township, were William Girard and wife and two sons, Eli and 
Elias, and daughter, Mrs. Crist, and husband, George Crist, and three step- 
children, Rees, Rachel and William. They settled one mile above Hardins- 
burg. The same year Henry Hardin and family, consisting of William, Mary, 
James, Catherine, John and Philip, settled on the site of the hamlet of Har- 
dinsburg. Other families settling in the vicinity in the same year were those 
of William Allensworth and Isaac Allen, who occupied the land subsequently 
known as the Samuel Morrison farm." 

The settlers at the mouth of the two Hogan creeks were on the ground 
about the same time as those farther up the valley. When the corner stone of 
the present court house was laid the following historical item was deposited: 
"Early in January, 1796, Adam Flake and family settled on South Hogan 
creek. In February, 1796, Ephraim Morrison, a soldier of the Revolutionary 
War, built the first log cabin and cut away the forest trees on the bank of the 
Ohio just below the mouth of Hogan creek, where Aurora now stands." 
Quoting from Samuel Morrison in the Dearborn county history of 1885: 
"When Ephraim Morrison arrived at the mouth of Hogan creek to make 

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his settlement, there was already some cleared land both above and below the 
creek. Ephraim Morrison found at this place an Indian hut about sixteen 
feet square, without floor or roof, which he repaired and occupied until he 
could build a better house. Here on the site of the city of Aurora, March i, 
1798, was born Samuel Morrison, who, so far as is known, was the first 
white child born in this part of the territory of Indiana. After a residence of 
four years at the mouth of Hogan creek, Ephraim Morrison removed to a 
place he had selected on Laughery creek, three-fourths of a mile from its 


George W. Lane, writing during the centennial period in 1876, says : "In 
1796 Adam Flake and family settled on South Hogan creek, about one mile 
from the Ohio river. In the same year Ephraim Morrison landed just below 
the mouth of Hogan creek — where the city of Aurora now stands — with his 
family of one daughter and three sons, Agnes, Ephraim, Jr., William and 
Thomas. Samuel Morrison was born after their arrival, and he has often 
been spoken of as the first male child born in the county. But this honor was 
contested by the friends of William V. Cheek. During this same year the 
Cheeks settled above where the city of Aurora now stands, near Wilson 
creek, with their families. Soon after their arrival, William V. Cheek was 
born and, if not the first, was certainly the second male child born in the 

On Laughery creek, Benjamin Walker settled in 1796. He came from 
Pennsylvania, and later moved to the south side of the creek, where he built 
a grist-mill and laid out the town of Hartford. William Maroney, Daniel 
Lynn, William Blue and David Blue all came to the Laughery valley in this 
same year and located. William Ross likewise came to the Laughery valley, 
settling at its mouth, but afterwards moved farther up the creek. 

The first colony to settle at Columbia, near the mouth of the Little 
Miami river, comprised the names of persons afterwards somewhat familiar 
in the early settlement of Dearborn county. On the list of names given for 
that settlement are found that of Hugh Dunn, Elijah Mills, Abram Ferris. 
John Ferris and Ezra Ferris. Among those who settled at Ft. Washington 
were the Ludlows — Israel and John, both of whom were well known by the 
first settlers in Dearborn county. Their nephew, Stephen Ludlow, in 1808, 
came to Dearborn county and became one of the county's most prominent 
business men. Hugh Dunn afterwards moved to Ft. Hill, just above the 

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mouth of the Miami, where he built a stockade and resided several years be- 
fore coming to this county. 


It is related that his son, Isaac Dunn, afterwards one of Lawrenceburg's 
most prominent citizens, along with Isaac Mills, Benjamin Cox, Thomas Wal- 
ters, Joseph Randolph, Joseph Kitchel and Isaac Vanness came over to the 
bottoms late in the fall of 1794 to hunt for hogs to use for the winter's meat. 
After hunting pretty much all day it was proposed by some of them that they 
return across the Miami to the stockade for the night and renew the hunt the 
next morning. All agreed to the proposition but Benjamin Cox and Thomas 
Walters, who thought it best to go into camp where they were, so as to have 
the advantage of an early start in the morning. The rest of the party not 
favoring the idea of risking a camp in such an unprotected place returned to 
the stockade above the mouth of the river. Towards midnight people at the 
stockade were much alarmed at hearing the reports of several guns in the 
direction of the camp that Cox and Walters were supposed to have made, and 
the little settlement, knowing the ways of the savages, feared for the safety 
of the two men. Early the next morning a party of men started to learn the 
fate of their comrades. Searching near where they were left the evening 
previous, Isaac Dunn and Garrett Vanness came upon .the body of Benjamin 
Cox scalped, and a bullet hole told the tale of how he met his fate. 

Searching further, some seventy-five or eighty yards from the former, 
they found the body of Walters. From appearances it was thought he had 
been shot in the camp, but attempting to escape had been followed, toma- 
hawked and scalped. It is claimed that these two men were the last to suffer 
such a fate in Dearborn county. The scene is described by a former writer 
as follows: "These bodies presented a horrible appearance and they were 
the last killed in the Miami country. The barbarity the savages exercised on 
them gave little evidence of a disposition on their part to make peace. The 
traveler passing from Lawrenceburg to Elizabethtown, as he crosses the 
creek near the stone house, lately the residence of Thomas Miller, may at 
any time, by turning his head to the right, glance his eye over the spot where 
Benjamin Cox and Thomas Walters, the last victims of savage barbarity in 
the war closing with Wayne's treaty, were cruelly murdered." 

Dr. Ezra Ferris, a prominent man of pioneer days, and a writer on local 
history, as well as a noted Baptist divine, was the authority for the foregoing. 

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A file of the Sentinel of the Northwest Territory to which another writer had 
access says that, in its issue of February 7, 1795, the following item may be 
found. "Arrived here yesterday from the mouth of the Great Miami, Mr. 
Isaac Mills who informs us that on Monday evening last the Indians killed 
two men by the name of Benjamin Cox and Thomas Walters, about one mile 
and a half from that place." 


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Although the Wayne treaty was made with the Indians in August, 1795. 
yet it was 1798 before the general government put surveyors to work platting 
the land and getting it ready for entry by private individuals. The wonderful 
Ordinance of 1787 had attracted attention throughout the Atlantic states, 
and thousands of people there were casting their eyes toward the Ohio valley 
as a land of promise. Families in Virginia, North Carolina and South Caro- 
lina were far-seeing enough to discern that slavery was an evil, and desiring 
to locate their families remote from its menace, were looking forward to the 
time when they should be able to pack up their goods, their lares and penates, 
and seek an abiding place in this rich valley where freedom's corner-stone had 
been laid. The Eastern states, too, that had relinquished claims to the coun- 
try, were attracted by its superior soil and kindly climate, and this same 
ordinance that repudiated primogeniture, feudalism's relic of tyranny; that 
respected liberty of conscience; that set a high value on education; an ordi- 
nance that will serve as a model for all free governments the world over. 
Hence, just as soon as the war clouds had drifted away, might be seen set in 
motion the moving wagon from a hundred different directions all set in the 
one common purpose and in the one direction, to the Ohio valley, where 
the justly celebrated ordinance had guaranteed them the liberty they longed 
for. Although the government was apparently slow in surveying and prepar- 
ing the land for the settlers, yet the country along the Ohio was soon dotted 
with the cabins of those who were busy selecting their locations for a home 
for their declining years. 


By the time the surveyors, in 1798, had commenced the survey, a fringe 
of pioneer cabins bordered the north side of the Ohio from the mouth of the 
Big Miami to the point opposite the mouth of the Kentucky river, the western 
line of the Wayne purchase. These families were hoping to be so fortunate 
as to secure the lands, selected by so much sacrifice, when the land office was 
once opened. Many of them succeeded and a few failed. By the spring of 

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1801, when the office of the land department was opened at Cincinnati, the 
country as far up the Whitewater as Brookville had been settled upon and 
the settlements had extended up the creeks flowing into the Ohio several 
miles. Yet during the first year after the office was opened there were 
comparatively few families that availed themselves of the privilege of making 
sure their choice of lands and of the improvements already made on their 
choice. Among those who were in the county before the sale of land com- 
menced the following is a list. Many have been forgotten and others, per- 
haps, were of the restless, roving class who stayed only a short time and 
moved on to what was to them more inviting places : 

In the Miami bottoms — Henry Hardin and family ; William Gerard and 
family, with his sons, Eli and Elias; George Crist and family; Capt. Joseph 
Hayes and family ; Joseph Hayes, Jr., and family ; Thomas Miller and family ; 
James Bennett and family ; Benjamin Walker and family, Samuel, Joseph and 
John, and daughter, Jane ; and Isaac Polk, Garrett, Vanness, Joseph Kitchell, 
William Allensworth, Isaac Allen, John Dawson, John White, Ezekiel Jack- 
son, Daniel Perrin and John Livingstone. 

In the Hogan valley — Adam Flake and family; Ephraim Morrison and 
family; Nicholas Cheek and family;. Tavern Cheek and family, and Amos 
Henry, James Bruce, Ebenezer Foot, Stephens Peters, Charles Wilkins and 
Daniel Connor. 

In the Laughery valley — George Groves and family; Benjamin Walker 
and family ; Daniel Lynn and family, and William Maroney, Daniel and Will- 
iam Conaway, Benjamin and Jesse Wilson, William Ross and William and 
David Blue. 

These men were here with their families awaiting the action of the gen- 
eral government in opening the country for settlement. On February 2, 1798, 
Oliver Wolcott, secretary of the treasury, reported to the United States Sen- 
ate that no contracts had yet been made for surveying the public lands below 
the mouth of the Great Miami, but that surveys were expected to be com- 
menced during the coming season. On October 11, 1798, Israel Ludlow com- 
menced to run and mark the first principal meridian, now the state line be- 
tween Ohio and Indiana. Benjamin Chambers and William Ludlow were 
the United States surveyors who surveyed most of the land in Dearborn 
county. James Hamilton and Stephen Ludlow are supposed to have been the 
rodmen, or assistants, in making the survey. Notwithstanding the fact that 
there were quite a number who had settleed in the county prior to the opening of 
the land office, yet we find that when the office did open on the first Mon- 

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day in April, 1801, that only three men availed themselves of the opportunity 
the first day and secured land. 


On April 9, 1801, Joseph Hayes entered fractional section I, range I, in 
this township, and all of section 36. lying in congressional township, No. 6, 
range 1. These two pieces of land lie adjoining the state line and on the 
Elizabethtown pike, where the road enters Ohio. The hill land in the tract is 
now the property of Joseph and Thomas Fitch, descendants of Joseph Hayes. 
The same day John Brown entered the east half of section 24, in township 7. 
range 1, which is just south of where the town of West Harrison now stands. 
And Lewis Davis and Benjamin Chambers entered fractional sections 1, 2 and 
3 in township 3, range 1 (now in Ohio county). 

A few days later, on April 27, 1801, fractional section 2, township 5. 
range 1, was purchased by George Crist and Henry Hardin. On July 14, 
1 8oi, Richard Mainwaring entered the west half of section 10 in township 

7, range 1, which is about the mouth of Logan creek, in Harrison and Logan 
townships. On July 23, 180 1, Samuel Vance entered fractional sections 13, 
14 and 15, in township 4, range 1, and sections 8, 9 and 10 were entered on 
April 22, 1 801. Section 9 lies partly in Ohio county, section 10, all in Ohio 
county, all three sections lying about the mouth of Laughery creek. These 
sections were entered by Daniel Conner, but were transferred on December 
2, 1806, to Oliver Ormsby. Section 21 and fractional sections 22 and 23 
were entered on April 27, 1801, by Charles Wilkins. These sections lie across 
the mouth of Tanner's creek. Fractional sections 27, 28 and 29 were entered 
by James Conn on December 19, 1801. These sections are adjacent to Aurora 
and just south of the sections entered by Wilkins. On August 22, 1801, Cave 
Johnson entered a portion of section 13, township 7, range 1. On December 

8, 1801, William Allensworth and William Ramsy entered the balance of the 
section. This is the section on which the town of West Harrison now stands. 
On August 13, 1801, John Brown entered another piece of ground in section 

9, township 7, range 1, and on September 16, 1801, Bayliss Ashby entered 
part of section 14, same township. These sections lie along the Whitewater 
near the mouth of Logan creek. 


The above entries comprise all the land entered during the balance of the 
year following the opening of the Cincinnati land office. It is probable that 

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many of the settlers who had selected lands were as yet unable to gather to- 
gether sufficient money to make the payments required. Some of these who 
entered lands during 1801 were not bona fide settlers and it was, after all, 
only the few that had the cash to spare when the government was ready to 
put the land on the market. The lands at that time were being offered by the 
government in section or half sections and the cost was two dollars per acre, 
part cash, the deferred payments bearing interest The land was two high for 
its earning value at that time, and many who made a first payment found 
themselves unable to make the deferred payments and were either forced to 
sell at the best market price they could obtain or dispose of it to some other 
settler. Then, too, the government wanted to dispose of the land in tracts 
that were too large to meet the purses of many of the settlers. It was seldom 
that a settler desiring to better himself by coming to these western forests was 
possessed of any great amount of cash. Later on the government made it 
possible for entries to be made in quarter sections and even less, in order to 
meet the requirements of the times. 

In 1802 the number taking up land was even less than in the former year. 
Section 3 of township 5, range 1, lying about Homestead, was entered by 
Barnett Hulick during that year. Section 12, just north of West Harrison, 
in township 7, range I, was entered, a portion of it, on June 5, 1802, by 
William Majors. These seem to have been all the land entries made during 
that year. The troubles with the Spanish at the mouth of the Mississippi 
may have deterred settlers from taking up land. In 1803 the conditions had 
changed very little. While events of vast importance to the settlers in the 
Ohio valley were coming to pass elsewhere, yet the means of communication 
were so slow that it is possible no word drifted into the valley concerning the 
purchase of the Louisiana Territory until the next spring. Section 26, town- 
ship 5, range 2, lying close to Wilmington, was entered by Jeremiah Hunt. 
Part of section II, in township 4, range 2, was entered that year by Henry 
Cloud, and part of section 4, township 7, range 1, on the west side of the 
Whitewater, in Logan township, was entered by James Adair. Section 10, 
just south and east of section 4, same township, was entered in the same year 
by John Hackleman, in part. In 1804, conditions were growing better and 
the land entries increased. A part of section 35, township 5, range 1. 
was entered by Thomas Miller during 1804. Fractional section 4, in town- 
ship 4. range 2, was sold to Daniel Conner. Fractional sections 32 and 33, 
township 5, range 1, were sold to Diaries Vattier, of Cincinnati, on September 
18, 1804. The fractional section purchased by Conner is more recently the 

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W. S. Holman estate, and the Vatticr lands comprise part of the ground on 
which the city of Aurora now stands. Noble Butler entered a portion of 
section n, in township 6, range I, which was the section on which the camp 
meetings were held some forty or fifty years ago. A portion of section 13, 
just southeast of section 11, was entered by Thomas Miller the same year. 
Part of section 14, in the same township, was entered by Robert McConnell 
the same year. Charles Dawson entered all of section 24 and part of section 
23, in the same township, in 1804, and Jacob Blasdel entered a portion of sec- 
tion 29 and, together with Archibald Stark, all of section 28, in the same 
township. This is the land on which the town- site of Cambridge was after- 
wards laid out and the lands of Ferris J Nowlin, who is a lineal descendant 
of Jacob Blasdel, is a part of this entry. Township 6, range 1, is mostly in 
Miller township. In township 7, range 1, Alexander Dearmand entered a 
portion of section 12, just north of West Harrison, and James McCoy entered 
a portion of section 14 in Logan township. 

During the year 1805 there seems to have been a comparative lull, even in 
the slow-going entries of land. Adam Flake, one of the first, if not the very 
first, to settle in the county, entered a portion of section 35, township 5, 
range 2, on South Hogan creek, and Michael Henich entered a portion of 
section 11, in township 4, range 2, just one mile south of Adam Flake's entry. 
In Harrison township, a portion of section 25 was entered by John Allen. 


The "winning of the West" was a slow process and in it there was much 
more to do than to war with the Indians. History deals largely with the In- 
dian wars, but says very little concerning the economic side of the matter. 
Historians write books to sell and the prosy details of chopping down big 
trees, burning the logs and clearing away the underbrush does not make as 
good reading to the average American as the exciting details of bloody war- 
fare. Four years after the land office had been opened at Cincinnati, only 
thirty-three land entries had been made in the county. Dearborn county, 
when first settled, was covered thickly with forest trees. Large walnut, ash. 
elm, hickory, sugar and other trees were thickly interwoven with buckeye, 
haw, box elder, ironwood, cottonwood and water maple, and the underbrush 
in places was even more troublesome to clear for the coming of the plow than 
were the larger varieties. Cutting down the trees, burning the logs, and mak- 
ing a clearing even large enough to enable the settler to raise sufficient corn 
for his family was no small task. The Indian, according to the treaty, was 

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1I 9 

supposed to keep off government ground, yet his treacherous character was 
well known, and he was uncomfortably in evidence at the cabin of the pio- 
neer, demanding food and drink. Wild beasts were common. The bear, deer 
and occasionally an elk were common. Panthers, lynx and other smaller and 
less dangerous animals were to be met, and serpents of most every conceiv- 
able kind were common. In the bottoms the water was not good, the settler 
not digging deep enough to get the flow from deep springs, and the mos- 
quitoes inoculated the people with malaria until chills and intermittent' fevers 
were the common diseases of the times. On the higher lands it was more 
healthful and malaria was scarcely ever found. The first settler would first 
clear away the trees from about his buildings, then cut off a small patch so 
that he could raise some corn and garden vegetables. Then, perhaps, if he 
were able, about the middle of August he would deaden another patch so that 
the next spring he could burn the logs. Sometimes trees would be burned into 
two or three parts, thus saving the labor with the axe. This was called 
"niggering" a log off and was a common way of labor saving. Log-rollings 
were a common social event. A clearing would be made and the logs pre- 
pared to pile when the neighbors would be gathered together men, women 
and children, for the rolling. Handspikes were made out of tough wood and, 
if a yoke of oxen belonged in the neighborhood, these patient animals were 
brought into requisition. Athletics were in vogue in those days, even more 
than today. But the champion was the man who could outlift his fellows. 
After the logs had been piled ready for the bonfire, some kind of entertain- 
ment was given, generally winding up with a dance. In this way a field was 
cleared for the spring planting. In the fall the corn was generally pulled or 
jerked off the stalk and thrown in a pile in a shed or barn ; then some night 
the neighbors would be called in to "shuck" it out. The occasion was made 
merry by songs, and the young folks would be busy, as young people always 
are, getting acquainted and courting. It is said that one of the rules of the 
"shucking bee" was that every red ear shucked by the young men entitled 
them to choose from the young maidens present one whom he might kiss. It 
is very probable, at any rate, that the people of those days enjoyed them- 
selves in a special way fully as much as those who now possess the most ele- 
gant parlors and move in the most highly-cultivated society. 


The spiritual side of the pioneers' natures, too, was not entirely neglected. 
Churches were not to be found, but the traveling circuit-rider came around 

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once or twice a year and held religious services in some of the houses central 
in the locality ; whereupon the whole countryside for miles around would turn 
out to hear him and, incidentally, to meet their neighbors and get acquainted 
with the new emigrants. The menace of the Indian was yet about the set- 
tlers, and the watchful pioneer had his trusty rifle on its pegs over the wide- 
mouthed fireplace. A supply of powder and ball, too, was indispensable. As 
the years passed the danger from either the Indian or the wild beasts grew 
less and less. The clearings were growing, the forests growing less. It is 
related in the Dearborn county history, written in 1885, that in 1806, shortly 
after Ephraim Morrison arrived at where Aurora now stands, the notorious 
Simon Girty was sometimes seen in this region, and that on one occasion Blue 
Jacket, an Indian chief, borrowed a saddle from Morrison in order to accom- 
pany Girty to Detroit. The saddle was brought back according to promise. It 
is said of Captain Hayes that when he lived at the mouth of the Miami he 
explored the Big Bottoms from Tanner's creek to Whitewater, and with his 
unerring rifle killed many a bear, deer and elk. The little creek that drains 
the hillsides by the residence of F. M. Burkam is called Elk run on account 
of Mr. Hayes killing a gigantic elk on the run. The day following this ex- 
ploit there was preaching at one of the cabins. When the services were over, 
Mrs. Hayes announced to those present, "All of you that want meat come to 
our house; father has killed an elephant." The story goes to illustrate the 
genial, open-handed kindness that existed in those days. If one neighbor 
killed a deer or bear, a hog or a sheep, the neighbors all shared. A story 
Captain Hayes told of one of his hunting trips was that he had killed a large 
deer on Double Lick run. The place he shot from was the bluff bank of the 
run which was breast high and completely concealed him from the lick as he 
stood in its dry bed. After waiting, as he thought, a sufficient length of time, 
after the report of his gun, for Indians to make their appearance, if any were 
about, he laid his gun down without reloading it and dragged the deer into 
the bushes, where he bent a sapling to hang the deer on to prepare it for 
packing on his horse. On his return to get his gun it was gone ; an Indian had 
been watching him and when he was engaged with the deer, slipped up and 
stole his gun, but as it was empty no injury could be done with it. Droves 
of deer were common and the captain said he always took his pick, never kill- 
ing a doe unless it was necessary. An early surveyor told that in the course 
of his work in the forest he had counted as many as sixty elks in one drove. 
He judged there were as many as one hundred in the drove. 

There was little use for corn except for family use. The cattle fed off 



the range and the hogs fattened off the mast, which was plentiful. It is to be 
very much regretted that the traditions of the early pioneers, giving their 
homely but true picture of the everyday life, were not preserved. A truthful 
account of their mode of living would be both interesting and instructive. As 
these backwoods scenes recede into the dim past they increase in interest. An 
account of the hardships encountered by a family crossing over from Philadel- 
phia to Pittsburgh, and the trip down the river in an open or covered boat 
would be -quite a different story from coming over in these days in a palace 
car with sleeper and diner. Yet that was the route; and where the family 
was large it was the custom for the boys and girls over six or seven years of 
age to trudge the entire distance. Nothing was thought of it, for it was ex- 
pected and they were prepared to endure the hardships. 


It is possible that the first few months in the rude cabin after reaching 
their destination were the most trying of any of the experiences encountered 
by the pioneers. The first residence, if it could be called such, was generally 
made of round logs ; the cracks filled in with sticks and this daubed over with 
clay. The roof was of clapboards held in place with poles reaching across the 
roof, called weight poles. The floor was made of split pieces of logs called 
puncheons. Straight-grained logs were chosen and these were split slab fash- 
ion ; after which the upper side, or the side intended to form the floor, was 
hewed off as smooth as possible. The fire-place was a picturesque affair, but 
not as comfortable as a modern grate fire. It was made of logs lined with 
clay ; or, if stone were convenient, it was built of undressed stone and was at 
least six feet wide to enable the settler to roll big back logs in that would 
keep fire for several days if necessary. Sometimes the chimneytop was fin- 
ished off with sticks plastered over with clay. This crude affair often got on 
fire and it was not an uncommon thing for these quickly made cabins to 
get on fire and be consumed. The door of this abiding place was made of 
split timber, much the same as the floor, and was stout enough to withstand 
hard pounding. It was generally hung on wooden hinges and fastened with 
a wooden latch. The latch was on the inside with a hole through the door 
and a string or thong of buckskin hanging on the outside, whereby the door 
could be opened from without. Hence the hospitable term : "My latch-string 
is always on the outside," which meant that the family always welcome peo- 
ple to the best they had 

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Sometimes the house was graced with windows, but more frequently not. 
If windows were made they were small, generally not more than two feet 
square, the aperture being closed with paper, greased with lard or bear's oil. 
Such a domicile was frequently erected in a single day, all the neighbors turn- 
ing out to assist ; at least this would be the case if there were any neighbors. 
A neighbor, within the meaning of those times, was anyone who resided within 
a range of six or eight miles. Such furniture as might be found in such a 
house would be riven out by the settler with his ready axe. Dishes were few 
and highly prized. The cooking was done in front of the fireplace in stewpan 
and skillet; corn pone being the staff of life. By care and thrift the settlers, 
after their first winter, generally were well provided with the bare necessaries 
of life. 


A description written by Rev. William C. Smith in his "Indiana Miscel- 
lanies" is herewith given, as illustrating the manner of lighting the homes dur- 
ing the long winter evenings. "During the day the door of the cabin was kept 
open to afford light and at night, through the winter season, light was emitted 
from the fire place, where huge logs were kept burning. For a few years 
candles and lamps were out of the question. When these came into use they 
were purely domestic in their manufacture. Candles were prepared by taking 
a wooden rod some ten or twelve inches in length, wrapping a strip of cotton 
or linen around it, then covering it with tallow pressed on with the hand. 
These 'sluts,' as they were sometimes called, answered the purpose of a very 
large candle and afforded light for several nights. Lamps were prepared by 
dividing a large turnip in the middle, scraping out the inside quite down to 
the rind, then inserting a stick, say three inches in length, in the center, so it 
would stand upright. A strip of cotton or linen cloth was then wrapped around 
this stick, and melted lard or deer's tallow was poured in until the rind was 
full, when the lamp was ready for use. By the light of these primitive lamps 
during the long winter evenings the women spun and sewed, and the men 
read, when books could be obtained. When neither lard nor tallow could b-; 
had, the large blazing fire had to be turned to, to supply the needed light. By 
these great fireplaces many cuts of thread have been spun ; many a yard of 
linsey woven, and many a frock or buckskin pantaloons made. 

"The cabin raising and the log-rollings were labors of the settlers, in which 
the assistance of the neighbors was essential and cheerfully given. When a 
large cabin was to be raised, preparation would be made before the appointed 

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day; the trees would be cut down, the logs dragged in and the foundations 
laid and the skids and forks made ready. Early in the morning of the day 
fixed, the neighbors gathered from miles around ; the captain and the corner 
men selected, and the work went on with boisterous hilarity until the walls 
were up and the roof weighted down." 


The cabin of round logs was generally succeeded by a hewed-log house, 
more pretentious and much more comfortable. Indeed houses could be made 
of logs as comfortable as any other kind of a building, and were erected in 
such a manner as to conform to the taste and means of the person building. 
For large families a double cabin was common; that is, two houses ten 
or twelve feet apart, with one roof covering the whole, the space between 
as a hall for various uses. Henry Clay, in an early speech, on the public 
lands, referring to the different kinds of dwellings sometimes to be seen stand- 
ing together, as a gratifying evidence of the progress of the new states, said : 
"I have often witnessed this gratifying progress. On the same farm you may 
sometimes behold, standing together, the first rude cabin of round and un- 
hewn logs and wooden chimney ; the hewed log house chinked and shingled, 
with stone or brjck chimneys ; and lastly, the comfortable stone or brick build- 
ing, each denoting the different occupants of the farm or the several stages of 
the condition of the same occupant." The wearing apparel of those days was 
chiefly of home manufacture. The flax and the wool necessary for clothing 
were prepared and spun in the family, cotton being hardly known. The flax 
to be prepared for spinning called for much work. It was first pulled and 
allowed to stand out in the weather until it was sufficiently weather beaten for 
the stem to break easily. Then it was taken and hackled or broken into pieces, 
the parts hanging only by the fibrous outside bark. After being hackled, it 
was "scutched," generally on a piece of timber or board with one end made 
like a comb. By this "scutching" the pieces of broken stem or the woody 
portion was combed out and nothing but the soft bluish fibre left which was 
tied up in hanks to be spun. The labor of spinning was generally done in the 
evenings during the long winter, affording something to while away the time 
in the unseasonable weather and at the same time prepare the material for the 
weaver's hands. The wool was taken from the sheep, washed and the burs 
picked out, which was quite a job. Then it was carded by hand. The family 
in those days knew little of the divisions of labor, as things are accomplished 

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in these days. The wool-carding, spinning, dyeing and weaving were all 
done under the same roof and most generally the tailoring, too. The wool 
was dyed with walnut bark or butternut or with the hulls of the walnut. Lin- 
sey-woolsey was common for men's wear, and generally was of a light blue 
indigo color. 


Horseback riding was the common and, indeed, the only feasible means 
of travel. Corn was taken to the nearest mill in this fashion, a bag containing 
some corn being placed on the horse with one of the boys on the bag 
was the everyday way of procuring the corn meal from the nearest horse or 
water-mill. Mills at first were not to be found and the early settler would re- 
sort to temporary devices to grind his own meal ; but as the years went by 
water-mills became common. The streams, fed by the uplands covered with 
vegetable mold and decayed leaves, held back the streams so that mills run 
by water were much more dependable than they would be in these days. 

The breaking up of the ground was at first attended with great difficulty 
and labor. The great trees threw out their roots in every direction, some 
varieties very close to the surface and the labor involved in securing sufficient 
loose dirt to cover the corn and potatoes was great. The bar-share and shovel- 
plows were in common use. The "jumping" shovel-plow, with a coulter in 
front so it would not get fast under the roots, but would dig and cut its way 
among the smaller roots, was a very useful and common utensil. Wooden 
mould-boards were the kind used for a breaking-plow and the horses were 
equipped with "shuck" collars, with traces made of rope or stout leather, 
home tanned. The harvesting was done with the scythe for the hay harvest 
and the sickle in the wheat. In threshing the wheat, either a flail or horses 
were used. A place was cleared off, made level and the ground wet and 
pounded hard. The bundles of wheat were then laid down in a circle, with the 
heads sticking up ; in the center was placed a pole, fixed in the ground, and at 
the top of this pole arms were fastened so as to revolve, to which the horses 
were tied and driven around until their tramping threshed the wheat from the 
heads. Then the straw was cleared off, the wheat and chaff gathered up and 
a fanning-mill of home-make was used to separate the chaff from the wheat. 
If no machine of the kind was at hand the wheat was winnowed until the 
chaff was separated from the wheat. The harvesting of hay was a simple 
matter, the hay being cut, cured and stacked in the field much like it is done 
today in many places. 

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To have a store of food for the winter was a task that required skill and 
forethought. To the thrifty families of that day the winter's provender was a 
test of the capacity of the family to be self-supporting and forehanded. Pota- 
toes were dug and "holed" up for the winter and spring. Cellars were made 
close to the house, on top of the ground, frost-proof, with heavy wooden dou- 
ble doors. Sometimes cellars were dug under the house and one of the pun- 
cheons in the floor kept loose so the vegetable could be secured at any time. 
Turnips and cabbage were plentiful. Once in awhile a wild apple tree was 
found on which was fruit. These wild apples were carefully laid away for the 
winter. Hogs, fattened on the mast, were soon plentiful and they were killed 
and the meat cured by salting and smoking. Berries were dried in the sun 
and brought out in the winter as a luxury. In most neighborhoods whisky 
was made in some fashion, or secured in some manner. It was kept in ever)' 
household as a necessity. It was counted as good for snake bites, stomach or 
bowel trouble, sprains, or colds; indeed, it was used as a remedy for most 
any ill the settler was heir to and nothing was thought of it. At the log- 
rollings, house or barn-raisings, shucking bees, wood-cutting bees, or even at 
the quil tings, it was not an uncommon beverage Excess it its use brought 
the same results as now and was denounced just as vigorously. The environ- 
ments, however, and the constant struggle against nature made the people 
much more pugilistic than in these days. A quarrel, trivial in its nature, was 
frequently settled by the parties taking off their coats and fighting it out. 
After the battle was over they would separate good friends. 


In the early history of Dearborn county, published in 1885, tne following 
excellent description of the early immigrant is given : "The early immigrants 
may be described as a bold and resolute, rather than a cultivated people. 
It has been laid down as a general truth that a population made up of immi- 
grants will contain the hardy and vigorous elements of character in a far 
greater proportion than the same number of persons born upon the soil and 
accustomed to tread in the footsteps of their fathers. It required enterprise 
and resolution to sever the ties that bound them to the place of their birth, and, 
upon their arrival in the new country, the stern face of nature and the necessi- 
ties of their condition made them bold and energetic. Individuality was fos- 
tered by the absence of old familiar customs, family alliances and the restraints 
of old social organizations. The early settlers were plain men and women of 

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good sense, without the refinements that luxury brings and with great con- 
tempt for all shams and mere pretense. 

"A majority of the early settlers belonged to the middle class. Few 
were, by affluence, placed above the necessity of labor with their own hands, 
and few were so poor that they could not become the owners of small farms. 
The mass of the settlers were the owners in fee simple of at least a quarter 
section, one hundred and sixty acres, of land. Many possessed a half section 
or more. After the settlements were once established few persons owned 
large tracts of several thousand acres, while the poorest immigrant, if indus- 
trious and thrifty, could lease land at almost his own terms. 

"The backwoods age was not a golden age. However pleasing it may 
be to contemplate the industry and frugality, the hospitality and general 
sociability of the pioneer times, it would be improper to overlook the less 
pleasing features of the picture. Hard toil made men old before their time. 
The means ofr culture and intellectual improvement were inferior. In the 
absence of the refinements of literature, music and the drama, men engaged in 
rude, coarse and sometimes brutal amusement and public gatherings were 
often marred by scenes of drunken disorder and fighting. The dockets of 
the courts of those times show a large proportion of cases of assault and bat- 
tery and affray." 


While some of the settlers had books and studied them, the mass of the 
people had little time for study. Post roads and postoffices were few and th-i 
scattered inhabitants rarely saw a newspaper or read a letter from their for- 
mer homes. Their knowledge of politics was obtained from the bitter dis- 
cussions of opposing aspirants for office. The traveling preacher was their 
most cultivated teacher. The traveler from a foreign country or from one of 
the older states was compelled to admit that life in the backwoods was not 
favorable to amenity of manners. One of these travelers wrote of the West- 
ern people in 1802: "Their generals distill whisky, their colonels keep taverns, 
and their statesmen feed pigs." 

At the time Dearborn county was first settled Cincinnati was the prin- 
cipal market for the whole Miami country, the present metropolis then being a 
village of about five hundred inhabitants. A voyage to New Orleans was 
made by flat boats, the journey requiring several months. For the journey 
eastward, the primitive pack horse was beginning to be exchanged for the 
Pennsylvania wagon with its four and six horses. Articles of produce were 

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very low. Corn would bring ten or twelve cents the bushel in limited quan- 
tities ; wheat thirty to forty cents ; beef one dollar and a half to two dollars, 
and pork about the same, per hundred. On the other hand, articles' of foreign 
manufacture were correspondingly high. Coffee, fifty cents the pound ; pins, 
twenty-five cents the paper: ginghams, fifty cents the yard; fine linens, one 
dollar the yard, and calicoes one dollar the yard, and flour from two dollars 
and a half to three dollars the barrel. Money was a scarce article with the 
settlers. Merchants, however, who could import articles made in the East or 
in foreign countries realized enormous profits on their sales. The new arrivals 
brought most of the money that was in circulation and most of the commer- 
cial transactions were in exchange. A day's labor would be paid in bacon, 
flour, tea or coffee, just as the man desired. A horse would be traded for 
several head of cattle or a lot of hogs. The necessity for home-made clothing 
made the raising of sheep more desirable than now. It was almost a neces- 
sity that each family should have a few sheep from which to get the wool for 
clothing in the winter. The wild animals would prey on these sheep, and it 
was no easy task to care for them. Bears viewed mutton as a choice article 
of diet for their special consumption, and the wolves were prowling about 
most every night. 


The personal history of the most prominent of the men who first settled 
in the county is little known. A few have left some little word behind them 
as to their earlier history, but only the few. Ephraim Morrison, who settled 
at the mouth of Hogan creek, on February 14, 1796, was a native of Bucks 
county, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel and Mercy Morrison, and he and 
iour of his brothers were soldiers of the Revolution, he having been wounded 
at the battle of the Brandywine. Ephraim Morrison married Mrs. Nancy 
Hettick, whose maiden name was Forster, on July 1, 1787, and in 1794 they 
came west as far as Pittsburgh, where they stopped to await the result of 
Wayne's treaty with the Indians. On February 1, 1795, with several other 
families, they embarked on a keel-boat for Cincinnati. At the latter place Mr. 
Morrison met Joel Williams, whom he knew in Pennsylvania. They stopped 
with Captain Hayes, at the mouth of the Miami, for a short stay, then pro- 
ceeded to Tanner's Station (now Petersburg) whence they arrived on Feb- 
ruary 9. At Tanner's Station they found a few families living, among whom 
were John Tanner, John Watts, a Mr. Voden, Mr. Eads, Daniel Moseby, 
William Caldwell, a Mr. Kirtley, Mr. Ashby, Maj. Israel Sebree, and Capt. 

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William Sebree, brothers of Mrs. John Watts. A Mr. Alloway lived about 
one mile above the station. Mr. Morrison came over to the mouth of Hogan 
with his eldest son and repaired what was thought to be an old Indian 
hut, and the family moved into it on St Valentine's Day, 1796. He found 
three or four acres cleared, both above and below the creek's mouth. There 
he met Adam Flake, who told him he had settled on South Hogan creek the 
month previous. There were numbers of Indians to be met there, the aborig- 
inals having a camp in the vicinity, and Mr. Morrison became acquainted with 
Black Hoof, Blue Jacket and Captain Bill, retaining distinct recollections of 
these warriors in later days. The notorious Simon Girty was with these In- 
dians and went with Blue Jacket to Detroit and never returned, although he 
had a son in the county, who grew up here and went by the name of Simon 
Peters. He married in the county and afterwards moved to Marion county, 
this state, where he ended his days, leaving a family. Mr. Morrison assisted 
Benjamin Chambers in surveying the public lands of Dearborn county, carry- 
ing the chain and making the tally of site-trees, etc. Chambers and Mr. Morri- 
son's wife were cousins. Ephraim Morrison cleared up, with the aid of his 
sons, about thirty acres of land ; fenced it and built a double log cabin, stable, 
and sheep-house. The land sales took place at Cincinnati on April 9, 1801, 
and Mr. Morrison attended them. Fractional section 22 contained five hun- 
dred and eleven and eighty-one hundredths acres, and Mr. Morrison had suf- 
ficient money to enter one-half of it, two hundred -and fifty-five and ninety 
hundredths acres, which lay on the wtst side of the creek, and on which were 
all his improvements. General Finley, the land officer, told him the treasury 
board had told him to sell nothing less than a whole section, and that all frac- 
tional sections must be sold with the whole section to the rear of and adjoin- 
ing it. Section 21 and fractional sections 22 and 23 contained in all one 
thousand one hundred and eighty-three and seventy-seven hundredths acres, 
by the survey ; so the whole lot was bidden off to Charles Wilkins, who took the 
land, improvements and all, Mr. Morrison returning home much cast down 
over the loss of his improvements and the choice pieces of land he had sacri- 
ficed so much to gain. That year Wilkins charged him rent for his own im- 
provements. Mr. Morrison shortly afterwards moved to Clark county, Ohio, 
on the Mad river, where he died on February 2, 1806. His son, Samuel 
Morrison, was a well-known citizen of Dearborn county, living for a long 
time on the farm where Dr. E. J. French now resides, his death occurring it 
Indianapolis. He was born where the city of Aurora now stands, on March 
1, 1798. and died in Indianapolis on March 1, 1888, having lived a long and 
very useful life. 

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y Google 



Samuel Morrison was wont to relate that among other things, his father 
was a great hunter. Isaac Mills stayed one winter with him and the two men 
did nothing but hunt and kill bears for their skins. They killed twenty bears, 
besides keeping the family in deer meat all winter. There was a deer lick not 
far from the mouth of Hogan creek, where the elder Morrison would go when- 
ever it was necessary to supply the family with meat. At one time when he 
went to the lick he saw a large panther crouched on a leaning tree that bent 
over the lick, watching also for deer. He did not see the panther until too 
close to risk a shot, and thought if he did not kill it, in a couple of bounds it 
would be upon him. He looked it in the face, slowly moving backwards until 
he felt himself safe in trying'to scare it away without risking a shot, which he 
did by breaking a limb of a tree and throwing it toward the animal, where- 
upon the "varmint'-' leaped off and ran away. On the side of the hill just be- 
low the first brook below Aurora, Ephraim Morrison shot a bear, which fell 
down, kicked and at last lay still. He reloaded his gun, went up to the 
bear and gave it a poke with his gun, whereat the bear sprang to its feet and 
pursued him for some distance, presently, however, giving up the pursuit: 
whereupon Mr. Morrison wheeled and gave bruin a second shot Down tum- 
bled the bear, kicking and quivering as before. Thinking the animal dead this 
time, for certain, the huntsman punched it again, when again it sprang to its 
feet and gave him a much closer chase than before. Mr. Morrison was 
obliged to drop his gun and save himself by running over a deep ravine on a 
slender pole that bridged the chasm. He then succeeded in getting around to 
his gun and by a third shot killed the bear. 


Capt. Joseph Hayes was the fourth son of Joseph and Jean (Woodward) 
Hayes. He was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, in 1732, and was mar- 
ried to Joanna Passmore on August 12, 1753. On August 28, 1776, he mort- 
gaged his lands to equip a company of cavalry, of which he was captain, and 
served his country during the Revolutionary War. At the close of the Revo- 
lution he found himself bankrupt. His property gone, his fighting days over, 
there seemed no longer a place for him in the land of his birth ; so, hoping 
that the new and untried West might hold some fortune for him and his, he 
joined the tide of emigration that was sweeping westward. In 1791 Captain 
Hayes and his wife, Joanna, with their sons, Job and Joseph, Jr., and their 
wives and children; their daughter Priscilla and her husband. Thomas Miller, 


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and his daughter, Joanna, and her husband, James Bennett, left their Penn- 
sylvania home and after a laborious journey reached Redstone, on the Monon- 
gahela. They reached North Bend the same year and after a short time they 
moved over to the mouth of the Miami, where they resided until 1796, at 
which time they moved into Dearborn county, where, on April 9, 1801, his son 
entered one of the first three pieces of land entered from the United States 
government in the state of Indiana. 

From 1793 to 1795, a battalion of troops was stationed at the mouth of 
the Miami to protect the exposed settlements, but in spite of the garrison and 
troops the savage often crept in and murdered settlers and stole horses and 
cattle. Even the smallest child was taught to be always on the watch against 
the common foe. Priscilla Miller, Captain Hayes's daughter, was one day 
alone in her house, when a slight sound attracted her attention. The doors of 
those days were made of slabs of wood fastened together and a circular open- 
ing was left sometimes so the hand could be slipped through to lift the latch, 
which was on the inside. To her horror she saw an Indian's hand stealthily 
slipping through to raise the latch and effect an entrance. Pioneer women 
could not afford to be timorous or faint-hearted, so without a moment's hesi- 
tation she seized the axe which was always kept in the house, and struck the 
fingers from the latch and the Indian quickly retreated. 

Captain Hayes lived to a ripe old age, dying in 181 2 at the age of eighty. 
He and his wife were known far and wide. Their home was open to the 
traveler and wayfarer. He was a Methodist and was active in securing an or- 
ganization of that faith, frequently having the circuit preacher hold services 
at his house. Captain Hayes was the grandfather of Joseph. Walter and Ja- 
cob Hayes, prominent business men of a later generation. 


Col. Zebulon Pike settled in the township in 1803 and took up a portion of 
section 10 and fractional sections 11 and 12, situated in Greendale, where the 
cemetery now is, and from there over to the Miami, as it was then around 
the Horseshoe Bottom. He afterwards had to give up some of it and it was 
re-entered by Jesse Hunt. Colonel Pike came from New Jersey, having served 
through the Revolutionary War with great distinction, and like many others, 
gave up all his property to the cause. The war over, the government was 
tardy in recognizing his services and claims, but a few years before his death 
these were settled in part. He died in 1835, honored and respected by the en- 


tire community. Colonel Pike was the father of General Pike, the discoverer 
of Pike's Peak, and Lieut. George Pike, both of whom lost their lives during 
the War of 1812. Gen. Zebulon Montgomery Pike, the son, was an officer in 
the regular service. He was detailed in 1805, with a detachment of twenty 
regular soldiers, by General Wilkinson, to make explorations in the West. He 
left Pittsburgh in a large keelboat about the first of August, stopping for a 
day, tradition says, at the home of Capt. John Brown, just across the river 
from where is now Pike's Station, on the Baltimore & Ohio railway, where he 
met the lady who was afterward to become his wife. His father lived here 
and he stopped here to see his parents for a day. Continuing on, he reached 
the falls of St. Anthony, where the cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis now 
stand, late in the autumn of that year. He wintered there, purchasing for the 
government one hundred thousand acres of land and establishing Ft. Snelling. 
Returning to St. Louis in April, 1806, he was again detailed with twenty-three 
men, all told, to explore the country westward to the Rockies. He left St. 
Louis in July and reached what he called "a bold peak," which has since been 
given the name of the intrepid discoverer. He wintered where Canon City 
now stands. Proceeding south and west, according to his instructions, he 
raised the American flag on the headwaters of the Rio Grande and was sent 
home by the Spanish authorities at Santa Fe, via Chihuahua and Texas. He 
afterward married the daughter of Captain Brown and was killed at the cap- 
ture of York, Ontario, during the War of 1812. His daughter later married 
the son of William H. Harrison and their descendants still live opposite 
Pike's Station, in Boone county, Kentucky. 

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Dearborn county was created on March 7. 1803. by force of a proclama- 
tion issued on that date by William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana 
Territory, defining the boundaries of the county and announcing that its name 
was Dearborn, in honor of Major-General Dearborn, at that time the secretary 
of war under President Jefferson. On ».he same day that Governor Harrison 
issued his proclamation, he appointed the following named persons to the sev- 
eral offices in the county, court of common pleas, general quarter-sessions of 
the peace and orphans' court; Benjamin Chambers, Jabez Percival, Barnet 
Hulick, Samuel Brownson, Jeremiah Hunt, Richard Stevens, William Major, 
and James McCarty. Samuel Vance was appointed clerk of the courts, and 
James Dill, recorder. The commissions of these offices dated from March 7, 
1803. It was necessary that the county be prepared with a military organiza- 
tion for defense against the Indians that were yet turbulent and disposed to 
give trouble, so on August 15, 1803, as governor of the territory, General 
Harrison issued commissions as officers of the militia to William Hall, 
Samuel Fulton, Daniel Lynn, Barnet Hulick and Jeremiah Johnston, as cap- 
tains; William Standiford, William Spencer, William Cheek, James Hamil- 
ton and William Allensworth, lieutenants; Gersham Lee, Thomas Fulton, 
Michael Flake, William Thompson and James Buchanan, ensigns. On August 
23, 1808, David Lamphere was commissioned sheriff and James Hamilton 
recorder, vice James Dill, resigned. 

The first session of the courts is believed to have commenced on the first 
Monday in September, 1803. In the proclamation establishing the county the 
courts were directed to be held in Lawrenceburg, which had been laid out dur- 
ing the previous spring. Dr. Jabez Percival, one of the judges, had built a 
double log cabin and in it the first courts were held. The county at that time 
extended to the north, in a wedge-shaped form, to where the Indian boundary 
line from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Ft. Recovery crossed the Ohio 
line. Much of it to the north was a wilderness and the only settlers were 
along the Ohio and up the Whitewater to the neighborhood of Brookville. 

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The first court house stood just where the present house stands, and was 
built in 1 810. It was a two-story brick building, the court room being on 
the ground floor, with the jury room above. This building was destroyed b> 
fire on March 5, 1826. The second building was constructed on the same 
foundation, and with the same walls as die first, the interior of the building 
having been all that burned. In May, 1827, the county board of supervisors 
appointed Jesse Hunt, James W. Hunter and George H. Dunn commissioners 
to superintend the construction of the building, which was not finished for 
occupancy until the late fall of 1828. The county seat was moved from 
Lawrenceburg to Wilmington in 1835, and a court house was erected in that 
village by its citizens and the people of that vicinity, which cost about four 
thousand dollars, with the jail. The county seat was moved back to Law- 
renceburg in 1843, and the old buildings were again put into service. The 
present building was commenced in 1870. The cornerstone was laid on April 
13, 1 87 1, and the building was completed in 1873, at a cost of about one 
hundred thousand dollars. While the second court house was in use the county 
erected two one-story brick buildings, between the court house and Mary 
street, for the use of the county clerk, sheriff, treasurer, recorder and auditor. 

The first jail was erected in 1804, and was built of logs. In 1806 Will- 
iam Cook was jailer and resided in the jail building. The second jail was 
supposed to have been built in 18 10, at the time the first court house was 
erected. It is referred to as a stone jail and was two stories high, having been 
built on the site of the present jail. The third jail was erected at Wilmington 
by the citizens of the village and vicinity when the court house was located 
there. It was shortly afterward destroyed by fire and a second jail was built, 
on the public square in that village. This second jail was built under contract 
with the county by Timothy Kimball, and cost one thousand nine hundred and 
thirty-nine dollars and seventy-seven cents. The fifth jail was erected on the 
public square in I-awrenceburg. in 1848, the contract having been let to Tim- 
othy Kimball, and cost two thousand six hundred dollars, with two hundred 
and ten dollars for extra cost in building the foundation above the flood of 
1832. The sixth and present jail was erected in 1858-59. at a cost of eight 
thousand six hundred dollars. 


The county seat of Dearborn county has been at Lawrenceburg ever since 
the county was organized with the exception of the short time it was located 
at Wilmington, from September 26. 1836. to January 4. 1844. when the an 

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removing the seat of justice from Wilmington to Lawrenceburg was signed by 
the governor of Indiana. 

When the county was first organized the question of division was agi- 
tated. Franklin was laid off to the north in 1809, and the matter of estab- 
lishing a county south of Laughery creek, with Rising Sun as its county seat, 
commenced to be talked of soon afterward. As early as 181 7, before the state 
had hardly become organized, Col. Abpl C. Pepper, of Rising Sun, it is 
claimed, went to Corydon, the capital at that time, with the avowed intention 
of securing an act of the Legislature organizing a new county with Rising 
Sun as its seat of justice. But at that time there was less business and the 
journey was unsuccessful. The residents of the county living south of Laugh- 
ery creek, however, were dissatisfied, claiming that the creek was a serious 
impediment to their reaching court on account of floods and the consequent 
danger in fording that stream. The friends of a division of the county, how- 
ever, not being able to secure a division, resorted to a strategy and secured the 
removal of the county seat to what they claimed was a more central location, 
which was done in 1836. Lawrenceburg, having lost the county seat, was no 
longer opposed to the formation of a new county south of Laughery creek, 
and accordingly an alliance was made between the friends of organizing a new 
county and those who were in favor of relocating the county seat at Lawrence- 
burg. and in 1843 the issue during the election for members of the Legisla- 
ture was the question of the relocation of the county seat at Lawrenceburg 
and the organization of a new county south of Laughery creek. 

George P. Ruell. of Lawrenceburg township, and Charles Dashiell, of 
Sparta township, the former for relocating and division, and the latter against, 
were the candidates for the state Senate. Buell carried the day by a large 
vote and the changes were made as above. After Buell's election there seemed 
to be some fear among the more ardent friends of relocation that he would be 
influenced against the act and the following is a letter to Mr. Buell from the 
pen of James H. Lane, urging him to be firm to the pledge he made to his 
constituents during the campaign : 

"Lawrenceburg, Dec. 15th, 1843. 
"Dear Sir : — Your letter came to hand today — I am pleased to hear our 
local question is in a train for final settlement — In reference to this a great 
change has taken place in the minds of the people of the county since the elec- 
tion. — You recollect a few prominent men such as David Tibbetts, Hubbs. etc. 
insisted on having the county seat relocated by a direct vote of the people at 

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the ballot box. Since they have ascertained that the Kelso and Logan Demo- 
crats signed our petition a change has come over the spirit of their dreams and 
they now admit the question settled. The court interests have given to us the 
tract. They expect the county seat removed and if removed they will not 
be disappointed — Your course seems to me a plain one — You' was nominated 
and elected as a Lawrenceburg man — Openly avowed that you would place 
Division and relocation on your ticket. — You also pledged yourself to carry 
out the instructions of the Wilmington convention, — That convention in- 
structed to support relocation by a direct vote of the people at the ballot box. — 
You were elected — Your Democratic friends in Logan, Kelso, York, Miller, 
Lawrenceburg and Jackson whose firm adherence to you decided your vote 
in the convention — Now instruct you to vote for relocation directly to Law- 
renceburg. On that petition you will find the names of your true friends. 
The only question then is will this instructions by petition relieve you from the 
former pledge. — I say without hesitation it will — The people have the right 
to instruct their representative — They have so done at public meetings and by 
petition. The petition was gotten up purposely to relieve you. — Our opponents 
started their remonstrance, they failed — we succeeded. Will you now disap- 
point your friends? — as well as your enemies, who expect you to obey our 
instructions and they (your enemies) expect to lose the county seat. Let us 
suppose hereafter if you are a candidate that you are charged with violating: 
your pledge on this subject. Such a charge could certainly not injure you 
with the Whigs. — and certainly not with the Democrats, for a majority of 
them in the county are on the petition. — Supposing that James Milliken should 
ever attempt to use this against you. — You could produce the instructions of 
that township as expressed at that meeting when resolutions were passed in- 
structing our senator and representative to support a bill for relocating the 
county seat directly to this place. — You have a majority of all the votes in all 
the upper townships. Then how in the name of common sense can it affect 
you. — My dear sir — I would not for all the county seats in the world make a 
suggestion which I supposed would affect your popularity. — I know however 
as well as I know I am living that if the law passes with your warm and zeal- 
ous support, nothing will be said, for everyone expects it, both friend and 
enemy. The Wilmington Boys will abuse the Lawrenceburgers for getting up 
the instructions and it will pass off. But the other course would be fatal and 
deadly. Your friends have nominated you. They elected you. They have 
instructed you. — Place the county seat at Lawrenceburg and you are in two 
short years a Congressman. — Pursue a lukewarm course or oppose the bill and 

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you arc prostrate forever. — Let me assure you if the bill becomes the law you 
will have all the credit.— If it fails you will be held responsible. My dear sir : 
Let me here state that a relocation of the county seat by a direct vote of the 
people will forever rob Lawrenceburg of it. — Of this there is no mistake. I 
would rather by all means that you would oppose the law entirely than to sup- 
port such a one. I have purchased»pork this week from all parts of the county 
above : Laughery. — All of the settlers talk about coming here to court in the 
Spring as a matter settled. — Mr. Buell: I have scribbled more than I ex- 
pected when I commenced and must stop by saying that you are now senator 
from this county. You were placed there by the promises of your friends in 
Lawrenceburg with Logan and Kelso yours and the giving of Jackson. — You 
stand footloose in a situation to serve us and at the same time strengthen your- 
self in the course I am confident you will pursue. 

"Yours respectfully, 

"J. H. Lane." 

"N. B. Buell: Remember I labored here for you and all I have in the 
world is in lawrenceburg and I say relocate by a direct vote is a thousand 
times worse than leaving the county seat at Wilmington. Go against it. 
Enter and defeat it for the present or else support it with all your might and 
strength and pass it, but for God's sake no direct vote. 

"Remember to have the relocation to the old place specified in the law 
So that there can be no mistake. J. H. L." 


From the vote in the Legislature on the bill there was no real danger of 
its defeat, for it passed the House by a vote of sixty-two to twenty-three, and 
the Senate by a good majority, and became a law at once. The following is 
the bill in its most important sections: 

"An act to organize a new county out of the county of Dearborn, 
and relocate the county seat thereof. Approved January 4, 1844. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the state of Indi- 
ana : That from and after the first day of March next all that part of Dear- 
born county within the following bounds, to-wit : Beginning on the Ohio 
river, on the section line between the fractional sections number twenty-five 
and twenty-six. in town 4. range 1 west, thence west with the said line to the 
northwest corner of section number thirty-two : thence south to the northwest 
corner of section number five, two three, range 1. thence west to the range line 

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between range I and range 2 ; thence south to the line dividing Switzerland 
and Dearborn counties; thence with said line east to the Ohio river; thence 
up said river to the place of beginning shall constitute the county of Ohio. 

"Section 2. That Martin R. Green, of the county of Switzerland, Joseph 
Bennett, of the county of Franklin, and James Myers, of the county of Ripley, 
be and they are hereby constituted and appointed commissioners to perma- 
nently locate the seat of justice of said county. The commissioners or a ma- 
jority of them shall convene in the town of Rising Sun, in said county of 
Ohio, on the second Monday in April next, or as soon thereafter as a ma- 
jority of them shall agree. 

"Section 5. That the circuit and other courts of said county of Ohio shall 
be held at Rising Sun until suitable buildings can be erected at the county 
seat, after which the courts shall be held at the county scat of said county. 

"Section 13. That from and after the first day of April next the seat of 
justice of the county of Dearborn shall be and the same is hereby removed 
and permanently located in the town of Lawrenceburg, in said county of 

"Section 15. That all officers whose duty it shall be to keep their said 
offices at the seat of justice in said county of Dearborn shall be and are 
hereby required to remove and keep their said offices at the town of Law- 
renceburg on or before the said first day of April next ; that from and after 
the said first day of April (1844) all public business which shall be required 
by law to be transacted at the seat of justice in said county of Dearborn shall 
be performed and transacted at the court house in said town of Lawrenceburg. 

"Section 16. It shall be the duty of the corporation of the said town of 
Lawrenceburg to give bond with good and sufficient security, to be approved 
of by the county commissioners of said county, or any one of them, in a pen- 
alty of any amount one or they may require, not exceeding however the pen- 
alty of ten thousand dollars payable to the state of Indiana, conditioned that 
the corporation of said town of Lawrenceburg shall within one year from and 
after the said first day of April, 1844, fit up and repair the court house and 
jail in said town of Lawrenceburg and build a clerk's office, recorder's office 
and auditor's office in said town, all of which shall be equal in point of con- 
venience and durability to those already erected and built in the town of Wil- 
mington; and that said corporation will furnish suitable rooms for holding 
said offices in said county at the expense of the same, until said public build- 
ings shall be erected and refitted as aforesaid. 

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"Section 17. This act to take effect and be in force from and after its 

As described above it will be seen that Ohio county in the original bill as 
passed by the Legislature was only a part of what is Randolph township. It 
actually contained less than eighteen square miles. It remained this size for a 
little over one year, when, by an act of the Legislature, on January 7, 1845, 
all of Dearborn county lying south of Laughery creek was attached to Ohio 
county. From that time until the present the boundaries of Dearborn county 
have remained intact. 



Dearborn county has been, in general, very fortunate in its choice of offi- 
cers. Its early officials were men of integrity and rather more than average 
ability. Many of them had received training in the East before emigrating, 
and came to the county with experience in governmental affairs that was valu- 
able to the infant county. There were men who had been trained in military 
matters in the stern school of the Revolution and likewise had been invested 
with responsibilities in civic affairs. Others who were among the first settlers 
had training in wood craft and knew the habits of the Indians. The work 
that was done by the pioneers cannot be now estimated. Clearing a place for 
their cabins and getting sufficient cleared space on which to get a first crop of 
products to keep a family, involved labor more than we of the present day can 
imagine. The work of organizing the county with the petty details of law 
and form was no easy task either. Samuel C. Vance, the founder of Law- 
renceburg, was a man of ability and foresight. In many ways, perhaps, his 
vision was too far ahead. He was a surveyor, a military man and experienced 
in governmental affairs. He had been an officer in the Revolutionary War 
and took part in Wayne's campaign against the Indians. He was the founder 
of the city of Lawrenceburg, and took part for many years in the affairs of 
both the county and city, dying in 1828, full of honor and with the good will 
of the community. 

Benjamin Chambers, one of the civil engineers employed to make the sur- 
vey of the territory obtained by Wayne's treaty, was a native of Chambers- 
burg. Pennsylvania, and was commissioned by the Continental Congress an 
ensign in the First Pennsylvania Regiment in 1778. In 1779 he was made a 
lieutenant and saw active service until the close of the war. He was said to 
have been a very intelligent man and very courtly in his manners. 

Following is a list of the county officers of Dearborn county from the 
date of the county's organization to 191 5 : 


Benjamin Chambers, from March 7, 1803, to December 14. 1810; Jabez 
Percival, March 8, 1803, to January 6, 1814; Barnet Hulick. March 7, 1803, 

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to December 14, 1809; John Brownson, March 7, 1803. to January 6. 1814; 
Jeremiah Hunt, March 7, 1803; Richard Stevens, March 7, 1803; William 
Majors, March 7, 1803, to January 6, 1814; James McCarty, March 7, 1803: 
Isaac Dunn, March 17, 1812, to February 14, 1817; Elijah Sparks, January 
16, 1814 (died in May, 1815) ; James Noble was appointed to fill the vacancy 
and served until 1816. Jesse L. Holman was also a territorial judge when 
the state was admitted into the Union. 


John Test, of Franklin county, 1818-19; John Watts, of Dearborn county, 
1819-20; Miles C. Eggleston, of Jefferson county, 1820-45; Courtland Cush- 
ing, of Jefferson county. 1845-47; George H. Dunn, of Dearborn county, 
1847-50; William McCarty, of Franklin county, 1850-53; Reuben D. Logan, 
of Decatur county, 1853-65 ; Jeremiah M. Wilson, of Fayette county, 1865-69; 
Robert N. Lamb, of Switzerland county. 1869-71 ; Henry C. Hanna, of 
Franklin county, 1871-73; Omar F. Roberts, of Dearborn county, 1873-79; 
Noah S. Givan, of Dearborn county, 1879-85; William H. Bainbridge, of 
Dearborn county, 1885-91 ; Alexander C. Downey, of Ohio county, 1891-97; 
Noah S. Givan, of Dearborn county, 1897- 1903; George E. Downey, of Dear- 
born county, 1903-09; George E. Downey, of Dearborn county, 1909-13, re- 
signed to accept position as controller of the United States treasury ; Warren 
N. Hauck, of Dearborn county, 1913-15, appointed by Governor Ralston to 
fill unexpired time; Warren N. Hauck, of Dearborn county, 191 5. 


William S. Holman, of Dearborn county, 1853-56; Charles N. Shook, of 
Ripley county, 1856-61 ; Francis M. Adkinson, of Switzerland county, 
1861-65; Robert N. Lamb, of Switzerland county, 1865-69; Scott Carter, of 
Switzerland county, 1869-72. 


Solomon Manwarring, 1816-30; John Livingston, Isaac Dunn, 1830-38; 
John McPike, 1830-35; Samuel H. Dowdcn, 1835-38; John Livingston, 1838- 
45; Alfred J. Cotton, 1838-45; David Conger, 1845-51; John A. Emrie, 


George H. Dunn, 1829-31; John Livingston, 1831-37; John McPike. 
l8 37: J onn Palmer, 1837-43; Theodore Gazlay, 1843; William S. Holman, 
1843-47; Alfred J. Cotton, 1847-52. 

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The first territorial Legislature met at Vincennes on July 29, 1805, and 
Benjamin Chambers of Dearborn county, was the presiding officer. Jesse 
B. Thomas, of Dearborn county, was speaker of the House of Representatives. 
The second Legislature met on September 26, 1808. Jesse B. Thomas, repre- 
senting Dearborn county, was again speaker of the House. The third Legis- 
lature met on November 10, 18 10. The fourth Legislature met on February 
1, 1813. James Dill, of Dearborn county, was speaker of the House at the 
first session, and Isaac Dunn, of Dearborn county, was speaker during the last 
seven days of the second session. The fifth and last territorial Legislature 
met at Cprydon on August 14, 18 14. Jesse I* Holman, of Dearborn count}', 
was elected president of the legislative council. 

Dearborn county was represented in the constitutional convention of 
1816 by James Dill, Solomon Manwarring and Ezra Ferris. In the con- 
stitutional convention of 1851 the county was represented by William S. Hol- 
man, John D. Johnson and Johnson Watts. 


The senators representing Dearborn county in the state Legislature are 
as follow: 

1816-18, Ezra Ferris: 1821-22, at Corydon. John Gray: 1825-30. at Indi- 
anapolis, John Watts; 1831-32. James T. Pollock: 1833. D. V. Culley; 1834- 
35, Daniel Plummer; 1838-43, Johnson Watts; 1844-45, George P. Buell: 
1 849-5i> James H. Lane, president of the Senate; 1846-51, James P. Milliken : 
1852-57, Richard D. Slater: 1859-61, Cornelius O'Brien; 1863-65, James W. 
Gaff; 1867-69, Elijah Huffman; 1871-73, Richard Gregg; 1875-78, Noah S. 
Givan; 1878-82, A. J. Bowers; 1882-86, Columbus Johnston: 1886-90, Fran- 
cis M. Griffith: 1890-93. Columbus Johnston: 1898- 1902. George H. Keener; 
1902-06. William H. O'Brien; 1906-10, Evan L. Patterson: 1910-14, Warren 
N. Hauck: 1914, Joseph Hemphill. 


1 816, Amos Lane and Erasmus Powell: 181 7. Amos Lane: 181 8, Eras- 
mus Powell and John Watts: 1820. Ezra Ferris and Erasmus Powell: 1822, 
Pinckney James, Horace Bassett, Ezekiel Jackson: 1823. Samuel Jelley. Ben- 

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jamin J. Blythe, David Bowers; 1825, Abel C. Pepper, Horace Bassett, Eze- 
kiel Jackson; 1825, Ezekiel Jackson, Abel C. Pepper, Thomas Guien; 1&26, 
Ezra Ferris, Ezekiel Jackson, Horace Bassett; 1827, Horace Bassett, Ezekiei 
Jackson, Joel DeCoursey, James T. Pollock; 1828, Horace Bassett, James T. 
Pollock, Arthur St. Clair, George H. Dunn; 1829-30, Horace Bassett, James 
T. Pollock, Thomas Guien, Walter Armstrong; 1830, James T. Pollock, Wal- 
ter Armstrong, Ezra Ferris, Samuel H. Dowden; 1831. David V. Culley, 
William Flake. Warren Tebbs; 1832, George H. Dunn, David V. Culley, Oli- 
ver Heustis; 1833, George H. Dunn, Thomas Guien, David Guard; 1834, 
Nelson H. Horbet, James Walker, Thomas Howard; 1835, Henry Walker, 
Thomas Howard, Milton Gregg; 1836, David Guard, Pinckney James. John 
P. Dunn, Abel C. Pepper; 1837, George Arnold. Abram Ferris, Enoch W. 
Jackson. Alexander E. Glenn; 1838-39, George Arnold, Jacob W. Eggleston, 
William Conaway, Ebenezer Dumont; 1839-40, Amos Lane, William Lanius, 
William Conaway, William Pern,'; 1840-41, Abijah North, John B. Clark, 
Isaac Dunn, William R. Cole; 1841, Ethan A. Brown, James P. Milliken, 
James Rand; 1842-43, Ethan A. Brown, John Lewis, James P. Milliken, 
1843-44, Pickney James, David Macy; 1844. Oliver Heustis, John Lewis, 
William Lanius; 1845-46, George Cornelius, Richard D. Slater; 1846-47, 
A. G. Tebbs, John D. Johnson: 1847, George W. Lane, Richard D. Slater; 
1848, John D. Johnson, Alvin J. Alden, George M. Lozier; 1849-50, Daniel 
Conaway. Joseph A. Watkins: 1850, Ebenezer Dumont (speaker of the 
House) John B. Clark; 1850 (special session), Oliver H. Torbett, William 
S. Holman; 1853. Oliver B. Torbett (speaker of the House), Noah C. Dur- 
ham: 1855. Alvin J. Alden, John Crozier: 1857, John Lewis, George W. 
Lane: 1858, Noah C. Durham, Warren Tebbs; 1859, Warren Tebbs. Noah 
C. Durham: 1861, Omer F. Roberts, Charles Lods; 1863, Omer F. Roberts, 
Alfred Brogan ; 1865. John C. Stenger, Richard Gregg; 1867, Edward H. 
Green, Warren Tebbs. Jr.: 1869-71. Warren Tebbs; 1872-73 (special). Noah 
S. Givan ; 1875. Columbus Johnston; 1876-78. Columbus Johnston; 1878-80. 
A. J. Alden; 1880-82. Edward Jackson: 1882-84. Hugh D. McMullen; 1884- 
86. Hugh D. McMullen: 1886-88. Hugh D. McMullen: 1888-90. Joseph 
Vandolah: 1890-94. John W. Johnson; 1894-98. John Feist: 1898-1902. 
Omar F. Roberts: 1900-04. Charles H. Conaway: 1904-08. Victor Oberting; 
1909-10. Warren N. Hauck: 1910-12. Ca— ins W. McMullen: 1912-14. Edgar 
Sale: 1914-16. Edrar Sale. 

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At the time of the burning of the court house on March 5, 1826, the 
county was governed by a board of supervisors, composed of a justice of the 
peace from each township. The first meeting of which there is any record 
was on March 26, 1826, the board then consisting of Mark McCracken, pres 
ident; John Porter, James Lewis, William Brundage and La ban Bramble. In 
1827 Cornelius Falkner and Job A. Beach took the place of two of the board. 
In 1828 Philip Eastman, James Murray, Dele Elder, Isaac Caldwell, John 
Godley, James W. Hunter, Martin Stewart and William Flake constituted 
the board. In 1829 David Bowers, John Glass and Israel W. Bonham took 
the places of three of those serving the year previous. In 1830 Joseph Wood. 
Ulysses Cook, John Columbia and John Neal were the new members. 

In 1 83 1 the law had changed and the county was divided into three dis- 
tricts, with one man elected from each district, who was called a commissioner. 
The member from the first district was elected for one year, the member 
from the second district was elected for two years, and the member from the 
third district was elected for three years. Afterwards each member was to 
serve three years. In 183 1, under this new law, Joseph Wood was elected 
from the first district, Mark McCracken from the second, and George Arnold 
from the third. From that time on the commissioners were elected to serve 
for three years each, as follow : 

1832, William Conaway; 1833, Charles Dashiell; 1834, George Arnold; 
1835, John Neal; 1836, Benjamin Sylvester; 1837, David Nevett and William 
Conaway; 1838, David Walser; 1839, Aaron B. Henry; 1840, William S. 
Ward; 1841, Charles Dashiell; 1842, John Columbia; 1843, W r illiam S. Ward; 
1844, David Walser; 1845, James Grubbs; 1846, Daniel Taylor; 1847, Mar- 
tin Trester; 1848, Jonathan Hollowe.ll; 1849, William S. Ward; 1850, Zerah 
Winson; 1851, Jonathan Hollowell; 1852, John Heimberger; 1853. Benjamin 
Burlingame; 1854, Mason J. McCloud; 1855, Asahel Tyrrel; 1856, Benjamin 
Burlingame; 1857, John Anderegg; 1858, Asahel Tyrrel; 1859, Francis Buf- 
fington: i860, John Anderegg; 1861, Charles Briggs; 1862, Francis Buffing- 
ton; 1863, Charles Briggs; 1864, John Anderegg; 1865, Francis Buffington; 
1866, Frederick Souders: 1867, Smith Piatt; 1868, Asahel Tyrrel; i860, 
Frederick Souders; 1870. John C. Stenger; 1871, Asahel Tyrrel; 1872, Fred- 
erick Souders: 1873, James Grubbs — Smith Piatt: 1874. Frederick Slater: 
1876, Michael Hoff — Abraham Briggs: 1877. Frederick Slater; 1879. Abra- 
ham Briggs — Michael Hoff; 1880. Garrett Bosse; 1882 Charles Lods. to fill 

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vacancy caused by death of Michael Hoff; 1882, Henry Bulthaup, to fill va- 
cancy caused by death of Garret Bosse; T. T. Anms. John Buchert and Henry 
Bulthaup, elected; 1883, Charles Fisk and John Feist, the latter appointed to 
fill vacancy caused by death of John Buchert; 1885, Nicholas Vogelgesang; 
1885, George A. Swales; 1886. George W. Johnston; 1887, Nicholas Vogel- 
gesang; 1888, George A. Swales; 1889, George W. Johnston; 1890, Joseph 
Buchert: 1891. John Axby; 1892, F.ben T. Heaton; 1895, Benjamin P. Wai- 
ser; 1896, Frederick Wolber; 1897, Frederick Albers; 1898. John Renck 
(three years) ; Rufus Abbott (two years) ; 1899, Fred Albers (three years) : 

1901. John Renck; 1903, John E. Heustis; 1904, George W. Brown; 1905, 
Henry J. Meyer; 1906, John E. Heustis; 1907, Ralph Conaway ; 1908, Henry 
J. Meyer; 1909, Edward Barker; 1910, Ralph Conaway; 191 1, George T. 
Wolf; 1912, Edward Barker 11913, John Nolte; 1914, George T. Wolf; 1915, 
Frank Bittner. 


1829. Daniel Hagerman; 1829-31, Thomas Palmer; 1831-36, Walter 
Armstrong: 1836-38, Robert Moore; 1838-40, William G. Monroe; 1840-45, 
Ebenezer Dumont: 1845-47, Nelson S. Torbet; 1847-50, Cornelius O'Brien; 
1850-53. Noble Hamilton: 1853-55, Strange S. Dunn; 1855-57. Thomas John- 
son: 1857-61. Francis M. Jackson; 1861-63, Marcus Levy; 1863-65, William 
F. Crocker: 1865-70. Thomas Kilner; 1870-74. Francis Lang: 1874-78, 
Charles Lods: 1878-82. William H. Kyle; 1882-86. James D. Gatch; 1886- 
90. John Probst; 1890-94. Michael Maloney; 1894-98, William Wulber; 1898- 

1902. Henry Fangman ; 1902. William Fangman. unexpired term of Henry 
Fangman; 1903-06. Enoch McHlfresh: 1906-10, C. William Fangman; 1910- 
14. Andrew Burk : 1914. John A. P,obrink. 


1841-46. George W. Lane: 1846-55. Reuben Rodgers: 1855-64, Elias T. 
Crosby: 1864-68. Richard D. Slater, Sr.; 1868-75. Richard D. Slater. Jr.: 
1875-79. Myron Havncs: 1S79-83, Alexander Pattison: 1883-87, Julius Sev- 
erin: 1887-91. Edward D. Moore: 1891-95. Frank R. Dorman: 1895-97, 
Ambrose E. Xowlin ; 1897-98. Charles L. Walser; 1898-1906, Charles M. 
Beinkamp: 1906-14. William S. Fagalv; 1914. Harry Lutherbeck. 


Samuel C. Vance. March 7. 1803. to September 6. 1813: James Dill. Sep- 
tember 6. 1813. until death in 1838: son. James Dill, appointed pro tern: Will- 

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iam V. Cheek, 1839-51; Cornelius O'Brien. 1851-56: Samuel L. Jones, 1856- 
61; John F. Cheek, 1861-68; John A. Comvell, 1868-78; Warren Tebb>. 
1878^86; John H. Russe, 1886-94: David Lestutter, 1894-98: John Uhlrich. 
1898-1906; George Fahlbush. 1906-14; James G. McKinney. 1914 


James Dill, March 7, 1803, to August 30. 1803 : James Hamilton, August 
30, 1803. to February 14. 1817; James Dill, 1817-31 ; Thomas Porter, 183T- 
34; Asa Smith, 1834; Thomas Palmer, 1835-55 ; Tobias Finkbine, 1855 ; John 
Heimberger, 1855-63; Alvin J. Alden, 1863-67: Alfred Brogan, 1867-71: 
Francis M. Johnson, 1871-79; George C. Columbia, 1879-85; John S. Prich- 
ard, 1887-95; George W. Turner, 1895-1903; Edward C. Fox, 1903-11: 
Clifford Haynes, 191 1. 


David Lamphere, 1803-04; James Hamilton, 1804-16; John Hamilton, 
1816-18; William Hamilton, 1818; Thomas Longley, 1818-22; John Spencer, 
1822-26; Thomas Longley, 1826-28; John Spencer, 1828-32; Milton Gregg, 
1832; William Dils, 1832-37; John Weaver, 1837-41 ; Samuel Osgood, 1841- 
45; Thomas Roberts, 1845-49; Frank M. Riddle, 1849-53; John Brumblay, 
1 853-58; John Boyd, 1858-60; Edward A. Conger, 1860-64; Richard C. Ar- 
nold, 1864-68; Frank R. Dorman, 1868-72; Lewis Weitzel, 1872-76; Elijah 
Christopher, 1876-80; John C. Sims, 1880-84; Daniel M. Guard, 1884-88; 
Hezron Haynes, 1888-92; Henry Bulthaup, 1892-96; William E. Teke, 1896- 
98; Ira Miller, 1898; Marion Laws, 1898-1902; John Axby 1902-06; Rich- 
ard White, 1906-10; Ora N. Slater, 1910-14; Daniel McKinzie, 1914. 


George C. Columbia, 1873-75; Harvey B. Hill, 1875-87; Samuel J. 
Houston, 1887-93; Sol K. Gold, 1893-1908; George C. Cole, 1908-14. 


Francis M. Johnson, 1891-1900; William H. Nead, 1900-14; William 
Wescott, 1 9 14. 


Strange S. Dunn, 1850-54; W'illiam Patterson, 1854-58; , 

1858-64; Hugh D. McMullen, 1864-68; George R. Brumblay, 1868-78; Addi- 
son Williams, 1878-80; Robert E. Slater, 1880-86; Edward H. Green, 1886- 


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88; Redman L. Davis, 1888-96; Harry R. McMullen, 1896-1902; Theodore 
Wulber, 1902-04; Frank D. Johnston, 1904-06; John H. Russe. 1906-14; 
Willard Dean, 19 14. 


Daniel Edwards, 1846-48; James D. English, 1848-52; William R. 
Green, 1852-56; Major R. Slater, 1856-60; William Green, 1860-66; Fred- 
erick Rectanus, 1866-68; Daniel M. Skinner, 1868-76; Robert H. Davis, 
1876-80; C. J. B. Ratjen, 1880-84; Albert D. Jackson, 1884-1895; Hanson G. 
Freeman, 1895-96; Frederick Mauntel, 1896-98; F. H. Sale, Jr., 1898- 1900: 
F. H. Sale, 1900-02; F. H. Sale, 1902-04; George F. Smith, 1904-06; Wilson 
H. Swales, 1908-10; G. Johnston, 1910-15. 


George Moore, 1846-52; Samuel M. Kennedy, 1852-56; Jesse L. Hol- 
man, 1856-57; Samuel M. Kennedy, 1857-62; Hugh D. McMullen, 1862-64; 
Samuel Allen, 1864-66; Samuel M. Kennedy, 1866-74; Samuel Allen, 1874- 
78; Samuel M. Kennedy, 1878-80; Samuel Allen, 1880-82; Albert T. Gridley. 
1882-1902; Charles H. Gore, 1902-12; Albert Karstetter, 1912-15. 

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Origininally Caesar Creek township comprised a portion of the township 
of Clay and part of the western end of Ohio county. On the organization of 
Clay township it lost a considerable portion of its territory and when Ohio 
county was formed out of Dearborn, it again suffered a loss of territory. It 
is now best described as an irregularly shaped territory in the southwestern 
corner of Dearborn county between Hayes branch on the north. Laugher y 
creek on the south and east, and the county of Ripley on the west. In 1826. 
when it was laid out by the county board of supervisors, Thomas Palmer. 
James Lewis, Mark McCracken and John Lyon, it was described as follows: 
Commencing on the old boundary line at the northwest corner of fractional 
section 8, township 5, range 3 west; thence east to the northeast corner of 
section 12, township 5, range 3 west ; thence south to the south line of the 
county of Dearborn; thence west to the western boundary line of Dearborn 
county ; thence northwardly to the old Indian boundary line and western line 
of the county of Dearborn to the place of beginning. 


Township 5, range 3 west. Part of section 4 was sold in 1816 to John 
Watts and Nathan Frakes; in 1825 to John Watts, and in 1838 to Frederick 
Probst. A part of sections 1, 2, 3, 5, 9 and 10 are in Ohio county. 

Township 5, range 3 west. Fractional section 20 (part of it in Ripley 
county) was sold by the government to Felix Brandt in 1818. A portion 
of section 26 (part in Clay township) was sold in 1818 to J. Embree and E. 
Hepburn; in 1834 to John Williamson, and in 1836 to Young Johnson and 
Peter Spangler; in 1838 to Henry Probst, Charles Drago, William Turner 
and Frederick Wabben. 

The earliest land entered from the government in the township was 
bought by Benjamin Purcell in 1808. The next piece of land purchased was 
entered in 1812 by Solomon Stephens, and another in 18 15 by John 
Dougherty. The last land to be taken up from the government was in 1839 
by Frederick Probst. Quite a number of pieces of land was taken up in the 

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township in 1838. but the desirable lands along the valley of Laughery were 
taken first. Before any land was entered from the government there seems 
to have been settlers who lived in the township, but who neglected to enter the 
land. It is claimed that George Zinn came to the township in 1805, and Jacoo 
Zinn and his son, who moved to Missouri in 1876, claimed that there was a 
stockade on a place at that time owned by a man named Rudolph Winters. 
He said that back of an old stone house called the Spears house and near the 
foot of the hill, close to a large spring, the stockade enclosure was located. 
Mr. Zinn was a small boy during the War of 1812 but old enough to recall 
distinctly that there were several small cabins within the stockade, to which, 
when an alarm was given, the women and children would flee for safety. 
This stockade is supposed to have been built by Mr. Purcell in 181 1, who had 
moved there from Kentucky in 1808. Mr. Zinn claimed to have a clear 
memory of the alarms that were given at several times during the war and 
he recalls spending several days and nights in this stockade. 

Robert Rickets, who lived on a part of section 16, was a member of the 
company of "rangers" and his house was also built so as to be capable of 
defense, which made it a place where the nearby residents would seek shelter 
at nights. 

One of the earliest settlers of that vicinity was James McGuire, and a 
sketch of his life is herewith appended as a tribute to one of the brave and 
fearless men of those times. "Major James McGuire was bom on May 10. 
1785. at Dundalk, a seaport town in the province of Leinster. Ireland. 
He early entered the British navy. He was under the command of Lord 
Nelson at the taking of the Danish fleet at Copenhagen in 1801. Subse- 
quently he enlisted in the English army. In 1802 he arrived in Ohio, having 
crossed from Canada, where his regiment had been ordered, and in 1808 he 
came to Dearborn county, making his home at Lawrenceburg until after 
Indian hostilities were over. He became acquainted with Adam Flake, one 
of the first settlers, and married Flake's daughter. On August 22. 1810, he 
was appointed and commissioned by the government a captain of militia of 
Dearborn county, with James Allen, lieutenant, and John Payne, ensign. In 
181 2 he went into active service and was appointed drill master, to drill all 
the troops that were raised in the county ; he being a perfect master of military 
tactics. There were two companies of mounted men with rifles called 'rang- 
ers.' The first company was under command of Capt. James McGuire. and 
the second company was under Capt. Frederick Scholtz. These companies 
erected some half a dozen block houses: the most southern one was on the land 

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owned by Major McGuire. One company at a time would be distributed in 
squads of ten men to each block house. The other company would be patrolling 
the wilderness from block house to block house and extending their rounds into 
the interior of the wilderness twenty or thirty miles ; then spending a part of 
their time at home with their families. This guarding of the frontier was 
kept up until the close of the war. Captain McGuire was during the war 
promoted to be a major. April 17, 181 1, he entered the southwest quarter of 
section 9, township 4, range 3. He entered this land when it was a dense 
wilderness. Here he moved into and occupied a block house. Prior to this 
there was but one tract of land purchased in the township. This was bought 
by James Hamilton and was the quarter section just north of McGuire." 


McGuire was undoubtedly the first settler in the township, as Hamilton 
never lived there. Col. Johnson Watts said : "When I moved to Laughery, in 
18 14. Major James McGuire lived one mile below me in the block house kept 
up in the time of war." His location was in Caesar Creek township on the 
north side of Laughery creek, opposite the mouth of Bear creek. On this 
farm he spent a great portion of his time, in the prime of his life, clearing 
up. improving and cultivating his farm, and alternately running his surplus 
produce to New Orleans in flatboats, and then returning on foot through the 
Indian nations which inhabited the dense wilderness" that lay along the route. 
He died at the old homestead on Laughery creek. 

George XV. Lane, in his writings during the centennial year of 1876, 
refers to Major McGuire thus, "Capt. James McGuire, who settled on 
Laughery creek, was another of the pioneers who rendered valuable service 
in the defense of the early immigrants to this part of the state, and deserves 
honorablv mention. When most of the inhabitants this side of the Ohio 
crossed into Kentucky under an alarm of approaching Indian bands, Captain 
McGuire joined General Dill and others at Lawrenceburg to defend those 
who had the courage to remain. In this connection it might be added that the 
alarm was a false one. or the preparation made by the militia to meet them 
deterred the savages from attacking the settlements; yet it was often referred 
to as a feather in the cap of those who remained, and the writer has often 
heard mention made of those who crossed the Ohio to escape from the sup- 
posed danger, rather than to remain and take their chances with their brother 
pioneers. If a state was disposed to make a roll of honor composed of true 

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heroes who had been well tried and positively proven in times of great danger, 
no name would grace the list more worthily than that of James McGuire. 
Captain McGuire was spared to a good old age, to see peace and plenty and 
many happy homes in the rich valleys and on the pleasant hills, where in 
other days he had witnessed scenes of carnage and bloodshed and traced 
through the dense forest the lurking foe and deadly enemy to civilized life." 


Judge John Watts and his family settled in the township on Laughery 
creek in 1815. The Judge and his son, Col. Johnson Watts, were men of 
prominence and leading spirits in the affairs of the county during their lives. 
The Judge was a native of Virginia and had lived at Petersburg, Kentucky. 
After the War of 18 12 the family removed to Dearborn county, assuming at 
once an active part in the affairs of the county and state. The Judge was an 
elder in the Baptist church and at times served his church in the pulpit as well 
as in its business affairs. In the pioneer settlements he often officiated as a 
minister, assisting the pulpits that were without a regular preacher. He was 
a member of the Legislature, serving in the Senate from 1825 to 1830. Judge 
Watts died in 1834, aged sixty-seven years, and was laid away in a private 
burying ground near the mouth of Bear creek on Laughery creek. 

Col. Johnson Watts was born in Fayette county, Kentucky, July 7, 
1704. His parents were Judge John and Fannie (Sebree) Watts. Judge 
Watts was one of the pioneers of Kentucky and Indiana territory, a man of 
ability and of great usefulness. His wife was an orphan girl whose father's 
life was sacrificed in the War of the Revolution. She was raised to woman- 
hood by Col. Ro1>ert Johnson, the father of Col. R. M. Johnson. Johnson 
Watts' boyhood life was spent among the frontier scenes along the Kentucky 
side of the Ohio river below the village of Petersburg. His playmates were 
Indian boys and he became well skilled in the use of the bow and arrow. 
His early years were spent in assisting his father in clearing up the farm. 
At the age of seventeen he enlisted in his country's service in the second war 
with England under Capt. Urial Sebree. He fought under Colonel Lewis at 
Frenchtown, near the rapids of the Maumee on January 13. and in that 
vicinity on January 22. 1813, received a wound by a musket ball in one let;, 
bv which he was disabled and returned to his home in the spring of 1813. 
Young Watts suffered from hunger, exposure and want of attention during 
the marches of that winter. After his return to his father's farm in the spring 

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of 1813, he received three or four months' schooling, which, with the exception 
of a little instruction before entering the service, was the extent of his educa- 
tional advantages. November 3, 1814, he was married to Elizabeth McClain, 
whose father resided on an adjoining farm. His father had purchased land 
on Laughery creek, in Dearborn county, and a portion of which was given to 
the son, who in 181 5 had built thereon a cabin, to which he removed and 
there begun life for himself. His father erected a saw-mill and later estab- 
lished a tan-yard and in and about these in connection with farming Johnson 
Watts was employed for some years, subsequently purchasing the same and in 
addition operating a distillery. Soon after settling in Indiana he was elected 
a colonel of militia, which office he held for five years. About 1825 Colonel 
Watts commenced flatboating, having perhaps made the first effort in start- 
ing boats from up Laughery creek ; which business he was engaged in for a 
numher of years. In 1832 he moved to Hartford and was there for a time 
engaged in merchandising, having gone to that place more for the purpose 
of schooling his children — then eight in all, three sons and five daughters. 
Subsequently he purchased his father's farm on Laughery creek and moved 
upon it, and in connection with other business and his official duties, he was 
chiefly occupied during life. In 1825 Colonel Watts served as a representa- 
tive in the Legislature from Dearborn county, and from 1838 to 1843 in the 
state Senate. At the time of his election to the Senate in 1838 the county 
was Democratic by from three hundred to four hundred majority, though 
Watts was a Henry Clay Whig. In 1850 Colonel Watts, with William 
S. Holman and James D. Johnson, was chosen a member of the constitu- 
tional convention, and in the same years was made the Whig candidate for 
Congress in the fourth district, but was defeated by sixty-seven votes only. 
Colonel Watts, on the breaking out of the Civil War, was a supporter of the 
Union and of President Lincoln's administration, and, fired by the same 
patriotism as led him on to battle in 1813, when but a lad, he. although near- 
ing man's allotted time on earth, offered his services to Governor Morton, but 
on account of advanced years was declined. Colonel Watts was a man of 
considerable native ability, of good character and of unquestioned integrity. 
He closed a useful life on the 27th of May, 1871. 


Among the early settlers of Caesar Creek township were Eleazer Cole, 
Robert Ray, Charles L. Henry. John Froman, Jesse and Jordan Rice. On 
Laughery creek were living .about 1820. Judge John Watts. James Rand, 

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Adam Pate, George Zinn, John Froman and Robert Ray. The latter was a 
brother of Gov. James B. Ray and was a minister of the gospel. 

Many present residents of the township are of German descent. 
Their ancestors began to settle in the township about 1837. Among the 
earlier of the German settlers were Bosse, Droge, Ruhlman, Grelle, Sieker- 
man, Otting. With the exception of a few farms the lands in Caesar Creek 
township are owned by people of German descent, who are a thrifty, frugal 
class, and who have kept up the fertility of the soil to such an extent that the 
land produces with its old-time abundance. 

The following is a sketch, written in 1843, of Gideon Tower, a resident 
of the township at that time : "Gideon Tower was born in Cumberland, Provi- 
dence county, Rhode Island, April 30, 1753, and was married in March, 1775. 
He joined the army of the Revolution in April, of the same year, and served 
from three to seven months of every year while the war lasted. His wife 
was born on November 28, 1754, and both are now living in Caesar Creek 
township, this county, and are enjoying good health. They had thirteen 
children, fifty-nine grandchildren, seventy-nine great-grandchildren and six 
great-great-grandchildren. They had two sons who were out in the last war, 
John Tower and Gideon Tower, the former was massacred on January 23, 
181 3, at River Raisin. They had one grandson. Henry Millard, who had 
the honor of commanding the right wing of the Texas forces, on the memor- 
able 2 1 st of April. 1836. when the Mexicans were defeated and Santa Ana 
taken prisoner by the Texans It is seldom that husband and wife live to- 
gether for sixty-eight years, and live to see their descendants multiply to one 
hundred and fifty-seven and see six of their fourth generation. And what is 
yet more strange, that their generation should all be of the one political opin- 
ion. All of them, so far as my knowledge extends, that were voters in i8_jc. 
except one, voted for General Harrison." 

Robert Ray. the brother of Gov. James B. Ray. as well as being a 
preacher, was also a school tencher. and it is claimed that he taught the fi r st 
school in the township in a log cabin on the old Licking farm. He also taught 
a school on the Judge Watts farm. 

Some time previous to 1820 Peter Wright built a grist-mill at the mouth 
of Hayes branch, which was operated for a number of years. 


The Methodists and Baptists were among the early settlers and preach- 
ing was frequently held in the cabin homes of the members. The Methodists 

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J 53 

built a meeting house about a quarter of a mile southeast of Farmers Re- 
treat, where there is an old cemetery. This was in the decade between 1820 
and 1830. Robert Ray and Israel Cole were the local preachers who filled the 
pulpit when the regular circuit rider was at other appointments. Many of the 
members of the congregation are sleeping in the old cemetery that surrounds 
the place and which was set apart for cemetery purposes by a member of the 
Cole family that owned the land at that time. 

The earliest burial recorded by a date on the tombstone is that of John 
Cole, son of E. and H. Cole, who was buried there in 1819, December 10, 
aged twenty-seven years. George Headley, a native of England, died in 1848. 
Lemuel D. Turner died in 1865, aged sixty-four years. Thomas Kelsey, a 
soldier of the Revolution, died in 1835, aged eighty-one years. 

In 1832 a Baptist society was formed and a meeting house was erected 
on lands donated by Jacob Zinn. It was given the name of Laughery Valley 
Baptist church, and among its members were Jacob Zinn, David Fisher, the 
Pattersons, the Sanders, the Grahams and the Conaways. Xo meetings have 
been held for many years and the members have died or moved to other fields. 

Farmers Retreat is the central place of the township of Caesar Creek, and 
considerable business is transacted there. The houses are extended along the 
highway for some distance. There are several stores and a blacksmith shop. 
The physician resident at the place is Dr. C. C. Housmeyer. A good macad- 
amized highway extends through the township, leading from Dillsboro to 
Friendship and Versailles, in Ripley county. The township, while the small- 
est of any in the county, is at the same time one of the most thrifty, and the 
people of the township are strictly law abiding and abreast of the times in 
everything that goes to make up good citizenship. 

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Center township was organiged in January. 1839. Its territory was taken 
from Laughery and Lawreneeburg townships. Its area has not been changed 
since it was formed, except in 1849, when it gained in area from Lawrence- 
burg township, and lost some territory to the same township in 1853. In 
1853 a little less than a section was given up to Hogan township, being the 
lands of David YValser, Conrad Huffman and Conaway Bainum. The bound- 
ary lines of the township, which were described in 1855, were as follow: Be- 
ginning at the southwest corner of section 21, congressional township 5, 
range 1 west ; thence west to the southwest corner of section 21 ; thence north 
to the northwest corner of section 21 ; thence west along the northern line of 
section 20 to the center of Wilson creek ; thence up said creek to the south line 
of Alfred Howe's land in section 7 : thence west along the south line of Al- 
fred Howe's land to the northeast corner of the southwest quarter of section 7, 
town 5, range 1 (being the center of said section 7) ; thence west on the north 
line of said southwest quarter of section 7 to the range line dividing ranges 
1 and 2 : thence south on said line to Laughery creek : thence down the creek 
to the Ohio river; thence up the Ohio river to where the east and west line, 
running between sections 28 and 21. township 5, range 1 west, strikes the 
river; thence west to the place of beginning. 

The earliest land entered from the government was made by Daniel Con- 
ner, April 22. 1801. and it was resold to Oliver Ormsby, December 9, 1806. 
Ormsby must have purchased it for speculation, for the records fail to show 
that he ever lived upon it. Ormsby also bought a large tract of land at an 
early period in Mexico bottoms, in Switzerland county. The next tract of 
land entered was by Charles Wilkins. April 27. 180 1. On December 19. of 
the same year, James Conn purchased fractional sections 27. 28 and 29 in 
township 5. range 1 west. Daniel Conner also entered fractional section 4. 
September 18, 1804. and resold it December 18, 1810, to G. R. Terrence. 
Charles Vattier entered sections 32 and 33. in town 5, range 1, September 18. 
1804. This is the land on which the city of Aurora is situated. In 1806 
David Rees and Nathan C. Findlay entered land in sections 19 and 20. 

All the government land in the township was sold to settlers by the year 

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1 816. and much of it had been cleared and made ready for cultivation. A 
part of section 5, township 4, range 1 west, was sold to Jesse L. Holman in 
the year 1810. The names of the persons that entered the rest of the lands 
in Center township are as follow: Joseph W. Winkley, irr 1813: George 
Shinkle, in 1814; John Walsh, in 181 5 ; a part of section 6 to James Rumblay, 
in 1812; Valentine Barton, in 1813; Richard Xorris. the same year, and Isaac 
Conner in 181 5. Portions of section 7 to Eli Green and Henry Grove, in 
1812, and to Squire Poteet and George Green in 1813. A portion of section 
18 to John Robinson, Enoch James, Jr.. Jehiel Buffington, Amor Bruce and 
Enoch James, in 1814. A portion of section 19 to Samuel Bond, in 1808; to 
Francis Cheek, in 1812; and to Samuel Perry in 1816. Portion of section 20, 
in 181 1. to Page Cheek. A porton of section 30 was sold to Isaac Reynolds, 
Eli Green, John Buffington, and Conrad Huffman. Portions of section 31 to 
Richard Norris, Abraham Carbaugh, in 1812: and to Martin Cozine, in 181 5. 
Portions of section 7 to Enoch James and David Hogan. in 1814: and to 
Charles Dawson, in 181 5; also to Peyton S. Symmes ?nd Lewis Whiteman. 

From the early history of the township it is learned that "Mrs. Barbara 
Cheek died in 1861, and at that time it was stated that she was born in Vir- 
ginia and had lived there for forty years and sixty-four in Dearborn county. 
She claimed to be one hundred and four years of age. Before her death she 
stated that she and her husband were the fourth family to settle in the town- 
ship, that George Groves. Benjamin Walker and Ephraim Morrison had ar- 
rived just before them. Tavern Cheek, a brother of Nicholas, gave the year 
of their coming as 1796. which is very probable." 


The following is written by George W. Lane for the centennial year: 
"George Griffin, in the year 1810, when he was ten years of age, with his 
parents, in company with the grandparents of the present Kyles, of Man- 
chester, and with the grandparents of the present Johnsons, of North Hogan. 
left Virginia, near Winchester, and were all bound in covered wagons for Vin- 
cennes on the Wabash. The destination was reached through an almost un- 
broken Indiana forest by the Johnsons and Kyles, but so great were their perils 
in consequence of the hostility of the Indians, that General Harrison, whose 
headquarters were at Vincennes, advised them to return as- far as Kentucky; 
and to protect them, he sent with them an escort of seventy-five soldiers. 

"The Griffin family were induced by David Rees, father of Amos and 

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Rezin Rees, to stop and try the Ohio river bottoms, he promising them what- 
ever aid they might need the first year in getting subsistence. Wild meat was 
plentiful, for game was always in sight. Deer were often caught with skiffs 
while swimming the river. Wild plums and grapes were abundant in their 
season. Bread, the staff of life, the most necessary article of food, was the 
most difficult to obtain. When the Griffins built their cabin between Wilson 
and Tanners creeks, it was the fifth in this region, and one of these was 
occupied by. a bachelor. This neighbor, Joseph Barlow by name, had been 
a Revolutionary soldier, and on account of increasing infirmities, he soon 
removed to Kentucky, where he lived with a nephew to the great age of one 
hundred and eight years. 

"The bottoms were then covered with timber. David Rees kept a ferry 
at Tanners creek where the railroad bridge now spans it. but his boat was so 
small that a wagon had to be taken to pieces to be conveyed across. Wild 
animals were very numerous and were a great annoyance. The howling of 
wolves at night often rendered sleep impossible. 'While eating breakfast one 
morning I heard a squalling,' said Uncle George, 'and on going to see I saw 
a bear devouring a wild hog.' It was necessary to keep all domestic animals 
in pens adjoining the house. The widow of George Griffin tells of driving 
away the saucy deer and turkeys from the grain shocks when she was a girl. 

"But more to be dreaded than these were the lingering and hostile aborig- 
ines, some of whose tents were yet to be seen. The United States government 
had bought their lands two years previously, and they had removed to the 
Wabash; but incited by the British and French, both of whom were jealous 
of our national growth, they became dissatisfied and revengeful. In gangs, 
considerable numbers of them returned, with cheeks painted red and hair 
arranged for war. In those times it was not safe for one of the pioneers to 
venture alone away from his home. Horses and other property was stolen. 
'Many a morning on going out of my cabin door,' said Uncle George, 'I have 
seen fresh moccasin tracks.' Billy Winter's cabin was the largest and strong- 
est, and when an attack was feared, the neighbors would occupy it as a fort. 
Subsequently, other blctck houses were built. Not until after the battle 
of Tippecanoe were the settlers relieved from the terror of the tomahawk. 

"Wild turkeys were very numerous and troublesome. One day a large 
flock going down the bottoms was met by another flock coming in the opposite 
direction, and the result was a furious battle of the gobblers. The Griffin 
boys, attracted by the commotion, formed a semicircle and drove them all 
across the river, but so fat and heavy were they that they could not rise to the 

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top of the bank in Kentucky. Their only alternative was to return to the 
Indiana shore, from which the boys frightened them away again, and before 
they could reach any landing place many of them were so exhausted that 
they sank into the water, and the boys returned to the cabin with eleven they 
had captured with their skiffs. 

"Uncle George had various experiences as a river trader. Twice on his 
return from the south he walked home from Shawneetown, Illinois. The first 
time he was obliged to leave his flatboat at that place on account of the heavy 
ice in the river. His pedestrian companions were John Conway (father of 
the late Captains Dan and John Conway), and his uncle, Joseph Johnston." 


The Democratic Register in the centennial year alludes to the early set- 
tlement of Center township thus: "Previous to 1800. although many families 
had settled in this neighborhood, little was done in the way of clearing lands. 
Each family had sufficient ground under cultivation to raise corn, potatoes, 
etc.. to supply its individual wants, and with their primitive mode of farming 
this was perhaps all they could cultivate. Game of every species common to 
the country was abundant. Buffalo and elk were growing scarce. The black 
bear, deer, gray and black wolf, wild cat. beaver, otter and porcupine were 
plentiful. In the summer of 1807 Isaac Cochran brought his family here 
from the neighborhood of Chillicothe, Ohio, and built and moved into a log 
cabin on the site of the present residence of John Cobb. Mr. Cochran had a 
large family and his cabin was necessarily built on a larger scale than those 
of his neighbors with small families. It contained two rooms. His family 
consisted of Man-, his wife, and nine children, namely: Alexander, George 
W., Isaac, John. Nancy. Mary. Malinda. Eliza and Susan. Of this family 
George \V. is a prominent business man of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He also 
retains many of the lots in the town of Cochran, near Aurora, which is built 
on property originally owned by him. Nancy is yet living in Aurora at the 
age of seventy -one years, the wife of \Yashington Stark. 

"About this time came Martin Cozine and family, the Scott family, 
Thomas Horsley and family. Petite and others. A family named Ensley. con- 
sisting of an old couple and one child, were here when Cochran came. They 
lived on the bank of the river near the present residence of Abram Lozier. 
Their cabin, a primitive structure of logs and the bark of trees, was the 
first habitation erected by a white man on the ground where Aurora now 

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stands. There were other cabins in the neighborhood but in the opinion 
of Mrs. Stark, who remembers the location of all, Ensley's was the only, one 
within the present town limits. It scarcely rose to the dignity of a cabin, be- 
ing a mere hut, but as it marked the beginning of a prosperous city, let this 
brief record, at least, be made of its existence. It has long since passed away ; 
the people who inhabited it have returned to earth, and this is all that remains. 

"Martin Cozine settled on what is now the James farm cn South Hogan; 
Horsley, Scott and Petite in the same neighborhood. Nicholas Cheek still 
lived below Wilson creek in the cabin first erected by him, but soon after 
Cochran came he built a small house out of hewed logs, probably the first one 
of the kind in the settlement. Francis, Page and Tavner, brothers of Nicholas 
Cheek, were here at that time. The bottom lands between this point and 
Petersburg, on the Kentucky side of the river were cleared and the country 
in the interior quite thickly settled. Petersburg, formerly Tanners Station, 
was an ambitious village. Lawrenceburg was laid out and growing. Aurora 
was yet unborn. Among those who settled in the neighborhood, from 1807 
to 1812, and who have descendants still living here, may be mentioned the 
following: Charles Folbre, William Griffin, Thomas Billingsley, David Rees, 
Robert Milburn. Samuel Elder, Eleazer Small. William Wymond. Vachel 
Lindsay and William Winters. The last mentioned lived for a number of 
years on the bottoms above Wilson creek. Christopher Bingainan and Joseph 
Barlow were others. Barlow died some time ago near Burlington, Kentucky, 
at the age of one hundred and seven years." 

The town of Cochran, now incorporated with Aurora, on the right bank 
of South Hogan creek, joins the city of Aurora. The Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwestern railway passes through it and the main street is the Aurora 
and Laughery turnpike. On account of the car shops of the railway company 
being erected here when the road was first constructed the town owes its 
origin. The town was laid out in section 31, township 5, range 1 west, and 
was platted and filed in the recorder's office of the county on August 25, 
i860. The postoffice was established in 1878. on July 4, with A. P. Shutts 
postmaster. The village suffered the loss of many of its inhabitants by the 
removal of the railway shops to Washington, Indiana, but has recovered from 
it now and is becoming both a residence and business part of the city of 

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Clay township was organized in 1835 by an act of the board of county 
commissioners at their September session. The description given in the 
entry in the commissioners' minutes is as follows: Commencing at the con- 
gressional line dividing towns 5 and 6, range 2 west; thence east to the 
corner of section 4, township 4, range 2 west ; thence south to Laughery creek ; 
thence westwardly, meandering with Laughery creek to the mouth of Hayes 
branch ; thence westwardly meandering with the main southwardly branch or 
fork of said Hayes branch to the first mentioned boundary line to the center 
of section 20, township 5, range 3, on the boundary line of Dearborn county ; 
thence northwardly with said line to the place of beginning. Clay township 
was by this description made out of portions of Sparta, Caesar Creek and of 
what was once called Laughery township, but now divided into Washington 
Center and Hogan. To the north of Clay lies Sparta township to the east 
is Washington township, on the south lies Laughery creek and Caesar Creek 
township and to the west is Ripley county. 

The settlement of Clay township was not commenced as early as the 
townships having more creek or river frontage. The earliest pioneers who 
purchased land, however, were those who located along Laughery creek where 
an outlet could be found for the produce raised during backwater season or a 
strong headwater. 

The first land entries from the government noticed in the transfers 
were in 1806, which were made by Hamilton and Jones. Several portions of 
land were entered in 1813, but it was not until 1817 that settlers commenced to 
enter the land from the government in any number. Davis McKittrick pur- 
chased a part of section 8, in 181 3, and Benjamin Purcell purchased a part 
of section 25, the same year. Terrent and Robert Huston, John Fleming, 
Jacob Spangler, Henry Spangler, David Williamson, Daniel and George 
Abraham, Daniel Loder, William Frazer, Daniel White. Nehemiah Knapp, 
William Randall, Daniel Wilson. Jesse Vandolah, Archibald McCabe, Samuel 
Fleming, Philip Rowland, Henry Brogan, Daniel Crume, John Wheeler and 
Elijah Thatcher are some of the names of persons who entered land in 
Clay township— during the years from 18 15 to 1820. 

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It is claimed for Clay township that the year 1796 marked the settlement 
of a Scotchman by the name of William Ross in the county. He first settle'! 
on Hogan creek. To show what vicissitudes some of the first settlers en- 
countered the following sketch of the life of Mr. Ross is herewith given : 
"William, the head of the Ross family, was a native of Scotland, and came 
to America a single man with Lord Cornwallis, during the Revolutionary war, 
and was made a prisoner at Yorktown. After living for a while on the 
farm of General Washington, he was there married. He afterwards lived for 
a time at the old Redstone Fort, on the Monongahela river, and at a place 
called Grants Station. He came to this county in 1796. settling at the mouth 
of Hogan creek, or near there. He then had a family of six children. Feb- 
ruary 22, 1799, David, a son, was born at the mouth of Hogan creek. Just at 
what time the family moved up Laughery creek is not known, but it was not 
long after their settlement on Hogan creek. Mr. Ross, with his boys, cleared 
up a farm on Laughery creek in Clay township, where he continued to reside 
until 1816. when he removed farther up the creek into Ripley county. He 
was a useful citizen, serving as a territorial justice of the peace up until he 
removed to Ripley county. The land on which he settled was at the time at- 
tached to Switzerland county, and during the time he was elected a com- 
missioner of that county or a member of the board of supervisors. His son. 
James Ross, was living in 1885 at Hartford. Ohio county, and was born on 
Laughery creek in 1803. Beginning as a pioneer boy. amid the scenes of fron- 
tier life, where the wilderness was his playground, the Indian boys his play- 
mates, and the blockhouse at times his home, he narrates with much interest 
and pleasure those bygone days. The Indians were often encamped in the 
woods surrounding has father's cabin, to which the frequently came for 
food. The settlers experienced little trouble from them but were at times 
subject to fright at their expense. Mr. Ross remembers in the spring of 181 2, 
that the men folks of the settlement went in a company in pursuit of a batid 
of Indians who had stolen a number of horses in that locality, but they failed 
to overtake them. Mr. Ross married Elizabeth Pate, who died in 1847. 
by whom he had seven children. His second wife was a daughter of Robert 
Conaway. and a member of the pioneer family by that name." 

The Conaway family came from Virginia and settled on Laughery 
creek in 171)8. Mrs. Rachel Conaway with four sors. James. John. Robert and 
Simon came into the county at the time above mentioned and Robert and 

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James settled on Laughery creek, becoming prominent citizens, a trait that 
has followed the family to the present day. 

Ebenezer Harbert and Samuel Purcell were among those who settled 
in the Ross neighborhood, in the first part of the century, probably about 1812. 
Peter Wright also was an early settler on Laughery creek and erected a mill at 
the mouth of Hayes branch, that was a boon to the settlers in that vicinity. 

Thomas Guion came here in the first decade of the century- and after- 
wards platted a town and called it Guionville. Here he carried on the busi- 
ness of merchandizing and was prominent in the affairs of the county for 
a number of years, serving one term in the Legislature. In 18 16 William. 
L. Abbott came to the township from New Jersey and settled west of Ml 
Tabor church. Besides the mill erected at the mouth of Hayes branch, by 
Peter Wright, no mill was erected in the township until 1835, when Alexan- 
der Noble erected a mill on Hayes branch, on the Aurora and Laughery 
turnpike, about thirteen miles from Aurora and three miles from Dillsboro. 
A mill has been run there continuously ever since and has undergone a number 
of changes of owners but is now owned and run by Schulenberg & Donselman, 
who also own and operate the flour-mill in Dillsboro. 

In 1839 William B. Miller built a mill on South Hogan just above Dills- 
boro station and on the Baltimore & Ohio railway. The building was 
four stories and was at the time of its erection a four-hundred-bushel mill, 
with four run of stones. It has been lying idle for many years and the ma- 
chinery has been taken out of it. 


The following record is taken from the biography of Ebenezer Har- 
bert, one of the first settlers of Clay township. "Ebenezer Harbert came from 
Pennsylvania to Indiana territory in 1810. He came down the Ohio on a 
flatboat. The party with whom he came spent the summer of 18 10 at North 
Bend, Ohio, and in the fall moved to Laughery creek, staying all night the 
first night at the log cabin of a settler by the name of Falls, living about a 
half mile from the Ohio river. The settler narrated to them so much of the 
disadvantages of the country that they proceeded on down the river to the 
mouth of Grants creek. Here during the absence of the men their cabin was 
besieged by a bear, which confined them to the house until the return of the 
men folks. About Christmas time they moved up to Laughery again, going 
up that creek as far as Guionville, where they commenced a clearing and 


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1 62 


erected a cabin. When they arrived here there were a few settlers along the 
creek both above and below but none on the hills. Samuel Purcell lived 
farthest up the creek, about two and one-halt miles above Guionville. Ross 
lived between Purcells and Harberts. John W ithers lived opposite Guionville, 
where Milton now stands. Still below were James Conaway. Mr. Crumc 
and Ben Wilson. Harbert's nearest neighbor on either side was distant one- 
half mile. The whole country was covered with dense forests crossed only 
by footpaths, and was infested with bears, wolves and other wild animals. 
These, together with the hostile Indians, rendered the lives and property of the 
settlers precarious in the extreme, and many were the hair-breadth escapes 
which never will be recorded. From time to time, the alarm of Indians 
would be sounded and the cry of The Indians are on us. run for your lives,' 
would be accompanied with great excitement and confusion. In such times 
each of the members of the family would gather what he could and 
repair in all haste to the blockhouse. On one occasion when the Indians made 
a raid on the settlement. John Harbert gathered up a pot of greens that were 
cooking, and not having time to reach the blockhouse hid it in a thicket until 
the danger was past. When the family came from their hiding places, they 
enjoyed their greens even better than that dish is generally enjoyed. The 
blockhouse was simply a neighbor's house, where it was understood that 
everybody was to assemble in time of danger. 

"A fort was commenced on the farm of John Conaway. but the location 
being directly under the hill and too much exposed it was abandoned. Soon 
after Mr. Harbert settled there a band of Delaware and Pottawattomie In- 
dians camped below Guionville. Among them were several renegade whites, 
including the notorious Simon Girty. The Indians would steal everything they 
could lay their hands on. They stole three horses from Mr. Harbert. How- 
ever, there was much stealing attributed to them that they were innocent of, 
for some of the settlers were caught in acts of that kind. The squaws took con- 
siderable interest in the household affairs of the whites, and they begged all 
the cucumbers they could, of which the Indians were very fond, when ripe. 

"The houses of the first settlers were round-log cabins, and generally con- 
tained but one room. A man who could live in a hewed-log house was con- 
sidered an aristocrat. The fireplace occupied nearly one whole side of the 
room, and they used backlogs so large that they had to roll them in with hand 
spikes. The outside of the fireplace was built of logs, the inside of stone, and 
the chimney of sticks and clay. The cooking was all done in the fireplace, 
from which they suspended their pots, etc. The table furniture consisted of 

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pewter and delft plates, pewter spoons, wooden bowls, etc.. with gourds to 
drink from. For seats they had benches or stools, and their cupboards were 
made of clapboards. 

"The houses had but few lights, and sometimes instead of glass, they used 
greased paper. Each family was under the necessity of doing everything for 
itself as well as it could. To make meal three devices were used — the grater, 
hand-mill and hominy block ; the last, however, used more for making hominy. 
The grater was made of a half-circular piece of tin. perforated with a punch 
from the concave side, and nailed by its edges to a block of wood. The ear 
of corn was rubbed on the rough edges of the holes while the meal fell through 
them on the block to which the grater was nailed and which, being in a slant- 
ing direction, discharged the meal into a vessel. This was used for soft com. 
The hand-mill was made of two circular stones, the lower one called the bed- 
stone, and the upper one the runner. These were placed in a hoop, with 
a spout for discharging the meal. A staff was let into a hole in the upper 
surface of the runner, near the outer edge, to turn the stone by. The grain 
was fed into the opening in the center of the runner by hand. I suppose 
the mill was similar to that used in Palestine. The hominy block was a log 
with an excavation burned in one end, wide at the top and narrow at the 
bottom, so that the action of the pestle on the bottom threw the corn up the 
side toward the top, from whence it continually fell down in the center. 

"The first water mill belonged to the old man Purcell and was of the kind 
denominated tub-mills. The water wheel, five or six feet in diameter, was 
attached to a perpendicular shaft, on the top of which was a spur wheel, gear- 
ing into a trundle head on the lower end of the spindle. 

"Instead of bolting cloth they used sifters made of deer skin, in a state 
of parchment, stretched over a hoop and perforated with a hot wire. The peo- 
ple wore home-made clothing. Almost every house contained a loom, and al- 
most every woman was a weaver. Most of the men wore moccasins and 
hunting shirts, and some of them wore buckskin trousers. The farmers made 
their own implements — wooden mouldboard plows, harrows with wooden 
teeth, etc. The diet of the early settlers was cornbread, pork and wild game, 
in which the country abounded, such as bear, venison, turkey, etc. The 
standard dish for log-rollings, house raisings, corn shuckings and weddings 
was the 'pot pie.' There were no stores in this part of the country. When 
the settlers needed groceries, etc., they were compelled to go to Cincinnati 
for them. 

"There were no churches — meetings were held at private houses. People 

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did not go to church to display their finery ; the men wore jeans and the women 
flannel. A calico dress was a rarity. Preachers were muscular Christians; 
pointed men to the Saviour through a love for their race ; endured hardships 
on a salary of fifty to seventy- five dollars per annum and often sacrificed their 
lives in their untiring devotion to the cause. But even living as they did, the 
early settlers enjoyed life. They were an honest, industrious and hardy people. 
Of course there were some roughs ; they are to be found everywhere. W hat 
a change has taken place in the last three-quarters of a century. How thank- 
ful the rising generation ought to be that we live at the present time. The 
county has been cleared up and divided into beautiful farms ; towns and cities 
are scattered over the land ; school houses and churches are found everywhere, 
all for our benefit. I love to hear settlers tell of the life they have lived, of 
their trials and sufferings, of their backwoods life. There is a great deal of 
unwritten history within our reach which will soon be gone forever. Then 
let us gather it while we may." 


Clay township lies mostly on a ridge, between the deep valleys of South 
Hogan, Laughery and Hayes branch. In the center of the township it is high 
above the valleys. Dillsboro, which lies nearly in the center of the township, 
is seven hundred and eighty-five feet above the sea level and commands a fine 
view of the country about. 

Dillsboro is a very pretty village with neat front yards and cozy, home- 
like cottages. Its population in 1910 is given at four hundred and twenty-five, 
which is probably less than it is at this time. The town has recently taken on 
a greater degree of prosperity on account of the good pikes leading to it and 
the growth of the sanitarium which has been established here. Some years 
ago the citizens of the town, desiring to find if there was natural gas in the 
ground beneath their place, organized a company and sunk wells, but instead of 
finding gas they unexpectedly discovered water with medicinal virtues which 
they were quick to take advantage of and give the public the benefit. They 
have organized a company, erected a building that they expected would ac- 
commodate the public for the present but have found it all too small and larger 
buildings will be necessary at once. 

Besides the sanitarium the town has a number of stores that transact 
business with a large scope of country to the west and south. It is claimed for 
the town that the Dillsboro station does in the way of country produce the 

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second best business of my on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio railway 
between Cincinnati and St. Louis, The town has concrete pavements on all 
its streets, electric lights and graded high school with a two-years course. 
The postoffice has three rural routes going out from it to the "country around 
about. The town permits no saloons and its citizens are of a high order of 

Dillsboro was laid out in March 16,1830, by Mathias Whetstone. Na- 
thaniel L. Squibb was the surveyor. It lies about one and one-half miles south 
of the Baltimore & Ohio railway. Additions to the town were made in 
1837 and 1855. by G. V. Swallow and John Lenover. The first merchant of 
the town was David Gibson, who was shortly succeeded by Jacob Egelston. 
In 1837 Mr. Egelston sold his store to William Glenn, who afterward became 
one of the prominent merchants of Cincinnati. Mr. Glenn was also the pro- 
prietor of the first hotel in the town. Not many years after the town was laid 
out the cooperage business became an important industry and was carried on by 
Philip, Samuel and James Wymond. They for a number of years operated 
quite extensively and employed as many as forty or fifty men. A flour-mill 
was located here in 1858 by Arthur Beckett. Clay township was one of the 
most patriotic localities in the county during the Civil War and it is claimed 
that during that period every man between the ages of eighteen and forty-five 
that was able for military service had seen service. 


The Dillsboro Oil and Gas Company was organized in 1900, for the 
purpose of determining the presence of either oil or gas in the soil underneath 
the ground of Clay township. A spot was chosen adjacent to the town of Dills- 
boro and a well sunk to the depth of one thousand three hundred and eighty 
seven feet, but neither oil or gas was found in sufficient quantities to justify 
its use. However, they did find an inexhaustible stratum of mineral water 
which on being analyzed showed qualities the medicinal value of which 
proved to be a boon to persons suffering with rheumatism, kidney and kin- 
dred afflictions. A company which had its headquarters in Newport, Ken- 
tucky, was organized to develop the find, but it failed to perform its contract 
and was succeeded by the present company, which goes under the name 
of the Dillsboro Sanitarium Company. It was incorporated on August 14. 
191 1, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, and the in] 
lowing board of officers and directors : President, Oliver H. Smith : treas- 

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1 66 


urer, Holland P. Long; secretary, Robert E. Fleming. Directors: Mary 
Licking, Oliver H. Smith, John W. Fleming, Louis Ruhlman. Holland 
P. Long. The company have gone to work with a will and erected a com- 
fortable building with a broad piazza and rest rooms that are light and airy. 
The building has fifty-six rooms and accommodations are arranged to com- 
fortably house and care for from sixty to seventy- five guests. It has been a suc- 
cess from the time the company had completed and ready for occupancy their 
new building and its rooms have been well filled with patients and those de- 
siring to obtain a rest from the worries of life for a short season. 


Auto bus line — Leslie Smith. Airdome — W. E. Talley. Blacksmiths— 
Mulford Brothers, Charles Neaster. Bank*? — Dillsboro State Bank, Henry 
Bulthaup, president; First National Bank, William Gray, president. Butcher 
— Rudolph Liebermann. Barbers — Leasure & Ashcraft. Coal dealers — Louts 
Garrison, Thomas L. Cole. Confectionery — Louis Lester. Clothing — W. H. 
Kamping. Dentists — George A. Withrow, C. H. Burnett. Druggist — G. A. 
Triplett. Groceries — Edward Kuhn. General Merchandise — J. W. Fleming 
& Son, H. H. Kamping, C. A. Gerkepot. Hucksters — Edward Steuver, Eller- 
brook Brothers. Hardware — Picper & Smith. J. X. Hooper & Son. Har- 
ness — Aaron F. Xeaster. Hotel — John Graber. Livery — McArdle, Long- 
camp & Bernett. Milliner — Bertha Stevenson. Miller — Schulenberg & Dor- 
selmann. Newspaper and real estate — Benjamin F. Calvert. Physicians — 
Holland P. Long. Fleetwood H. Sale. Stoves and Tinware — John L. Roberts. 
Stoves and Furniture — W. S. Calhoun. Telephone companies — The New 
Dillsboro Telephone Company, J. H. Greene, manager; Farmers Telephone 
Company, Mrs. Fleet Roberts, manager. Veterinary — Frank Palmer. Va- 
riety store — Walter P. Wheeler. Wagon maker — Louis Klinkerman. 

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Harrison township was created out of the territory taken trom Logan 
township. It is situated in the extreme northeast corner of Dearborn county, 
and was organized by the board of county commissioners at the June session, 
in 1844. Like Logan, Lawrenceburg and Center townships, settlements were 
made in this township very promptly after the treaty made by General Wayne 
with the Indians, and lands were entered at once after the land office was 
opened at Cincinnati for the sale of the lands west of the Miami river. 

Section 1 1 was entered by John Brown and Lewis Deweese, in August, 
1 80 1. Part of section 13 was entered by Cave Johnston in the same month. 
John Brown likewise entered a part of section 24. April 9. 1801. which was 
the same day that Joseph Hayes, Jr., entered land in Lawrenceburg township. 
Later entries were William Majors, in June, 1802; John Allen, part of section 
25, in 1805. John Hackleman entered a part of section 10, in 1808. and James 
Adair a part of section 4, the same year. In 1804 Alexander Dearmand en- 
tered a part of section 12. and in December, 1801, William Allensworth en- 
tered a part of section 1 3. 


In 1879 William McClure, then a very old man. living just over the line 
in Franklin county, wrote the following account of the early times as he re- 
membered it : 

"My father moved from Harrison county, Kentucky, in 1804, when I was 
about two years old, and settled in Cleves, Ohio, about five miles below the 
town of Harrison, Ohio. He remained there one season, and then moved 
to a place called "Stone Lick," and built a log cabin, which was on the farm 
of the late Peter Rifner, about one mile above Harrison. I learned from 
Capt. Isaac Fuller, of this county, that his father lived as early as 1794 or 
1 795 1 at North Bend, and in the Big Bottom, and that he helped to raise the 
first patch of corn that was raised by white men in the Big Bottoms. 

"I will now name the first settlers in the vicinity of Harrison, out as 
far as the Dry fork, and Miami and up to the line of Franklin county, and also 

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state where they lived, as near as I can recollect, as the principal route to the 
interior of the state from Cincinnati, where the land office was located, was 
up the Whitewater valley, where were located these early settlers. On the Ohio 
side and near the Miami there lived Colonel Benifield. Squire Vantrees, Basil 
Wells, Carrs, Professor White, Ingersol, and the Ismingers. J. Armstrong 
settled on Dry fork near New Haven, in 1802 or 1803; also the Athertons and 
Shucks. Matthew Brown lived near Harrison, also the Cottons. At Harrison 
and below were Eben Cooley, the Hunts, Aliens, James Backhouse and the 
Breckenridges. Above Harrison, first was old John Caldwell, who could tell 
some of the greatest stories of any man in the country. He said that when he 
was 'laying his corn by' one year in the bottoms above Harrison, he noticed 
a very promising hill of corn and that he concluded he would mark it; so he 
threw a black chunk by it, and in the fall when he came to gather it, there 
were one hundred and sixty-five ears on that one hill of corn and fourteen 
on the black chunk. 

"Next above was James Eads, father of William H. Eads, formerly of 
Brookville. I lived near Mr. Harthouse. Jeremiah Johnson lived near John- 
sons fork, from whom I presume it took its name. Across the river lived the 
Ashbys. Above the mouth of Johnsons fork, on the bank of the river, there 
was a blockhouse built in 18 12, for defense against the Indians. Moses Wiley, 
father of Hon. Spencer Wiley, settled on the farm of the late Thomas Brecken- 
ridge. The next farm above was settled by William Jacob, father of Major 
Hackleman, deceased, late of this county. William Myer lived in the bot- 
tom south of Hacklemans. near the old Baptist meeting house. The next 
above Hacklemans were Solomon and Richard Manwarring. The next above, 
near where the Widow Bray lives, was James Cole, who was one of your noisy, 
boisterous men. He could be heard in common conversation nearly half a 
mile. Benjamin McCarty, James Adair, and Abner Conner settled in the 
bottom above Cole. Some persons by the name of Logan made some salt, at 
or near the mouth of Logan creek." 


One of the most successful and well-known Methodist preachers in the 
Whitewater country was Rev. Allen Wiley. His father moved to a place about 
three miles above Harrison in 1804, at which time Allen Wiley was in his six- 
teenth year. In 1845 and 1S46 Rev. Allen Wiley published a series of articles 
in the Western Christian Advocate entitled "Introduction and Progress of 

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I6 9 

Methodism in Southeastern Indiana." He was a man of unusually large ex- 
perience and knowledge of the people and of the times whereof he wrote. He 
says: "In the autumn of 1804 my father came to Indiana. The country was 
then somewhat densely settled along the river up what was called the Lower 
Narrows, six or seven miles above where the Whitewater leaves Indiana. As 
well as I remember there was but one family living on the southwest side 
of the river opposite the before mentioned narrows ; another family lived oppo- 
site the narrows above the present town of New Trenton, and another on the 
same side opposite Cedar Grove. Three-quarters of a mile above Big Cedar 
Grove creek, John Connor, an Indian trader, had a store, kept by a Frenchman, 
hence the store was called French's store. I have now gone to the ultima 
thule or verge of the white population in the Whitewater valley in 1804. The 
first settlers in the Whitewater bottom were in many respects a charming 
people, when I became acquainted with them in 1804. They were generally 
a sober, industrious and kind-hearted people." 

An emigrants' director)-, published in 18 17, speaks of the village of 
Harrison — "A considerable number of the inhabitants are from the State 
of New York. Mr. Looker from Saratoga county, Mr. Crane from Sche- 
nectady and Mr. Allen, the postmaster, from New Jersey, own the surrounding 
lands. They are all very fine and valuable farms worth from forty to 
sixty dollars per acre. The settlement was commenced about sixteen years 

In 1884 Mathias Voshell died in Miller township and in his obituary it 
was stated that "he was born in Delaware, in 1800, and with his step- father, 
Mr. Thornton, immigrated to Williamsburg, Pennsylvania, in the fall of 1805. 
where Mr. Thornton built a flatboat, and in 1806 landed in Cincinnati and se- 
lected and built the first cabin on the Ohio side, in the town of Harrison, 
and at the age of twenty-five years went to Kentucky, where he resided, until 
recently he returned to Dearborn county." 


George W. Lane says in regard to the early settlement of Harrison town- 
ship : "In 1807 Moses Tebbs removed from North Carolina and settled on the 
Whitewater river in Harrison township. Mr. Tebbs had previously resided in 
Virginia. On coming here game of all kinds were very plenty, and the male 
portion of the Tebbs family became expert hunters. When the Indian war 
broke out in 181 1, Warren, with his brother Willoughby (sons of Moses) 

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and most of the young men in the neighborhood joined the 'rangers.' and 
were stationed at the various block houses, as the frontier forts were desig- 
nated. After the war, Warren married and settled in Logan township. 
Adamaners Andres and family, from Maryland, settled on the east bank of 
the Whitewater in 1813. He was the father of James Andres, a highly 
esteemed citizen of Harrison. Mr. Andres and family were accompanied 
by Isaac Mettler and family from the same state. Mr. Mettler was born in 
that state in 1774, and had four brothers who served throughout the Revo- 
lutionary War, and he himself attended the funeral of President Washington, 
on which occasion he was one of the strewers of flowers. Both Mr. Mettler 
and Mr. Andres had several children at the time of their locating." 

"Peter Williams, a native of North Carolina, settled in the township in 
181 1. He was the father of David Williams, deceased. William McMana- 
man and family came from the state of Pennsylvania, in 18 13. and located in 
the township.*' 

Again quoting George W. Lane : "In the year 1810 Samuel Bond settled 
on Wilson creek and soon after removed over the state line and built what 
was known far and near by the early settlers as Bond's mill, later it was known 
as the Bond-Rees' Mill. It was a water-power mill and stood on the west bank 
of the Whitewater just above where the modern suspension bridge was erected. 
It was a substantial structure and was. patronized by the settlers for miles 
around. The building was taken down about 1890, and the old race is all that 
is left of this once famous place for grinding grain. In 1808 or 1809 a saw- 
mill was operated on the Whitewater, west of Harrison, by William Pur- 
cell and Thomas Breckinridge. Probably about 1824 these same men erected 
a grist-mill on the east side of the river." 


The town of West Harrison joins onto the state line and is separated from 
Harrison, Ohio, by State street which is directly on the line dividing Indiana 
from Ohio. It was laid out in 1813 by John Allen and Peter Hanan. It is 
given a population of two hundred and eighty-one by the census of 1910. The 
town was evidently laid out on the site of a mound builders' city if the numer- 
ous mounds and other relics of this pre-historic race are any evidence. An 
emigrants' directory, published in 181 7, speaking of these evidences of a pre- 
vious race living here says : "The traces of ancient population cover the earth 
in every direction. On the bottoms are a great many mounds very unequal in 

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age and size. The small ones are from two to four feet above the surface, 
and the growth of timber upon them small, not being over one hundred years 
old, while the other mounds are from ten to thirty feet and frequently contain 
trees of the largest diameter. There is a large mound in Mr. Allen's field 
about twenty feet high and sixty feet in diameter at the base, which contains 
a greater proportion of bones than anyone I ever before examined, as also every 
shovelful of dirt would contain fragments of a human skeleton. Almost every 
lot in the village of Harrison contains a mound and some as many as three. 
On the neighboring hills northeast of the town are a number of remains of 
stone houses. They were covered with soil, brush and full grown trees. We 
cleared away the earth, roots and rubbish from one of them and found it to 
have been occupied anciently as a dwelling. It was aoout twelve feet square; 
the walls had fallen nearly to the foundation. They appeared to have been 
built of rough stones like our stone walls. Not the least trace of any iron 
tools having been employed to smooth the face of them could be perceived. At 
one end of the building we came to a regular hearth, containing ashes and 
coals, before which we found the bcnes of eight persons of different ages, 
from a small child to the heads of the family. The positions of their skeletons 
clearly indicated that their deaths were sudden and simultaneous. They were 
probably asleep with their feet to the fire, when destroyed by an enemy, an 
earthquake or a pestilence." 

It is said that the first hotel in the village was carried on by John YVykof f 
in 1816, and that the second was built by Breckinridge & Purcell in 1818. 
Among the early merchants were Sattertatt & Totten, James Wilson, John D. 
Moore, Isaac Morgan (father-in-law of Vice-President Thomas A. Hen- 
dricks), who it is thought built the first brick house, on the site of West Har- 
rison, now occupied by Tebbs Brothers. It was built in 18 18. About one-third 
of the town of Harrison is on the west side of the state line. 

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Hogan township was organized in the year 1852. Its territory originally 
was a part of Laughery township, which was divided up after the loss of 
territory from setting off Ohio county, Laughery township in Ohio county 
being what is left of the original township of Laughery. The major part of 
Hogan township lies between the two Hogan creeks. A small portion of it 
lies north of North Hogan. When originally organized, in 1852, it comprised 
less territory than it does at present. It got from Center township, in 1853, 
about three quarter sections, and in 1856 and 1857, it obtained from Sparta 
township three sections in the northwest part of the township. 

Land was entered from the government in this township at nearly as 
early a period as that of any in the county. In 1803 Jeremiah Hunt pur- 
chased a part of section 26, in township 5, range 2 west, and in 1805 Adam 
Flake bought a part of section 35. In 1809 Amos and D. G. Boardman 
bought a part of section 25, and in the same year Isaac Allen bought part of 
section 33. In 1806 James and Amor Bruce bought part of section 23, 
where some of their descendants yet reside. Most of the government land in 
the township was disposed of before 1825, but a few of the out-of-the-way 
lots were not purchased until late in the thirties. 

The earliest record of land entered from the government is only two 
years later than the land office at Cincinnati was opened, and the township 
was evidently abreast of the earliest part of the county. The two Hogans 
furnished the bottom lard and the creeks for outlets, which in those times 
was a strong, inducement for settlers. Like other places in the county, how- 
ever, there were a number of persons reported as settling much earlier than 
the entering of land, and no doubt that there were some who lived in the 
township for a time and then moved to other localities for final location ; 
and perhaps others who, possessed of the wanderlust that was just as strong 
then as now, never did locate permanently anywhere, but kept up the nomadic 
life until its close. 


Like all other townships that had water privileges Hogan township 
records the earliest settlement in 1796. It is claimed on good authority that 



Adam Flake and wife with their two sons and two daughters settled on South 
Hogan in January, 1796. It will be recalled that in 1805 Adam Flake 
entered a portion of section 35, in township 5, range 2 west, situated on South 
Hogan about a mile from the corporation line of Aurora, as it now is laid off. 
Here also his two sons above mentioned, William and Michael, entered, in 
181 1, portions of the same section, and here the old pioneer lived and died at 
a good old age, and in the little graveyard in the same section his remains 
were laid away. His son, William Flake, served one term in the Legislature, 
in 1 83 1, and was also at one time a member of the county board of super- 
visors. Michael Flake, another son, was one of the three parties that platted 
the town of Wilmington. 

It is also claimed that Amor, Henry and James Bruce came from Ken- 
tucky and settled on North Hogan in 1798. James and Amor entered land on 
North Hogan in 1806 and the family has been prominent in the annals of 
the county from that date until the present, filling many places of honor and 
trust. The Amor Bruce now residing in the township lives on and owns 
some of the same land his forefathers entered from the government in the 
year 1806. 

Conrad Huffman, who settled in the township in 1803. served in the 
War of 1812 under General Dill. His son. Hon. Elijah Huffman, was a 
member of the state Senate from 1867 t0 l8o 9- Elijah Huffman was the 
father of Andrew J. Huffman, a Civil War veteran, now living in the town 
of Wilmington. Peter Carbaugh, a soldier of the Revolution, settled in the 
township in 1805. locating near Wilmington. 

L. G. Elder, who died in 1876. in Hogan township, was a native of 
Maryland. His parents came to the county in 1808, and settled on North 
Hogan. A story is told in the Dearborn county history of 1885 that the 
family brought with them from Maryland a negro boy who went by the nam-? 
of Harry Short. Probably on account of his color the Indians, a few of 
whom were yet prowling around the country, looked on him as a curiosity. 
George Griffin, an old citizen of Aurora, related the troubles of the negro 
"The Indians were always on the lookout for the strange creature and were 
evidently determined to capture him alive. They made no attempt to take 
his life, but many a lively foot race they gave him over the hills and along 
the bottoms of North Hogan." Short lived in the county for many years, 
and died in Indianapolis at a great age not many years ago. 

William Kerr settled in the township in 18 16. He was the father of 

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Walter Kerr, who lived to the age of one hundred and one. Walter Kerr's 
daughter, Mrs. Abram Hill, is yet living, although well on towards ninety 
years of age. 


From 1812 to 1820 the township took on new life, settlers came in fast. 
The town of Wilmington was laid out and considerable business was done 
here, Aurora had not yet been laid out, and on account of the bottom lands 
giving the settlers living there so much sickness of a malarial nature it was 
thought that settlers would not live there permanently. Wilmington offered 
a healthful location, as fine a view as anywhere in the county; it was on 
the public highway leading from Lawrenceburg to Madison, it was situated 
between the two Hogans, and it was claimed that the place had ideal advan- 
tages for a permanent place of residence as well as for business. 

In 1807 Amos Bardman came from New York and settled in the town- 
ship about a half mile north of Wilmington. He entered a portion of section 
25, in the year 1809. Among the other pioneer families who were early 
settlers are found the names of Adams, Milburn, Golding, Harwood, 
Sellers, Moore, Churchill. Kimball, Reed. Cornelius, Chaffin and Hannegan. 
Among those who were remarkable for living to an extreme old age was 
James Hubbartt, who died in Marion county, Indiana, in 1886, at the age of 
one hundred and one. He was born in Sussex county, Maryland. March 27, 
1785. His father came to Dearborn county in 181 1, settling near Wilmington 
where he died in 1848, only four weeks less than one hundred years of age. 
His grandfather, it is said, lived to the age of one hundred and five. 


George \V. Lane is given credit for the following from his Centennial 
writings: "Noyes Canfield came to the county in 1800, stopped for a time 
with Doctor Percival in Lawrenceburg, and helped him erect the first house 
in the place. He afterwards removed to a piece of land he entered on Hogan 
creek, at the foot of the hill north of Wilmington, where he lived until his 
death. He was the father of Edwin Canfield, of Wilmington, and Cyrus Can- 
field, at one time justice of the peace in Hogan township. 

"William Record settled on North Hogan in 1807. where he remained 
for eight or nine years. During the War of 181 2. he. with his family, was 
often compelled to take shelter in the blockhouse close by that was under the 

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command of Capt. James Bruce. About 1816 he removed to Kings ridge, 
in Sparta township, where he opened a farm and resided until his death. 

"Elias Chaff in came to Lawrenceburg in 1810. When the trouble com- 
menced with the Indians he was among the first to volunteer for the 
protection of settlers, and served during the war when duty called. His 
services were recognized by (he government by the issue of a land warrant. 
For some ten or twelve years Mr. Chaffin published, in an Aurora paper, 
reminiscences of the war and pioneer life. He was an enterprising man and 
a worthy and law-abiding citizen. 

"Peter Hannegan moved to the county in 1818, and settled on Sparta 
ridge. He was a soldier during the War of 181 2. as was his father during the 
Revolutionary War. Mr. Hannegan was an active, industrious citizen, who 
lived to more than four-score years and was respected by all who knew him. 

"Our attention is called to four aged ladies, residing in and near Wil- 
mington, who have experienced pioneer life, seen Indian warriors and lived 
for weeks in blockhouses. Mrs. Jane Purdy was born in the county in the 
year 1800. Her father, John Moore, settled on Laughery that year, after- 
wards removed to the farm now owned by James Stafford in Washington 
township. During the War of 181 2 the family took shelter in the blockhouse 
near A. Tufts, where they would remain for weeks at a time. Mrs. Purdy 
is the oldest native citizen in this part of the county known to the writer. 

"Mrs. Elizabeth Carbaugh was born in 1798, and came to the county in 
1810. She was a sister of Thomas Baker, of Wilmington. Her husband did 
service during the War of 1812. 

"Mrs. William Bainum is now over eighty years of age and has been 
in the county some sixty-five years, and new makes her home with her 
daughter. Mrs. Watkins, in Wilmington, on the land selected by her com- 
panion when it was an unbroken forest. 

"Mrs. Thomas Baker was born in 1797, and came to the county with her 
father, Nathan Powell, about the year 1804, and can count seventy years of 
sunshine and shade in the county of Dearborn. 

"Mrs. Baker was a sister of Erasmus Powell, who was a member of the 
first Legislature of the state in 1816, and was associated with Amos Lane. 
He was re-elected in 1818. with John Watts as a colleague, and again elected 
in 1820, representing the county with Ezra Ferris." 


The village of Wilmington is the only village in Hogan township and its 
history is of more than ordinary interest. It was originally laid out on May 

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30, 18 1 5. In the original plat there were thirty-two lots. The proprietors 
were William C. Chamberlain, Michael Flake and Robert Moore April 3, 
1 816, lots numbering from 33 to 60 were added by Robert Moore and Will- 
iam Bainum. Additions were made in 1835 by William Bainum and Arthur 
St. Clair Vance. Robert Moore, it is claimed, was the first blacksmith in the 
new village. Thomas Cole and Isaac Hancock were the early storekeepers and 
Stephen Wood the hotel keeper, being the landlord of the "White Tavern." 

In the decade from 1830 to 1840, and as late as 1845, the village was 
full of life and bustle. The citizens of the lower end of the county continually 
agitated the question of establishing the county seat in the center of the county, 
as the county was then with what is now Ohio county as a part of Dear- 
born. They selected Wilmington as being the nearest place to the center and 
the matter of changing the county seat encouraged the growth of the village 
until it was finally consummated. The friends of moving the court house 
won out, and in 1836 the seat of justice was moved from Lawrenceburg to 
Wilmington. A court house was erected, a jail, clerk's and recorder's office. 
Wilmington became a thriving business place, one that was much more pros- 
perous than Aurora. It began to be a prevalent idea that the river bottoms 
were unhealthy and unfit for permanent residence. In 1833 the county com- 
missioners ordered the county seminary built there, and it was expected that 
the place would become a seat of learning as well as the seat of justice. Both 
were doomed to disappointment. In 1844 the county seat was changed back 
to lawrenceburg, and the seminary plan, not only' in Dearborn county but 
throughout the state, proved a disappointment. 

In 1836 there were a number of stores and other industries in Wilming- 
ton. Among the names of those who were doing business at that time are 
recorded those of Isaac Hancock. J. C. Cordry, John R. Wood, James Powell. 
O. H. Reed, Josiah Chambers. Thomas Jennings, Stephen Wood, Ranna 
Stephens and William Glenn. In the year 1858 the population was 350, in 
1866 it was 366. In 1910 the population was 150. 

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Jackson township lies in the northwest corner of Dearborn county, and 
the old Indian boundary line divides it on the west from Ripley county. On 
the north it is bounded by Franklin county. On the east lies Kelso township 
and on the south is Manchester township. The southern row of sections ir 
Jackson township are bounded on the east by York township, which is one 
section farther north than the line of Manchester township. The township 
is about the three and one-half sections wide, from its northernmost limits to 
Manchester township, and seven sections long. It lies about the headwaters 
of Tonners creek in its west fork. In some places it is nearly level, while in 
others it is very rough and broken, especially is this true where the various 
branches of Tanners creek run through the lands. 

The first settlement of Jackson township commenced about 1817. In 
1818 Nathan Lambert, Eli Hill, Samuel Y. Allen, Thomas Morgan and 
Samuel C. Vance all entered lands. There seems to have been an unusual 
large family by the name of Lawrence for there are recorded during the year 
1 81 7-18 twenty- five entries of land from the government, in the name of 
Lawrence. The Lawrences entered all the land in section 17, township 7, 
range 2 west. They entered five tracts in section 7, of the same township, 
three tracts in section 8, and two tracts in section 18. The lands were entered 
in the name of Isaac, Daniel, Abraham, James, Philip, George and Johanna 

Samuel C. Vance entered three tracts in the township, and Daniel S. 
Majors entered one. George J. Buell also entered two tracts, and in 1836 
there is one tract of land entered in the name of Salmon P. Chase, the famous 
secretary of the treasury under President Lincoln. 

The emigration from Germany commenced about 1831 and continued 
until most of the lands in the township were owned by them. They, however, 
have became possessed of the western fever as well as the people who have 
lived longer in this country, and many of the second and third generations 
have moved on to other fields that to their eyes looked more inviting. 


George W. Lane says that it was thought that "The first actual settle- 
ment was made by the Lawrence families during the year 1818. Isaac 

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Lawrence and family, consisting of eight sons and two daughters, emigrated 
in the spring of 1818. from the state of Pennsylvania, and settled in the 
neighborhood of the present site of the village of Lawrenceville. All of the 
sons and daughters, save two. were persons of families. They came by boat 
down the Ohio, and from Lawrenceburg up the meanderings of Tanners creek 
to the place of settlement in wagons. They brought with them $1,500 in gold 
and among them was purchased from the government ten quarter sections 
of land. The home place, as it was called, was the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 17, the home of Isaac Lawrence. This large body of land was all situated 
within two miles of the home place. From this beginning the families of 
Lawrence became very numerous and at one time numbered over three hun- 
dred persons. Although at this writing there are but two families of the name 
in the township." 

Isaac and Samuel Alden came to Cincinnati from the state of New 
Hampshire in 1817, and shortly afterward selected lands along the western 
border of the township where they "batched" for several years. In 1822 
Isaac Alden married and moved out on the land. He was the father of A. 
J. Alden. who represented the county in the Legislature in 1848 and 1855. 

William Cairns settled in the township in 18 18. coming from New Jersey. 
Members of the family are yet living in the township. 

Among the first Germans to settle in the township was Feldie Gutapfel. 
and his brother John. They arrived about 1825. and Peter Buchert settled 
in the township in 1827. In 1831 Claudius Anderson settled in the township, 
emigrating from Ireland. Members of his family are yet residents of the 
township. In 1832 John G. Tangman arrived in the township from Germany, 
and also George Knerr and family. 

The Lawrence family were members of the L T nited Brethren church and 
they were active in erecting a church in the neighborhood. It was erected 
out of logs, in 1819 or 1820. and was called a LTnion church, where all denom- 
inations held services. The character of the neighborhood changed with the 
incoming of so many Germans and the congregation dwindled until the house 
and ground were finally sold to Isaac S. Lawrence, who again opened its 
doors to every sect of religion, excepting Universalists and Mormons. The 
oldest gravestone in the cemetery adjacent is that of Abraham Lawrence, who 
was buried there in 1827. 

For some time after the Lawrence families settled in the township they 
made a hand mill for doing the grinding for the neighborhood. The stones 
used in the old mill were in the possession of Isaac S. Lawrence in 1885, but 

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whether anyone now is keeping them, like Mr. Lawrence, just for a souvenir 
of "old times" is not known. Later on, a grist-mill was erected on the west 
fork of Tanners creek, run by water power. A good steam-mill for making 
flour and other products is now being operated at Weisburg. The town was 
named for the owner of the mill, Philip Weis. 


The towns of Lawrenceville and Morgantown were laid out as rivals. 
They are, in fact, one and the same place, a road separating the towns. Mor- 
gantown was laid out by Jonathan Lawrence, in November, 1836. Robert 
Rowe was the engineer. The original plat contained thirty-six lots. It is 
claimed that the name of Morgantown was given after Daniel R. L. Morgan, 
a nephew of Gen. John Morgan, the raider. James and Philip Lawrence kept 
the first store in the town, and the store was run by Mr. Morgan, after whom 
the town received its name. The place is practically eliminated as a town at 
present and the whole neighborhood is now known as Lawrenceville. Law- 
renceville was laid out on October 25, 1836, by John K. Lawrence. It will 
be observed that he was eleven days ahead of the founders of Morgantown. 
Isaac Johnson, John Bird and Lewis Snyder Avere the early storekeepers in 
the place. The vijlage has a population of 100, while the town that was once 
a rival seems to have been wiped off the map. 

Weisburg was laid out by Jasper Montgomery on January 7, 1858, and 
platted by Samuel Kennedy, one of Dearborn county's old-time engineers. 
Besides the flour-mill mentioned it has a store, blacksmith shop and several 
saloons, and is a place of considerable business, being a good shipping point 
for all the country near by. 

Hubbell's Cross Roads was called after Merritt Hubbell, who located 
there as a merchant and was made a justice of the peace. A postoffice was 
established there and flourished for a time, but it was discontinued long before 
the advent of the rural routes. 

A tannery was carried on for a number of years at Morgantown by 
George S. Williams. He commenced the business in 1838 and discontinued 
in 1875, on account of old age. The first blacksmith in the township was 
Jacob V. Lawrence. The coopering business was conducted at Lawrencf- 
ville for a time, but has been discontinued now for a number of years. 

George W. Lane says of Jackson township that "In 18 18 Job Beach came 
from New Jersey and settled on the land now owned by Daniel Taylor, near 

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Hubbells Corners. Also came Samuel and Isaac Alden, who settled in the 
western part of the township on section 23. In the fall of the same year, 
Thomas Ehler emigrated from Pennsylvania and settled in the south part of 
the township, as also did Zachariah Conger. In 1819 a church was erected 
by the United Brethren in the northwest quarter of section 17, and was known 
as Zion church, which was removed in 1838 to section 8, where it still remains. 
In 1820 Jacob R. Lawrence built on his land — near the present village of 
Morgantown — a log cabin in which the first school of the township was 
taught by John Yeriger during that same year, he being employed and paid 
by Mr. Lawrence for that purpose. The school was afterwards taught in 
Zion church by the same teacher. In the absence of a school building in the 
west part of the township. Mrs. Samuel Alden volunteered her serv ices as a 
teacher, and taught the children of the neighborhood at her home." 
The township now contains nine schools and three churches. 

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Kelso township was one of the original seven townships that then made 
what is now Dearborn county, and was organized at the November session 
of the county board of supervisors in 1826. The township derived its name 
from John Kelso, a native of Ireland, who came to the county and entered 
a part of section 2, town 7, range 2 west, in 1814. Mr. Kelso was an active, 
public-spirited citizen, and on that account the township was named for him. 
One of his grandsons, after serving his country for three years in the Eighty- 
third Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, during the Civil War, removed 
to Rush county, Indiana, where he has been following in the footsteps of his 
sires, by being called to the position of county commissioner for several terms. 

Following Mr. Kelso in the township the early settlers were Thomas 
Dart, Joel Dickinson, Lewis and Henry McKenzie. In 18 19 a United Breth- 
ren church was built on section 7, which was the first church built in the 
township. It is now within the bounds of Jackson township. Preachers by 
the names of Holmes and Spencer were the first to preach the gospel in that 
country. George W. Lane says, in a short history he wrote for a Dearborn 
county map, published in 1875, "that Spencer was captured by the Indians 
when a boy near Cincinnati, living with them for a number of years." It is 
probable that Mr. Lane had the wrong Spencer in his mind : for O. M. Spen- 
cer, who was captured by the Indians one Fourth of July, about a year after 
Cincinnati was settled, was an attorney, it is believed. 

Kelso township was originally settled by people from the east but in a 
few years the Germans and Irish began to come in, and in a generation almost 
he entire township had changed ownership. 

There are three villages in the township. The site of Dover was first 
settled in 181 5. by Jonathan Lewis. He erected the first house there at that 
date. The place was originally known as McKenzies Cross Roads, and it is 
claimed that Henry McKenzie had a store at that point, was the first merchant 
in the township and postmaster. It now has a store, blacksmith shop and a 
number of houses with a population of perhaps 100. 

New Alsace was laid off by Joseph Smith, February 12. 1838. and a 
Frenchman by the name of Anthony Walliezer is supposed to have been the 

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first settler at that place, he coming there in 1833. The town was laid out 
with sixteen lots and seven ten-acre lots. An addition to the village was 
filed by Philip Schatts, in 1848, George Vogelgesang settled here and became 
the first blacksmith. The first merchant was John Decker, who kept a 
grocery, and then followed James Cannon, who kept a dry goods store. A 
postoffice was established here in 1840, and John B. Kessler was appointed 
postmaster. The population of the village in 1910 is given by the census as 
200. St. Leon is located in the northern part of the township and as a village 
with a postoffice and several stores, and a population according to the census 
of 1910 of 250. 

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Lawrenceburg township was one of the first settled townships in the 
county. No sooner had General Wayne, by his treaty at Greenville, Ohio, 
established peace and security to the lives of the pioneers, than the settlers 
came in to the county. Desirable lands were selected and cleared with an 
eye to entering, when the new lands had once been surveyed and prepared 
for sale. It was five long years to wait before the land was ready for sale 
by the national government. Many of the incomers grew tired of waiting 
and traveled on in search of greener pastures ; others never became able finan- 
cially to purchase the lands they had chosen, when they were open for entry. 

The earliest entries were made by Joseph Hayes, Jr., Henry Hardin, 
George Crist and Samuel C. Vance in 1801; Barnet Hulick in 1802; Zebulon 
Pike in 1804; Jacob Froman, Isaac L. Masters and John Brown in 1806: 
Samuel Bond in 1808; Samuel Bond and Thomas Townsend in 1809; David 
Dutton in 1810; Cabel Pugh, Dell Elder and Robert Piatt in 181 1 ; William 
Caldwell and Adam Pate in 1812; Samuel Evans in 1813; John Ferris. 
George Weaver, John Dumos and Stephen Ludlow in 1814. Timothy Guard, 
Amos Way, Isaac Lamasters, Jacob Brashear, Leonard Chase, David Rees, 
Enoch Pugh, Daniel Perine, in 1815; Zebulon Pike in 1816; Jesse Laird in 
1817; Thomas Branin, Mary Muir and John Davis in 1831. This last tract 
entered, in 183 1, is near the state line and on Double Lick run, adjacent to 
the first ground entered in the state by Joseph Hayes. 

The land in Lawrenceburg was nearly all entered from the government 
before the War of 18 12, and by the end of the war there were only two or 
three unentered pieces. 

Samuel Morrison, a prolific writer of the early history of Dearborn 
county, says of the early pioneer history of Lawrenceburg township, "in the 
spring of 1791 Capt. Joseph Hayes, an officer of the Revolutionary War, 
and family; his two married sons. Job and Joseph Hayes, Jr., their wives 
and children; his two sons-in-law, Thomas Miller, Sr., wife and five children. 
James Bennett, and wife: Benjamin Walker, wife and three children: Samuel, 
John and Joseph and their sister. Jane Walker; Isaac Polk, Garrett VanXess. 
and Joseph Kitchell, landed at Xorth Bend, on the Ohio river. During the 

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1 84 


previous spring Alexander Guard and his wife, Hannah, and their four 
children, had landed at the same point. The names of the children of this 
couple were Timothy, David, Ezra and Bailey. In 1793 Captain Hayes and 
Thomas Miller, Sr., took a lease of Judge John Cleves Symmes, for a tract 
of land at the mouth of the Great Miami river, and removed there early that 
spring, and to this point nearly the entire colony removed. Here Captain 
Hayes and family and the families of his children remained and cultivated 
the soil as best they could until after the ratification of the treaty of Green- 
ville. Early in the spring in 1796 Hayes and family and the families of Jo- 
seph Hayes, Jr., and Thomas Miller, Sr., removed west of the Miami river 
and settled in this county (then Knox county, Northwestern Territory). 
Thomas Miller and Joseph Hayes, Jr., purchased the first tract of land pur- 
chased of the United States in the now state of Indiana. Their purchase 
was fractional section 1, township 5, range 1 west, and section 36, township 
6, range 1 west, containing in all about 1,000 acres. It was entered in April, 
1 80 1, and was paid out fully in 18 10. The amount in principal and interest 
was $2,635.03 in silver. This tract of land, with the addition of many more 
acres, is still owned by the descendants of these two men. The sections 
referred to are located a little northeast of Hardinsburg, and are next to the 
state line. Section 1 also bordered on the Miami river as it run at that time." 


Mr. Morrison is authority for saying that Alexander Guard and family 
moved west of the Miami river and settled in the beautiful bottoms west of 
Elizabeth town, Ohio, and from thence into Dearborn county. In 1793 the 
family had moved down to Hayes station on the mouth of the Miami. 
"Among others living at the station referred to who moved into the country 
in 1796 and settled in the township were William Gerard and wife and two 
sons, Eli and Elias, and daughter, Mrs. George Crist, with her husband, and 
three step-children, Rees, Rachel and William Crist. These settled about one 
mile above Hardinsburg. The same year Henry Hardin and family, consist- 
ing of William, Mary, James, Catherine, John and Philip, settled on the site 
where fourteen years later the village of Hardinsburg was laid out. Other 
families came during the same year, among which were those of William 
Allensworth and Isaac Allen, who settled on the land just north of GreenHalc 
cemetery. In 18 10 Henry Fowler and family came west from Virginia and 
settled on Wilson creek. George Weaver settled on ground just west of 
Tanners creek, in the bottoms, where he lived for a number of years." 

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George W. Lane in his centennial notes says that "Samuel Weaver, a 
son of George, was one of the most chivalrous, high toned and daring young 
men that graced the forest homes of the period, the captain at the huskings, 
the first to lead off at the country dance, the acknowledged leader in all 
deeds of danger, generous to a fault, liberal without measure, and an accep- 
table visitor in any society." His uncle, Capt. James Weaver, was one of the 
most truly worthy men that graced the frontier settlements. He rendered 
valuable services in defending the homes of the pioneers from the Indians, 
and was always regarded as the bravest of the brave. Capt. James Weaver 
was often called on to lead his company in driving back the savage foe that 
threatened to destroy all the" pale faces on this side of the Ohio river. Less 
worthy heroes have had books written in their praise; while many of those 
who defended this country and preserved its pioneers from the tomahawk 
and the scalping knife rest alone in the memory of their old associates, or their 
immediate descendants, to do them justice and preserve their names from the 
tomb of forgetfulness. Captain Weaver was an enterprising business man, 
and was among the first to engage in running boats down the river loaded 
with the surplus produce of the county, which he continued for a number of 
years. Many will remember him for his promptness and fair dealing; his 
word was as good as his bond ; he prized his honor as his life and would as 
soon have parted with the one as the other. 

Davis Weaver was another of the family that was prominent about the 
time of the War of 18 12, and for a short time after. He is spoken of in the 
writings of the early period as a genial, pleasant gentleman, fond of good 
company and enjoyed a good story or an inoffensive joke. He could not do 
too much for a friend and as a business man was straightforward and law- 
abiding citizen. 

"In 1801 Eli Hill settled near Lawrenceburg. He was the father of Capt. 
Abram Hill and was a well-known man of his time. 

"Capt. John Crandall and George Rabb settled on Pleasant Ridge "(now 
Greendale) . Captain Crandall had served during the Revolutionary War in .the 
United States navy. He was an intelligent gentleman. Father Rabb was one 
of the best men we ever knew. 'As honest as Mr. Rabb,' was a byword in his 
day. His son, D. G. Rabb, moved to Ohio county soon after the death of 
his father, where he lived during the rest of his life. In early times a camp 
meeting was held in a grove near Father Rabb's. It was on the way to attend 
one of these meetings that the writer saw the first carriage, now so common 
on our roads and streets. A family of Lawrenceburg was on the road near 

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where the residence of Joseph Groff. deceased, now stands, riding in a cart 
with a yoke of good oxen at the tongue. W hile thus traveling along at a 
gait that was fair for those times and such a team. Captain Vance came up in 
his fine carriage and span of spanking bays, with a shaded driver on the 
front seat, and would have passed ns in a whiff. But not so fast: this is a 
game that two can play at. and those who remember Amos Lane will readily 
believe that he would not relish being passed on a dusty road, no more than 
to submit to a defeat in court or at the forum in a fair debate, without an 
effort. So down came the whip, off started the oxen, first at a trot, then at 
a run, until from the noise of the heavy wheels over the rough road, the 
rattle of the chairs in the cart, the laughing and cheers of the boys, the two 
well-groomed horses took fright, and none too soon the driver sheered off to 
one side and let the ox team pass to prevent a runaway scene." 

David Nevitt. the grandfather of Stewart and John Xevitt, came to the 
township shortly after the War of 1812. Mr. Xevitt was a man of immense 
frame, strong and muscular. His son Frank was one of the men that crossed 
the plains to California in 1849 and spent many years in that far-famed 
Eldorado, in the decade between 1850 and i860. Like his father, he was a 
man of gigantic frame and hardly knew his own strength. 

Jesse Laird settled on Wilson creek in 181 7 where he lived for his 
natural life, leaving a large family. One grandson still resides on part of the 
same land his grandfather entered from the government in 181 7. Howard 
Laird, the grandson, lives in the same house in which his father. Martin 
Laird, resided. It is claimed that just across Wilson creek on the hillside a 
few yards from the creek the last bear was killed in Lawrenceburg township, 
in the year 181 7. 


The village of Hardinsburg was laid out on the land that Henry Hardin 
entered from the government in 1801. It was surveyed by Moses Scott. 
The village was laid out on May 19. 1815. and acknowledged by Mr. Hardin 
the next day. It was named after the owner of the land. Henry Hardin. 
An addition of thirty lots was added by David Findlay. in 181 7. the surveying 
being done by Benjamin Chambers, who had takrn part in the survey of the 
lands of the government secured by the Wayne treaty, and had also been the 
surveyor for Captain Vance when he laid out Lawrenceburg fifteen years 
before. David Findlay and a man by the name of Delaplaine were some of the 

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I8 7 

early merchants. The Miami river, at the time the town was laid out. mack 
a horseshoe bend and the town was on its bank with a good landing and a 
good grade to load and unload produce. For twenty years or more after the 
town was platted it flourished and grew. Many flatboats were loaded here 
during the fall and winter seasons. For a time nearly as much business was 
done here as in Lawrenceburg and it began to feel that it was a rival for the 
trade of the back countrv. 


Col. Abram Ferris came to the township from Cincinnati in 183 1. He 
was a brother of Dr. Ezra Ferris and had been a prominent business man in 
that city. Concluding to retire to a farm, after years of successful business 
life, he purchased a section of land on the Manchester pike and erected the 
largest and finest residence in the county. He also purchased two sections 
just over the Ripley county line and close to the state road. He farmed on 
a large scale and was quite as successful a farmer as he had been a business 
man. His son, Benjamin F. Ferris, lived on the Ripley county farms for 
most of his later life and was one of the best men of this section of the state, 
being known far and wide as one of the best informed men of his generation. 

Herewith is' an interview, published in the Versailles Republican, from 
Mrs. F. B. Freeland, a daughter of Rev. Benjamin Franklin Ferris and a 
granddaughter of Col. Abram Ferris. The interview is published in the 
Republican under date of July 21, 191 5, and for accurate description of farm 
life and work of a half century ago it can hardly be excelled : 

"Grandfather Ferris, Col. Abram Ferris as he was known, purchased 
from the government, during Jackson's administration, three tracts of land 
containing six hundred and forty acres each. One on the Lawrenceburg hill 
on the Manchester pike, one near Napoleon, the other two miles south of 
Sunman. Father, B. F. Ferris, controlled the latter, and it was in the family 
until quite recently. Three hundred acres of the land was kept in meadow 
for years. During harvest thirty men were employed for six weeks to attend 
to the crop, all cut with scythes and raked with wooden hand rakes. At that 
time all the farmers kept whisky for their men, and the consequence was that 
some days they were nearly all drunk. Grandfather vetoed it. He called 
the men together and informed them that there would be no more whisky. 
All that could not work without it could stop. They all stopped, some swore. 

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1 88 


others pouted and declared they would not work. But they all changed their 
minds and finally became resigned. The trouble ended then and there. 

"The hay was pressed with an old wooden screw press with two sweeps. 
Its music, which was not the most melodious, could be heard for miles. The 
first reaper and mower, the McCormick, was introduced by Eber Jones, of 
Greensburg. Then a wooden rake was purchased. Father built a large two- 
story barn, which required one hundred men two days to raise. In the second 
story a threshing floor was made, surrounding a modern hay press, called a 
pounder press. The bales of hay were encircled by split wooden hoops soaked 
in vats and were nailed together. After wheat raising was introduced on the 
farm, the threshing was done on the floor spoken of. The sheaves of grain 
were spread on the floor and eight or ten horses were used for tramping it. 
It was occasionally turned and the tramping continued until the grain was all 
separated from the straw, then removed, and another supply placed there. It 
was then run through a fanning mill turned by hand and no small amount of 
work required. 

"The first top buggy was purchased by James Stevenson, price $275. 
Not long afterward, William Ehler also purchased one at the same price. 
His wife took a great pride in it and kept it covered with quilts to exclude dirt. 
Not long after, Morgan and his raiders made their appearance. She kept an 
eye on the buggy, but when they spied it they began rolling it out of the 
shed. She cried out, 'Don't take that buggy, I am a Democrat.' But Morgan 
and his men were no respector of persons, so out came the rig, took the wings 
of the morning and away it flew towards the east. Henceforth, Mrs. Ehler 
took her joy rides in a spring wagon. The first fruit canning was done by 
Mrs. Thomas Slack, our nearest neighbor. She used some kind of an old tin 
can and began on blackberries. We were favored with a sample and found it a 
very dark purple and soft as mush, no sugar. The only fruit used was dried, 
even to elderberries. Wild grapes were gathered, placed in stone jars and 
covered with molasses, for pies in the winter. There were no evaporators. 
Pumpkins were cut in strips and apples strung like beads and altogether hung 
up over the fireplace and the ceilings. Sorghum was raised in small quantities 
as a curiosity, no mills to grind it. Mrs. Slack then experimented with it. 
She peeled the stalks of cane, cut it in pieces, boiled it in an iron kettle and 
strained, then boiled again. We also were favored with a sample of it, it 
resembled tar, but father said it would be a success some day. In a short 
time mills were introduced and kettles used for boiling the syrup. Then next 
evaporators were introduced. Mr. Neuforth. father of the doctor, was among 



the first, and Jacob Mendel also purchased one. The best quality of molasses 
was made at that time, it was as clear as honey. I have not seen any to com- 
pare with it for years. 

"There has been a great change in social affairs and church work. The 
Methodist society consisted of very few members and held their services in an 
old church at Clinton. The members were B. F. Ferris and wife, Martin Man- 
ley and wife, Curtis Abel and wife, Dr. J. B. Hoel and sister, Miss Bertha 
Critchfield, and John Bishop, Sr. We children were compelled to go to church 
and after the service compelled to remain for class meeting, which was a terror 
to us all, when the leader came to us, as was his custom and asked us to speak 
as he termed it, our hearts were in our mouths and the breath almost left our 
bodies. Then he would say 'God have mercy on you for you have no religion 
or you would be willing to say something.' Martha Manley, a little daughter 
of Brother Manley and wife, jumped up and repeated a poem that was going 
the rounds then 'Little robin red breast sat on a pole,' etc., and completed it be- 
fore she could be stopped. She sat down felling she had done her duty as a 
Christian. The society was afterwards removed to the Ferris school house, 
by the instigation of Rev. S. B. Falkenberg and my mother. 

"The Mr. Neuforth spoken of came here from Germany in 1825, and also 
purchased land from the government under Jackson. The Whitehead family 
came here when it was solid woods, built a small cabin and had only a quilt 
for a door and were surrounded by Indians. He kept whisky to treat them 
with to keep them peaceable and when he would go to Lawrenceburg to pur- 
chase corn meal his wife would be alone with two small children. The Indians 
would raise the quilt at night and ask for whisky. She would deal it out to 
them and they would depart. 

"I must mention an amusing incident connected with Gen. Thomas L. 
Hayman, who afterwards died at Vicksburg during the siege. While S. 
R. Adams was president of Moores Hill College, we three sisters were study- 
ing there. Our home was a resort for the students, especially during vacation. 
Tom Hayman, as he was called, came out one Saturday evening dressed in 
a fine, black broadcloth suit, looking as though he had just come from a 
band box. Father and mother were gone and when the cat is away the mice 
will play. We had several cows to milk and Tom insisted on helping us. We 
warned him not to do it, but milk he would. He selected his cow and we told 
him it was treacherous. After looking her in the eyes he remarked T can 
always tell a cow's character by her countenance ; she is safe.' He sat down 
and when the bucket was filled with milk she raised her hind foot and with 

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one stroke inverted him and the bucket also. He was covered with the fluid 
from head to foot. His first remark was, 'Don't let the students at Moores 
Hill find this out.' It was henceforth called 'the dead secret.' He married 
my sister Louisa during the Civil War while home on furlough. As all 
connected with the incident are gone from whence no traveler returneth, I 
feel there is no harm done in telling the story after so long a period. 

"We had one physician at Clinton. He had an extensive practice and 
seemed to be successful. It made no difference what the disease was, calomel 
was the main remedy, whether colic or smallpox. Mother kept her bottle 
of calomel and another of castor oil and rhubarb. If one of the family com- 
plained, down came the calomel. We were compelled to take it before Doctor 

H arrived, for he would administer it anyway, and that would save 

time. After the calomel then we could choose between the oil and the rhubarb, 
but we were given to understand that it was certain death if we did not submit 
to one or the other, for the calomel would kill us alone. I vowed then that if 
ever I was my own boss I would never swallow a dose of either, and I stick to 
it yet. When capsules were first introduced, Henry Osting was ill and a 
physician was called. The quinine was placed in capsules. His wife took 
particular pains to take the medicine from them without breaking them, re- 
turned them saying, 'Here are your little bottles, doctor.' 

"In those days of old the women of the community would exchange 
visits, spend the day, bringing knitting or sewing and never failed to bring 
from four to six children, as the case might be. Did not wait for a special 
invitation and drop in a few minutes before meal time as now. They would 
come early in the morning and remain until dark. Father had a large number 
of sweet cherry trees, yellow Spanish and Black Tartarian, very fine. The 
people would come in numbers, as did the jay birds and red-headed wood- 
peckers, to help eat the cherries — come by the wagon load. One day, espe- 
cially, I remember when we girls were alone, early in the morning the Farrar 
boys, cousins, of Lawrenceburg, accompanied by a friend, John Hibbetts, came 
out hunting. They brought in a few squirrels for us to prepare for dinner. 
My older sister made a pot-pie of them, then people began to come in, and 
as a new wagon load approached they would add more crust to the pie. When 
dinner was announced, there were thirty guests. 

"Our school houses were of logs with long benches without backs, no 
classes except reading and spelling. Young men six feet in height came. 
They ciphered from morning until night, and aimed to beat each other through 
the arithmetic. If they were puzzled the teacher would solve it. if he could, 

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without explanation. Anyone could get a teacher's license who could read 
and write and whip. From the year 1855 to i860 father held the office of 
township trustee. There were no banks, and as he drew the money for 'the 
teachers' pay in the fall, he gave it to mother for safe keeping. At one time 
he had $3,000. Mother wrapped it in paper (it was paper money) and placed 
it in a straw tick on her spare bed, as was the custom. In the spring, as the 
school was drawing to a close, he asked for the money. She had forgotten 
about it and where she had put it. Then she remembered she had emptied the 
straw in the hog yard, which contained about thirty or forty hogs, six weeks 
before. They never expected to see it again, but after a careful search it was 
found in perfect order. The hogs did not seem to relish as costly food as some 
people do now." 


Col. Abram Ferris has been gathered to his fathers. His son, Rev. B. F. 
Ferris, has followed, the fine colonial mansion caught fire and was burned 
to the ground. The family, like most of families in this country of ours, is 
scattered; the land about the old mansion is now owned by Deidrich Elling- 
hausen, who has erected modern buildings, capacious barns and the place is 
once more taking on its former attractiveness. 

On the Manchester pike the township has undergone many changes. The 
old-time landowners have departed, never to return. Their descendants have 
sold out and sought other fields, until scarcely any of them are left to connect 
the present with the past of seventy-five or even fifty years ago. On the west 
side of Tanners creek, about on the site where Henry A. Bobrink now has his 
dairy barns, Robert and Thomas Mason had, before the war, a large hay 
warehouse, from which many flatboats were loaded for the New Orleans 
market. Another brother, Charles Mason, moved to New Orleans, where he 
was an extensive dealer in northern produce under the firm name of Mason & 
Pleasants. The old three-mile house has recently been torn away. The 
families of Daniels, Roland, Frazier, and Jelley have become extinct in the 
township. At one time Col. J. H. Lane resided near where the residence of 
William Mason is now located. The father of Philip, Samuel and Col. Ben- 
jamin Spooner at one time lived in about the same locality. Philip Spooner, 
father of ex-United States Senator John C. Spooner, of Wisconsin, owned 
and lived for several years on the place now owned by George H. Wood. 
Stewart and John Xevitt are the only representatives of the Xevitt family 
in the township. The extensive land holdings formerly belonging to David* 
Nevitt are now divided up among a number of landowners, and all of them 
are prosperous and thrifty. 

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North and west from the city of Lawrenceburg, and adjoining on to it 
by the corporation line between it and Mill street, the town of Greendale lies 
along an extended .gravel ridge, supposed to have been thrown up during the 
glacial period. It overlooks the broad valley of the Great Miami and gives 
a fine view of the surrounding hills, the Kentucky hills just across the Ohio, 
Fort Hill and the range of beautifully rounded elevations on the farther side 
of the Miami, reaching to the bold promontory that juts out overlooking the 
confluence of the Miami and the Whitewater. To the north the low range of 
hills reaches from the state line to Cemetery hill, just north of the beautiful 
Greendale cemetery. To the west overlooking the town standing some three 
or four hundred feet above it, is the long range of hills that are led up to by 
the old state road, that has had such history to recount of the early pioneer 
days when it was a thoroughfare and along which the men and women who 
peopled the country to the west took their way. 

This finely situated town was laid out in the year 1852 by Stephen Lud- 
low, but not recorded until 1883. Subdivisions have been added at different 
times by James H. Lane, William Tate and the Greendale Land Company. 
The population of the town is growing. The census of 1910 showed 697. 

It has a good public school building, is furnished with electric lighting and 
waterworks, by contract and franchise, by A. D. Cook, manufacturer of well 
supplies. The main street has recently been laid with concrete and good con- 
crete pavements have been laid that make it not only a very desirable residence 
town, but it is unexcelled as a manufacturing place. The Cook Well Company, 
W. P. Squibb Distilling Company, the H. P. Diehl Company, fireworks man- 
ufacturers, the Greendale Distilling Company, and James Walsh & Company, 
distillers, are the manufacturers. It is claimed for the town that it is, in pro- 
portion to the population, the wealthiest corporation in the country. 

patrons' mutual fire insurance company. 

Harry L. Nowlin has his office in Greendale, as secretary of the Patrons' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company, a history of which is here appended. 

On March 14. 1877, the General Assembly of Indiana passed an act 
authorizing farmers to organize mutual insurance companies for the purpose 
of protecting the property of its members from loss or damage by fire or light- 
ning, and limiting the territory over which any company could operate to 
three contiguous counties. 

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The farmers of Dearborn county were not slow in taking advantage of 
the law and in September, 1877, met in Aurora and organized the Patrons' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Dearborn County, adopting articles of 
association and by-laws for their government, covering the counties of Dear- 
born, Ohio and Ripley, which were signed by the following persons : William 
H. Greene, William B. Miller, Joseph Bossong, Elijah Huffman, Ralph Collier, 
Samuel B. Sanks, William Foster, George A. Golding. E. T. Hubbert, A. S. 
Peck, William S. Tver, David C. Wright, Henry Garrison, Adam Kerr, T. 
C. Hall, C. L. Olcott, R. B. King, Charles Ewan and J. D. Prichard. 

The first officers were elected at a meeting held in Aurora on October 
20, 1877, and were as follow: Directors, William B. Miller, A. D. Hopping, 
J. B. Chase, T. W. Hansell, Elijah Huffman, William Heustis, O. H. Smith, 
Joseph Bossong, J. R. McConnell, Tyler T. Annis, William S. Tver and John 
Randall. These directors selected the following officers : President, William 
B. Miller; vice-president, George V. Churchill; secretary, Elijah Huffman; 
treasurer, William S. Tver. 

Immediately the directors, acting as agents, began soliciting insurance 
and March 2, 1878, had $48,870 in applications, and policies were ordered 
issued to the applicants. From that date the Patrons' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company of Dearborn County has continued to do business with rather varied 
experience. Sometimes losses were heavy and assessments high, and some 
felt discouraged, but the company grew gradually until the last few years 
when the growth has been rather rapid, till now it is one of the best and is fast 
becoming one of the largest in the state, as the following figures show: 

January 1, 1888, there was $105,297.83 insurance in force; January 1, 
1898, $212,788.99; January 1, 1908, $619,811.25; September 1, 1915, $3,161,- 
022. The gain in the past two years has been almost $1,000,000. The aver- 
age cost of insurance, covering all fees and assessments, has been $2.30 per 
year for each $1,000 of insurance carried. 

The present officers are: President, W. L. Pryor, Milan; vice-president, 
H. D. Tufts, Aurora ; secretary-treasurer, H. L. Nowlin, LawTenceburg, and 
assistant secretary, Lute Helm, Moores Hill. The directors are, W. L. Pryor, 
Milan; H. D. Tufts, Aurora; H. L. Nowlin, Lawrenceburg ; Lute Helm. 
Moores Hill; M. F. Holman, Osgood; J. A. Horton, Versailles; J. M. Pate, 
Cross Plains ; William H. Greene, Dillsboro ; W. C. Mulford, Cold Springs ; 
George W. Sawdon, Aurora ; Frank C. Dam, Lawrenceburg ; T. B. Cotting- 
ham, Harrison. Of these directors William H. Greene has served continuously 


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since January, 1880, H. D. Tufts since January, 188 1, and George W. Sawdon 
since January, 1883. Two of the original signers of the articles of association 
still have their insurance in the company, viz. : William H. Greene and C. L. 

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Logan township is one of the original townships of Dearborn county. 
It comprises a congressional township and Harrison township was erected out 
of it in 1844. Its bounds were the boundaries of township 7, range 1 west. 
As the township is now described, it is bounded on the north by Franklin 
county, on the east by Harrison township, on the south by Miller township, 
and on the west by Kelso township. 

The township had settlers quite as early as any part of the county. It 
borders on the Whitewater river for a considerable distance, and on that 
account settlers were early attracted to the bottom lands adjacent to that 
stream The first land taken up from the government was by John Brown 
on August 13, 1801. Other lands were taken soon after, James McCoy en- 
tering a part of section 14, in 1804, and Thomas Skinner taking up a portion 
of section 15, in 1806. William Smith and Hugh Brison entered a part of 
section 5, in 1808, and in 1810 Willoughby Tebbs entered a part of section 
27. Thomas Watts moved to the township from Ohio in 1807, settling on 
the Whitewater river, lived at the mouth of Cranes run for a time, then in 
1812 moved to Logans Cross Roads. He was the father of Squire Watts, a 
well-known citizen of Lawrenceburg, and the grandfather of Thomas and 
Warren Watts, now living. 

Baylis Cloud, a Virginian, with his family, settled in the township near 
Logans Cross Roads in 1810. He, with his father's family, moved from Vir- 
ginia to Kentucky, settling in Boone county, in 1793, where they had plenty of 
experience of the frontier life during the Indian wars of that period. Mr. 
Cloud died on the farm he entered from the government in i860, aged eighty- 
four years. 

Among the families that settled in the township at this early period were 
Robert Myers, John Hinkston, Matthew Lanman, Solomon Cole, Aquila 
Cross, L. Moore, Cooper Johnston, James Owen, Joseph McClure. James 
McClure, John Wason, Michael Ferron, the Hallawells, Bradfords, Thorntons, 
Fitzgc raids and Wooleys. In 181 5 Warren Tebbs located in the township; 
he, with his father's family, had come into the township in 1807, but lived in 
what was afterwards Harrison township. Benjamin Southard emigrated 

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from New York, in 1816, and first settled in York township, but soon after- 
wards settled in Logan, not far from Logans Cross Roads. 

The first mill built on the Whitewater riveT was erected by John Hinks- 
ton at the mouth of Logan creek. It was in operation as early as 18 13. The 
early settlers, always on the lookout for localities where salt could be evap- 
orated from the water, found a lick at the mouth of Cranes run, where for 
a time salt was manufactured. James Logan dug two wells and carried on 
the business until the river rose and compelled their abandonment. A distillery 
was also erected at the mouth of Cranes run, about one-half mile from the 
river, by Solomon Rude. Jacob Hollowell operated a tannery on Logan 
creek, at a place called "Stone Jug." Charles Briggs, it is claimed, erected 
the first steam mill in the township. 

There is a postoffice at Logans Cross Roads, as it was called in the early 
history of the county. There has been a store and blacksmith shop there al- 
most as old as the settlements. 



Manchester originally included considerable 01 jackson township, a small 
portion of Kelso and the greater part of York. In 183 1 twelve sections were 
taken off and added to Kelso township and in 1841 York township was 
created, and it again lost territory; and with the creation of Jackson, in 1832, 
another loss of territory was made ; but with all its losses Manchester is the 
largest township in the county, and it is claimed that it has more square miles 
than any township in the state. Since York township was organized there 
has been but little change in its boundaries. In 1896 a small strip was taken 
off and added to York, which is the only change that the township has under- 
gone since the townships were all created. 

Like Sparta township, there was little done in the way of settling the 
territory until after the War of 18 12- 15, and all danger from the Indian tribes 
had disappeared forever. The earliest lands entered from the government were 
made in the parts nearest to the river and the creeks. In township 5, range 
2 west, a portion of section 1 was entered in 1809, by David Blane, and in 
18 1 3 another portion of the same section by Amor Bruce. Another part of 
the same section was entered in 1812 by Elijah Pitts, and another portion ol 
the same section to Ichabod Palmerton in 18 14. A portion of section 2, o: 
the same township, was entered by James Vaughn in 181 3, and part of the 
same section by John Ferris in 1814. Henry Dils entered a part of section 
12, in the same township, in 1817, and Hugh McMullen a part of section 
8, in 1818. 

In township 6, range 2, Abner Tibbetts entered a part of section 33 in 
1814, and in 1818 parts of section 32, of the same township, were entered by 
Joseph Sylvester and Elijah Rich, and in 1829 by Samuel McMullen. In 
1818 portions' of section 31 were entered by David Roberts. Sr., William 
Barton and Thomas Alloway. Parts of section 36 were sold to Riley Elliott, 
James Vaughn and Samuel Wright. 

In township 7, range 3 west, John R. Rounds bought a portion of section 
35 in 1819, and Joshua Given a part of the same section in 1825. 

The history of Manchester township dates back to the year 18 15. when 
Mark McCracken and his brother Robert, with their mother, located on the 

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present site of the village of Manchester. In 1852 Robert McCracken stated 
over his own signature that he, in 1815, cut the road seven miles, drove the 
first wagon that ever was on the ridge, and put up the first cabin that ever 
was in that neighborhood. It is supposed that he cut the road from Cam- 
bridge, which was at that time the nearest station where there was a settlement. 
He also stated that his nearest neighbor was at that time some four or five 
miles away and that they were all living this side or nearer the river than 
where he was located. Two years later, in 1817, he sold out to Rev. Daniel 
Plummer, but his brother, Mark McCracken, retained his portion until his 
death, and erected the large country mansion owned for so many years by 
William H. Baker. 

During the year 181 5 David, George and Joseph Johnston, from Fred- 
erick county, Virginia, located on north Hogan, in the township. They had 
left Virginia in 1810, settling first in Butler county, Ohio, and in 1812 re- 
moving to Vincennes, then they came to Louisville, Kentucky, and in 1814 
to where Aurora was later built, and a year later to Manchester township. 

Lawrence Lozier, the progenitor of the Lozier family, settled in the 
township the same year, and a year later David and Abner Tibbetts, Simon 
Alexander and Benjamin Anderson came into the township. 


It is said that about this time there was a large emigration from the 
state of Maine, the citizens of that state having what they called the "Ohio 
fever.'" In the fall of 1817 fifteen families, all from the same neighborhood 
in the state of Governor Kent, seventy-eight in all, left Cumberland county, 
Maine. It excited much curiosity and was spoken of by the papers of the 
time as "the land fleet." Their route was through the cities of Portland, 
Albany and New York, thence to the headwaters of the Alleghany at Olean, 
New York, thence by boats and rafts to Pittsburgh, and on down the Ohio to 
Lawrenceburg. Most of this band of emigrants settled on what was for years 
called Greenbrier ridge, now known as the neat little village of Manchester. 
They camped down close together until they had their bearings and then pro- 
ceeded to secure land for themselves. 

Robert McCracken, in referring to the coming of Daniel Plummer. said: 
"In the section where Plummer located there were no le-> than five families 
living on one hundred and ninety-nine <»r more acres that was cleared, and 


I 99 

on the land I sold Plummer only five acres were cleared. Some twenty fam- 
ilies were living within a mile of Mr. Plummer after the Maine colony settled 


In 1876 George W. Lane nad an article in the Aurora Independent which 
spoke of the township of Manchester as follows : "Soon after the War of 
18 12 one of the most important settlements for numbers and charactei was 
made in Manchester township. They suffered many hardships and, indeed, 
many privations, but they stood their ground like Christian martyrs and many 
lived to see tall oaks utilized for other purposes and removed to make room 
for houses, barns and meadows, and in less than a decade the ridge was under 
a high state of cultivation for miles, and in the fall rows of teams would be 
seen on the road hauling off the surplus of their farms and cooper shops. The 
latter work was carried on for a number of years, as Manchester was studded 
over with heavy timber, the tallest and largest trees this side of California, 
and to work up these great oaks into pork barrels required the labor of Mr. 
Jaquith and all of his boys, and these boys were as good, jovial fellows as 
were ever turned loose in any big woods. 

"The writer remembers well the first time he ever saw Manchester. He 
rode out on a horse behind Henry, or as he was better known as "Hank," 
Jaquith, to attend a party that was on the tapis for that night, and if the party 
was too large for the house they adjourned to the threshing floor in the great 
barn ; it did not in any wise mar the pleasure of the occasion. 

"Joseph Baker was one of the early settlers of Manchester township, a 
man of fine appearance and easy address. He was the father of William 
H. Baker and Kirtley Baker, of Aurora, the grandfather of Kirtley Baker, of 
Lawrenceburg. There was also William Bennett, A. True, M. Darling and 
A. Oldham, near Tanners creek. Mr. Oldham *was a good, honest man and 
as true a Christian as ever lived this side the gates of Paradise. 


"John Palmer resided on the state road. He was elected a probate judge 
for the county, and for a number of years was a justice of the peace. He was 
honest and wanted to do right. Judge Palmer was a large farmer and a mer- 
chant. Charles W. Wright was the pioneer merchant of Wrights Corners and 
for many years did a good business. He was a sensible and industrious man. 

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Daniel Plummer was a man worthy of remembrance and entitled to a more 
extended notice than the writer can indulge in. No friend of other days is 
called to mind with more pleasing associations. He was not only a good 
man but he wanted all others to be good. His example corresponded with 
his precept. His daily walk was a rebuke to the evil disposed, and his kind 
words well calculated to encourage them to seek the paths of rectitude. Mr. 
Plummer took no pains to secure public favor with a view to obtaining office, 
though well qualified and worthy. His moral and religious training led 
him into channels of a higher and more useful character, yet the people, with- 
out solicitation on his part, elected him to the state Senate in 1834, which 
office he honored instead of the office honoring him. He discharged the 
duties of the position honestly, faithfully and acceptably to the people. 

"Mark McCracken was a prominent man in his day, and enjoyed the 
confidence of his fellow citizens. They always knew just where to find him. 
He was a man of nerve and unyielding when he made up his mind. He seemed 
to have an intuitive sense of the right, and his scorn of wrong was so positive 
that like the balance of a watch it regulated all his actions. As an officer 
of the county he was economy personified. He could say 'no' to pretended 
or unjust claims against the county with a vim that might be learned to great 
advantage at the present day. His motto was that he had a right to be liberal 
or even extravagant with his own, but never with the people's money. 

"Daniel Roberts was one of those men whose character furnishes a light 
to memory's path, that could not be overlooked while casting about Man- 
chester for worthy pioneers deserving special notice. It is said 'that from 
the overflow of the heart the mouth speaketh.' It this is true then Mr. Roberts 
must have had a heart as big as a lion, for it has been flowing with love to his 
neighbors and generous sentiments to his associates for over four-score years, 
and yet the fountain is not exhausted; and even his voice is set to the key 
of kindness that, like the echo from a mountain cove, rings on the ear long 
after he ceases to speak. Had he received a thorough education in early 
life with his other gifts, it would have made him more prominent and highly 
useful in a much larger sphere. Rev. Daniel Roberts was the father of Judge 
Omer F. Roberts. 

"Oliver Heustis was one who would have been recognized as a man of 
intelligence in any society. He was a constant reader and it may be said was 
a student all his life. He was well posted on all political questions and familiar 
with history. He was a good talker and very much enjoyed pleasant and 
intelligent conversation, indeed, it might be said that it was his forte, for 

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Mr. Heustis was not a gifted public speaker, but when he did take part on 
important occasions, what he did say was sensible and to the point. Mr. 
Heustis was twice elected to the Legislature, in 1832 and in 1844. and as a 
member was regarded as a practical man with principle that was unyielding. 


"James P. Milliken was an intellectual light that could not be hid in a 
forest home, but was called forth to take elevated positions of trust and 
honor, that his light might shine forth for the good of others. Mr: Milliken 
was a man of fair attainments, dignified appearance and unsullied reputation. 
A wish to do just right was the prominent point in his character; this led 
him to disregard the popular breeze of the day and induced him to prefer 
political martyrdom to the abandonment of his honest convictions. Mr. 
Milliken was in the full sense of the word a temperance man by precept and 
example, and would that others should be the same. He also had decided 
opinions on the subject of human slavery, and would not yield them for the 
sake of friends or party. As a citizen he was industrious and enterprising, 
and enjoyed the confidence of all who knew him. Mr. Milliken was four times 
elected to the state Legislature; twice to the House of Representatives,. 1841 
and 1842; and twice to the Senate, serving six years, 1846 to 1852. 

"Luther Plummer was an unassuming man of sterling worth and strict 
integrity, looking to the welfare of his family and attentive to his own inter- 
ests. He put on no foolish style or attempts to appear in characters other 
than his own, but like ornaments made of pure gold that need no varnish or 
gilding, so with a true-hearted man, who is the same at home as abroad, 
today and tomorrow ; who acts well his part without pomp or dazzling parade. 
To say that Mr. Plummer was an honest man would be no compliment, for 
like the description we once heard of a certain person 'that he deserved no 
credit of being a gentleman, he was one naturally,' so with Mr. Plummer, he 
deserves no credit for being an honest man, he was one naturally. 

"Of the early settlers the Congers should not be forgotten. David Con- 
ger was a man of influence in his day. He was the father of Edward 
A. Conger, who was elected sheriff of the county when quite a young man. 
Edward bade fair to make a man of considerable prominence had his life been 
spared. Lewis B. Conger was well known in the county. He was elected, in 
1841, assessor of real estate for the entire county under the new law. Samuel 

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VV. Conger still resides in Upper Manchester, respected as he deserves to be 
by all his neighbors. 

"A history of the township would be imperfect without a reference to 
Ben Tibbetts who. when the writer first knew him, was one of the most active 
thorough-going, dashing business man in the county. He could haul more 
hay and load a boat quicker, go to New Orleans and back again sooner than 
anyone else. His very presence, with his usual fire and life, like a galvanic 
battery that emits electricity at the slightest touch, gave activity and new life 
to all around him. At heart Ben Tibbetts was an honest man, of generous 
impulses, and while he may have wronged himself, he never intentionally 
wronged a neighbor. 


"Alfred J. Cotton found a home in Dearborn county when quite a young 
man. There were few better and many worse men than Judge Cotton. His 
moral worth and religious devotion commended him to the respect of all good 
citizens; but his name and history are recorded in a more reliable shape than 
we can place them in 'Cotton's Keepsake.' Yet we will add that he served 
as associate judge for a number of years and probate judge for four years. 

"We must not leave Manchester without calling attention to Mrs. Mary 
Piles, better known as *Aunt Polly.' She came to the county during the War 
of 1812, and was married to Mr. Piles in 1813. at Georgetown, in Miller town- 
ship, and now ( 1876) at over eighty years is as sprightly and active as a girl 
of sixteen and can walk five miles without any difficulty. Her memory being 
good she can narrate stories of pioneer life that are full of interest. 

"The Tibbettses came from Maine. The Heustis family came from the 
state of New York in 1819. William Dils came from West Virginia in 1816. 
Joseph Baker came from New York in 18 17. The Congers came from New 
Jersey in 181 7. The McMullens came from Pennsylvania in 181 7. Hugh 
McMullen was a native of Ireland. They built the first cabin and were the 
first settlers on what is called Pleasant View. 

"The Givans came from Maryland, and settled in the township in 1825. 
Joshua, the father of Judge Givan, of Lawrcnceburg, was a native of Man- 
land, and on coming to this county interested himself in educational matters, 
and the first school house erected in the neighborhood in which he settled 
was built on his land and mainly through his influence. His house was one 
of the preaching places before the erection of the Baptist church building. 

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His object and aim in life was to benefit his fellow men, to do good in the 
community in which he lived, honest in all his dealings, charitable in his 
giving and religious in his everyday life. He died in a ripe old age, honored 
and respected by all who knew him. 

"Judge Cotton came from the state of Maine and settled in the township 
in 18 18. He erected a cabin and all was one vast, unbroken wilderness 
around him. save here and there a little cabin and a small opening, the labors 
of the newcomers of the previous year. These were scattered about on what 
was then called Greenbrier ridge, so called by hunters on account of the 
prevalence of a brier by that color that abounded in the forests. He says: 
'My cabin was far removed from any other habitation, solitary and alone at 
first. I had bushed out a wagon track, as we call it, and had also blazed a 
footpath, a nearer cut to the settlement. My mind reverts with indescribable 
emotion to that period of my life. Many is the time and oft, that I have 
entered this dismal and solitary path, when for a good part of the way it was 
so dark that I could not see my hand to save me — was compelled to feel out 
the path with my feet, with my heart in my mouth, my hair well nigh erect, 
and my blood nearly curdled, for the prowling wolves were about my path 
and had often raised their hideous yells in my very door yard.' 

"Rev. Daniel Roberts emigrated from the state of Maine. In 181 7 he 
determined to seek a home in the West, Indiana being his objective point. 
Using an ox team as his mode of conveyance he started on this long and 
tedious journey. On reaching a point near the falls of the Genesee river, in 
the state of New York, his money being exhausted, he was compelled to stop 
and engage himself as a common laborer in order to replenish his scanty 
purse. Having obtained a small sum of money he continued his journey 
until he reached Pittsburgh, arriving there at the beginning of the summer 
of 1 8 18. He hastily constructed a rude craft, upon which he and his family 
embarked and proceeded down the river to Cincinnati, where he concluded to 
stop for a time before continuing to Indiana, his original destination. He 
remained in Cincinnati nearly two years. During the year 18 19, under the 
ministry of the Rev. I. Smead, a powerful and able preacher, he joined the 
Christian church and was immersed hi the Ohio river opposite the mouth of 
the Licking. At the age of thirteen he had joined the Methodist Episcopal 
church at Durham, Maine, under the preaching of Joshua Soule, afterwards 
a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church, South ; but the forcible sermons 
of Smead having satisfied him that the doctrines and polity of the Christian 
church were more in accord with the teachings of the Bible, he concluded to 

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join that organization. While still in Cincinnati he was ordained an elder 
by the minister who received him into membership, and soon after entered 
the itinerant ministry. In 1820 he, with his family, removed to Indiana 
and located near Manchester, Dearborn county. . He resided for two years on 
Pipe creek, in Franklin county, but with that exception he made Dearborn 
county his home the rest of his life. 


'The Pleasant View Debating Club was one of the institutions of that 
part of the township. It wis a fixture for a number of years, its fortunes 
ebbing and flowing with the changes in the neighborhood. Among its mem- 
bers who since have had opportunity to argue questions on a broader plane 
are Noah S. Givan, since a member of the Legislature, both House and 
Senate; Noah M. Givan, now deceased, but for years one of the leading at- 
torneys of Missouri; Frank R. Dorman, for two terms county sheriff and 
one term county auditor; Joseph Ripley, judge and senator; Major Slater 
and his brother, F. M. Slater, the poet; Myron Haynes, .one term county 
auditor ; Edward P. Ferris, since a state senator. 

"Elias Heustis is authority for our saying that James Vaughn kept the 
first public house in the township, dug the first well, made the first brick 
kiln, and had the first peach orchard. Daniel Plummer made the first hay 
press used in the township, and it is also said that he built the first frame house 
and frame barn in the township. The house is still standing ; the barn was 
used for church purposes." 

These extended accounts of the first settlers show that in the matter of 
good citizens, strong and virile, intelligent and broad minded, Manchester 
township was indeed fortunate. Her citizens have filled positions of responsi- 
bility and honor both in Indiana and in other states where they have made 
their home. Many of the families that were prominent in the early settle- 
ment of the township have moved to western states, and none are left to 
continue the name. The township has at present a large per cent, of citizens 
whose fathers emigrated from Germany. They are a thrifty and industrious 
class and are rapidly becoming adjusted to the ways of America. By the 
time another generation comes on the scene the observer will be unable to dis- 
tinguish the nationality of the people unless guided by the name. 



Miller township was organized in the year 1834. A petition having been 
presented to the county commissioners asking that a township be created out 
of the northern part of Lawrenceburg township, it was granted, and given 
metes and bounds which in 1852 are described as follow: "Beginning at 
the northeast corner of congressional township 6, range 1 west, running thence 
south on the state line between the states of Ohio and Indiana, to the south- 
east corner of section 24, in said township 6 ; thence west to the southwest 
corner of section 24, in said township 6 ; thence south to the southeast corner 
of section 26, in said township 6. range 1 west; thence west on the east and 
west line dividing sections 26 and 35, to where a line drawn north and south 
through the center of section 27 strikes said line; thence south to the con- 
gressional township line dividing congressional townships 6 and 5, range I 
west; thence west to the southwest corner of said congressional township 
6, range 1 ; thence north on the line dividing ranges 1 and 2, to the southern 
line of the lands owned by Samuel and Virgil Dowden, being a fifty-acre 
tract on the north end of the northwest quarter of section 30, township 6, 
range 1 ; thence east on the eastern and southern line of said Dowden's land, 
to the east and west section line dividing sections 19 and 30 in said township 6; 
thence east on said line to the southeast corner of said section 19; thence north 
on the north and south section line dividing sections 19 and 20. to the west 
fork of Tanners creek ; thence down said fork to the junction of the north and 
west forks of Tanners creek ; thence up the north fork of Tanners creek, to 
where a north and south line drawn through the center of section 7, township 
6, range 1, strikes said fork." 

Miller township lands were purchased from the government early in the 
county's history. The desirable bottom lands about where the village of Cam- 
bridge was once located were too attractive to escape the eye of the good 
judges of real estate, such as the early pioneers were. Settlements were 
commenced as early as 1804, and the rugged frontiersmen continued to push 
their way out the natural roadway of Tanners creek until government lands 
were a thing of the past. The first settlers, like those who first located on 
the other tributaries of the Ohio river, in the county, were men of strong 



character; men of affairs, with a strong grasp on the possibilities of the 
country. The first settlers came in 1804 and the last piece of land to be 
entered was in the year 1836. In 1836 George Cook and Levi Swan entered 
a part of section 5, and William Smith entered a part of section 8, both of 
them in congressional township 6, range 1 west, in which congressional town- 
ship all of Miller township is situated. 

In 1804 Jacob Blasdel and Archibald Stark entered all of section 28, and 
Jacob Blasdel took up a portion of section 29. Thaddeus Cooley entered a 
portion of section 27, the same year, and Charles Dawson entered a part of 
section 23. Noble Butler entered a part of section 1 1 , and Thomas Miller a 
part of section 13, the same year. Also Robert McConnell entered a part 
of section 14. Sections 27, 28 and 29 lie along Tanners creek and much of 
the land entered by Jacob Blasdel is yet in the hands of his descendants. Sec- 
tions II, 13 and 14 are close to the state line and near the old Sugar Grove 
burying grounds. 

Following these first entries John Dawson came into the township in 
1806 and entered a part of section 20. This land remained the property of 
the family until recently, when the part that included the old homestead was 
sold and is now the property of Martin Miller. The land entered by Jacob 
Blasdel is largely now the property of Ambrose E. Nowlin, Ferris J. Nowlin, 
H. L. Nowlin and Robert J. Nowlin, all of them descendants of Jacob Blasdel. 
In 1806 there was entered, besides that entered by John Dawson, a portion of 
section 2, by Jacob R. Compton. In 1808 William Torrence and Thomas 
Fuller purchased a part of section 14 ; Abiah Hayes a part of section 22 ; Henry 
C. Smith and John McCleave a part of section 27. In 1806 John Ewbank came 
from England and entered, in 181 1, a part of section 17, and in 18 17 entered 
parts of sections 20 and 17. 

In 1809 Michael Shanks bought from the government a part of section 
12 on the state line. Michael Shanks also purchased, in 1814, a portion of 
section 21, on Salt Fork creek, where his descendants still reside and own 
some of the same lands. 

The lands situated along the state line were adjacent to those in White- 
water township, Ohio, and were settled about the same time. Some of the 
sections entered are not far from the Whitewater river and overlook that 
stream from the hills to the westward. Some of the early settlers in the 
Great Miami bottoms entered lands in Miller township in order to have up- 
lands for grazing purposes, the lands in the bottoms being subject to over- 
flow and not so good for pasturage. 

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In 181 1 Joseph Hayes entered a part of section 23; in 1829 Walter 
Hayes entered a part of section 15, and in 1809 Abiah Hayes entered a part 
of section 22. In 18 15 Ezekiel Jackson entered a part of section 22, and in 
1817 Enoch Jackson entered a part of section 1. In 1830 Ezekiel Jackson 
also entered a part of section 21, and in 1831 Enoch and Ezekiel Jackson en- 
tered some more of the same section. Some of this land is yet in the hands of 
the descendants of these prominent pioneer settlers. 


John Dawson and a man by the name of John White are credited by 
some with being the first to settle in the township. It is claimed by some 
authorities that they came into the township in 1796. Mr. White died in 
the township in 1852, in the ninetieth year of his age. He was a native of 
Maryland, moving to Pennsylvania, and in 1792 coming from that state to 
North Bend, from whence he came into Miller township. When he died 
it was claimed that he died in the same house he had erected for himself 
fifty-eight years previous and that it was the third cabin erected in the settle- 
ment. It is very probable that there is a slight mistake in the statement for 
it would make his cabin erected as early as 1794, and the three other cabins 
would be even at an earlier date, which is hardly possible, unless they were 
hunters and only lived in the cabins while out on a hunt. 

John Dawson was one of the first men to settle in the township and his 
son, Harrispn Dawson, who lived on the lands entered from the government 
by his father, is authority for the statement that his father came into the town- 
ship in 1799. Mr. Dawson died in 1848, in his seventy-fourth year, having 
resided in the house in which he died more than forty years. He was a native 
of the eastern shore of Maryland, but was raised in Virginia, and when grown, 
immigrated to Tennessee, thence to Kentucky, and from there to Miller town- 
ship. He at one time was a large landowner in the township. 

It is said of Mr. Dawson that during the Indian troubles several of a 
band of redmen entered his cabin and attempted to tomahawk Dawson and 
his wife. He could talk the Indian language sufficiently well to make them 
understand his meaning, and drawing his rifle upon them, told them not 
to stir upon their peril, for the first one that moved his tomahawk would be 
a dead man. Holding them all at bay. he talked to them and demanded that 
they get out of the house, which they were very prompt to obey. He shot a 
large panther which was just in the act of jumping upon him, and also killed a 

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large elk on the Darling ridge, which is thought to have been the last in the 
neighborhood. One of Mr. Dawson's sons was appointed under General 
Jackson to a position in the land office at Ft. Wayne, Indiana, and he there 
became prominent in the affairs of that locality; his children and descendants 
are well known and active in public affairs there to this day. 

The Jackson family is to this day one of the most prominent families in 
the township and in numbers it stands among the first. Enoch Jackson and 
Ezekiel Jackson both entered land from the government, and their father, 
John Jackson, was one of the first settlers in the township. He came from 
the state of Maryland with his family in the year 1798. His children were 
John, Ezekiel, Enoch, Susan and Sally. Susan became the wife of John 
Dawson, and Sally the wife of Charles Dawson. The old pioneer died in 
1814 and his wife in 1823. John Jackson, the father, was drowned in Tanners 
creek while attempting to ford the stream during a freshet His son, John 
Jackson, married in Kentucky before the family came to the township. He 
came here with his father and purchased land from others on the site of what 
was afterwards called Georgetown, where he erected a brick house which is 
standing today and in good condition. It is probably the oldest brick house 
standing in the county today. There was a postoffice at Georgetown for a 
number of years, probably in the decades between 1820 and 1840. At one 
time, it is claimed, the mail between Cincinnati and Indianapolis was carried 
via Georgetown, and the mail vehicle stopped there for the carrier to eat 
dinner. A cemetery was laid out there about 1820 and many of the early 
settlers arc sleeping their last sleep in that quiet spot. During the muster day 
period it was one of the places of rendezvous, and many were the good old 
times spent at these gatherings. 


Enoch Jackson, another son of John Jackson, was born in the township 
in the year 1804. and on growing to manhood became a public-spirited man 
with much interest in the political affairs of the county and nation. He served 
his county as a member of the Legislature. It is claimed by some that Ed- 
ward Eggleston's politician in "Roxy** was Enoch Jackson, and that the 
scene of the book was laid on Salt Fork This may or may not be true, but 
Mr. Jackson was a very prominent man in a political way and was a good 
citizen. His brother. Ezekiel Jackson, was a much older man. and was also 
an active man in political affairs and he. too, served his county in the Legis- 

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lature four times during the years from 1820 to 1830. The family have kept 
up their reputation as patriotic men interested in the welfare of their country 
and take an active part in political affairs; a son of Enoch served as county 
treasurer from 1857 to 1861. and another son, Edward, serving his county 
in the Legislature during the first part of the decade between 1880 and 1890, 
while another son, Francis M., was township trustee for several terms and 
county treasurer two terms. 

Major Decker Crozier was one of the influential men of the Georgetown 
neighborhood, where he resided and where he drilled many a company during 
the far-famed muster days. George \V. Lane says of him from personal ac- 
quaintance : "Major Crozier was associated with Captain McGuire in building 
blockhouses and with the men under his command patrolled the country be- 
tween them, thus protecting the infant settlements, which during the War of 
18 1 2, only extended about four miles back into the country, since most of 
those who had located land farther out had. for security, moved to Lawrence- 
burg, or some other place that was secure. Major Crozier was a stonemason 
and a farmer, and when the writer first knew him was living on one of the 
best hill farms in Dearborn county. He had a strong arm; the grip of his 
hand was equal to a blacksmith's vise and, like Logan, he knew no fear. 
Major Crozier's life was spared to see, if not a large family, a family of large 
men grow up around him. and witnessed extensive improvements in the wil- 
derness country he had so often traveled before a tree was cut or a path had 
been blazed." 

Job Judd, a soldier of the Revolution, came to the county in 181 7, from 
the state of New York. He was the father of Orrin Judd. 

Aaron Bonham, with his father's family, came to Cincinnati in 1796, 
from which point he came to the Whitewater valley, and, it is claimed, 
erected the first cabin west of that river. He served in Captain McGuire's 
company in the War of 181 2, and after the war married a member of the 
Guard family and located in the eastern part of Miller township. 

Jehu Goodwin settled on Salt Fork in 1800. He was among the Indians 
so much that he learned their language. It is said that he once went to one 
of their camps near Georgetown and joined their sports. He could out-jump, 
out-run and out-shoot them, so he jokingly said: "Indian good for nothing; 
I beat him at jump, run and shoot and now I can beat him at bow and arrow." 
In a moment an Indian seized a bow and drew a bead on him, his eye flashing, 
and Goodwin thought his hour had come, but another Indian in a moment 
grasped the arm and turned away the shot and Goodwin escaped. 


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Alexander Piles settled in the township in 1807. His son, George Piles, 
married a young lady who has been raised in the vicinity of Boonesborough, 
and whose mother and father were pioneers there. Mrs. George Piles was 
very athletic, and on one occasion when she was about seventeen years of age, 
she was staying in the stockade at Cambridge with her parents, on account of 
the Indians being seen nearby and were thought" to be on the warpath. Her 
parents' house was only about a mile from the stockade and she remembered 
that they had left at home a cedar churn and she needed it for churning, for 
they had brought their cow along. So she and another girl of about the same 
age started to their home to get the churn. She says. "Out we went and got 
well on our way to the house, when going through a hazel copse I saw a dog 
sitting watching us with his ears cocked, and I said to my companion : 'Jessie, 
look at that dog/ when just as I spoke up jumped an Indian. As soon as we 
saw him we started and ran for the stockade, the Indian in chase, but we were 
too quick for him and when we got into the open ground lost sight of him. 
As soon as we got to the fort we told the rangers and they started in pursuit." 

Jacob Blasdel. who settled on Tanners creek, at the locality where he after- 
wards laid off the town of Cambridge, now a switch on the Big Four railway 
called Pella, was born in Salisbury, Massachusetts. April 8, 1754. He was a 
blacksmith by trade and worked in the Brentwood iron works. He married 
Ruth Morse, of Brenton. March 25, 1791. He had served in the Revolution- 
ary War. Shortly after his marriage he immigrated with his wife to Columbus, 
Ohio, then in 1804 he came to Miller township, settling on Tanners creek on 
what was even at that time called "Cherry Bottoms." He soon after locating 
there erected a grist-mill, the old race can yet be traced. It was after that 
for a number of years called Blasdels Mills. Later on he laid out the town of 
Cambridge there. In recent years it has been called Pella, although the school 
house near the residence of II. M. Shanks is given the name of "Cherry 
School," after the original name given in the early part of the last century. 
Mr. Blasdel brought with him his family of four sons and four daughters. 
He and his son Enoch served in the War of 181 2. He was a public-spirited 
man and was very active in everything that helped to develop the country. 
He deeded a lot in Cambridge to be used for school purposes, which in the 
quaint language of the time specified that it should be used for educational 
purposes "So long as grass grows and water runs." The first building erected 
on the site donated is said to have been a log one with a puncheon floor, a huge 

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fireplace, and the seats for the pupils were made from slabs of trees with 
legs inserted by means of auger holes. The house was called an "academy" 
and it has been claimed that- some of the higher branches were taught there 
by some of the teachers. The ground has continued to be used for school 
purposes from the days of the rude "academy" to this day. 


Jacob Blasdel had four sons, Enoch. Jacob. Jonathan and Elijah, each 
of whom reared a large family. His daughters, of which there were four, 
married as follows : Nabby married Thomas Townsend and had no children ; 
Ruth married Elisha Scoggins ; Sally married twice, first to Ezekiel Harper, 
then to Leonard Chase; Betsy to Aaron Borroughs and after his death to 
William Leper. Each family was identified with the early history of the 
country. Jacob Blasdel's son Jacob, it is said, made the first temperance 
speech ever heard in the county. It was at a campmeeting held in the forest 
on the tract of land recently laid off and platted by the Greendale Land 
Company in their addition to Greendale. He got up to talk and attempted to 
tell the "cost of a bottle of whisky" and told of a barn raising at his place, 
where one man lost his life on account of hands made unsteady by liquor, 
letting the timbers slip. At that time temperance was not popular, the minis- 
ters tried to sing him down but he was possessed of a powerful voice and 
raising it he continued to pour out his invective against the use of liquor and 
it is said was only silenced by being pulled down by the coat tails. He was 
also a very public-spirited man with strong convictions on other subjects 
besides temperance. Among the descendants of Jacob Blasdel in Dearbqrn 
county are Ambrose E. Nowlin, banker; F. J. Nowlin, Harry L. Nowlin, and 
R. J. Nowlin, now trustee of Miller township, farmers; J. H. Eubank, 
abstractor; L. J. Eubank, and W. A. Harper, T. W. Harper and Sherwood 

Jacob Blasdel had four sons, Enoch, Jacob, Jonathan and Elijah, each 
have had something to do with the patriotism of the Blasdel family. Patriot- 
ism is strenghtened by training, and the family of Blasdels had it to an 
unusual degree. A list is here appended to some of Jacob Blasdel's descendants 
who served their country in the Civil War from 1861 to 1865: James M. 
Blasdel, Jacob W. Blasdel, Lewis Crosby and Jacob Crosby, Second Illinois 
Cavalry ; Thomas Blasdel, Ferris J. Nowlin, Charles B. Blasdel, Jonathan P». 
Nowlin, John Blasdel, Huron Blasdel and Alonzo Jackson. Eighty-third 

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Indiana Infantry; George Blasdel, Fifty-second Indiana Infantry; Richard 
Robinson and Anthony Blasdel. 

The advance guard of the English to settle in Miller township was John 
Eubank. Mr. Eubank immigrated to this country in 1805, and in a short time 
sent for his family: then came to Miller township in November, 181 1, enter- 
ing a large tract of land on which some of his descendants are living to this 
day. George W. Lane describes him as "A plain matter-of-fact kind of a man. 
of few words*, and in trading with him in old times, the less bragging you did 
over your goods, wares, etc., the sooner you could strike a bargain. It might 
be said John never kissed the 'blarney stone.' " He has a numerous family of 
descendants in the township to this day and they are all of the best citizens. 

About 1 8 18 and 18 19 quite a number of settlers came into the township 
from the vicinity of John Ewbank's home in England, among whom were 
the Smiths, Sawdons, Hargiits, Liddles, Cornforths, Lazenbys. Many of 
their descendants are living on the ground taken up by their forbears from the 
government. They are a fine class of people, and have acquired property and 
are of the kind that make our country a stable one. 


The town of Cambridge, which was laid out by Jacob Blasdel, at one time 
had a little prosperity. There was the Blasdel grist-mill, a store, hotel, 
blacksmith shop and a number of houses there. In the Western Statesman 
of March 17, 1830, Jacob Blasdel had his grist-mill at Cambridge advertised 
for sale. About the same time an announcement was made in the same paper 
as follows : "Public Entertainment. The subscriber respectfully informs his 
friends and the public in general that he has opened a house of public enter- 
tainment in Cambridge, Dearborn county, Indiana. Six and one-half miles 
from Lawrenceburg, five from Elizabethtown, five from Heustis's, Man- 
chester township. On the nearest route from Cincinnati to Versailles, 
Napoleon, etc. His House and Stable are well situated for the accommodation 
of travelers, who may see proper to give him a call. His Bar is supplied with 
good liquors and his Stable with Forage. He flatters himself from the expe- 
rience he has had that he will give general satisfaction, and solicits a share of 
public patronage. W. F. Ripley." 

When Miller township was organized it was ordered that an election be 
held, and accordingly the first election ever held in the township was ordered 



by the board of commissioners held at the house of Jesse Goodwin, with 
Isaac Jackson, inspector, and a township clerk, trustee and justice of the peace 
were elected. 


The name' of Cherry Bottoms, that has clung to the Tanners creek bot- 
toms in the vicinity of what is called Cherry school house, is said to have 
originated from a family by the name of Cherry who lived there as squatters 
before Jacob Blasdel entered the land in 1804. It is said that the family set- 
tled there claiming they had a Virginia land warrant that enabled them to 
have a legal claim on a vast amount of land anywhere in the Northwest Terri- 
tory, the warrant dating back before the territory was ceded to the United 
States ; and the Cherrys are said to have settled on the land very early, even 
earlier than some or any of the settlers in the county. They were a family 
inclined to take the law in their own hands and encouraged others to live in 
their neighborhood of the same character. One of the sons traded for a horse 
in Cincinnati and started home with it when it developed that the person he 
had traded with had stolen it. and the Cincinnati authorities thought that 
young Cherry was the man that had stolen the horse. A constable was sent 
on his trail and Cherry, not knowing of the circumstances, was soon caught 
up with and arrested. The officer of the law, in order to be sure of his 
prisoner, tied him on the stolen horse, which, not being well broken, broke 
away and running, killed the young man, who could not get loose. This 
incited the ire of the Cherrys, who at once proceeded to Cincinnati and hunt- 
ing up the constable, shot him unceremoniously. Knowing it was an unlawful 
deed the family concluded that it was best to get away, so they brought what 
little household goods they might have to the river, secured a boat and floated 
away to the southland. It is claimed that descendants of the family are yet 
found living not many miles from Galveston. It is certain that in the vicinity 
of Cambridge there was a gang of horse thieves immediately after the Tanners 
creek lands were entered from the government. The Cherrys, if they ever had 
any legal claim, lost it when they departed to escape trial for their crime, and 
nothing further was ever heard of them or the old Virginia land warrant. 


John Ewbank, the first, of Tanners creek, Dearborn county. Indiana, was 
born in Yorkshire, England, in the year 1752. the eldest son of an English 

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farmer, of French Huguenot descent. At this fauier's deathbed he was left as 
the head of the family and the presumable holder of the lease, and "brec^ his 
younger brothers to the trades." After his father's family were grown and off 
his hands, in the year 1792, at the age of forty years, he married Ann Giap- 
man, a young woman of great force of character and a strict follower of 
Wesley, and with the Wesleyans or Methodists he cast his lot either at the 
time of his marriage or a few years before. 

In the year 1805, he was forced to pay a security debt for a friend, at 
about the same time the ninety-nine year lease of the farm expired, and on 
account of his belonging to the non-conformist church, the landlord refused the 
customary renewal. Thus he found himself at the age of fifty-three, with his 
ready money and his leasehold gone and with a wife and large family to sup- 
port. Leaving his wife and children in England, in the year 1805 he sailed 
for New York, and took service as a farm laborer. He was soon promoted 
to a manager's position, and soon after became a managing partner in a stock 
farm. In 1807 he was able to send for his wife and family of ten children, 
with whom he settled in the state of New Jersey, and there he farmed as a 
tenant for four years. 

In the year i8j 1 he sold off his stock and tools and with his family drove 
over the mountains to Pittsburgh, where he built a flatboal and floated down 
the river to Cincinnati, where he staid some time while prospecting. He 
finally purchased lands on Tanners creek, acquiring five and one-half quarter 
sections about one mile north and east of the present town of Guilford, includ- 
ing parts or all of the farms now owned by W. F. Ward, A. Liddle, Hufman 
& Miller, A. E. Snell, X. Vogelgesang, J. H. Smith, J. L. Bundy, C. Andrews. 
G. W. Harper, C. E. Liddle, N. A. Ewbank. H. Woods, A. K. Hansell. A. W 
Darling and Joseph McCawley. 

His family consisted of six sons, Thomas, John, Lancelot, Benjamin, 
Martin and David, who was killed by a falling tree at the age of sixteen years, 
and lies buried at the yard of the old stone church; and four daughters, Ann, 
who married William Smith; Frances, who married Joseph Hall; Hannah, 
who married John Hall; and Rhoda, who married George Randall. 

John Ewbank was a leader among the English settlers who followed him 
into the neighborhood where he was the first Englishman to settle. He was 
class leader of the Tanner's creek class of the Methodist church from its 
organization until his death in the year 1832. Following the same principles 
which had made his ancestors exiles from France for conscience' sake, and had 
led to the persecution which drove him in his old age from England, he took 

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an active part in the fight for freedom of the laity in the Methodist church. 
After his death his family were among the leaders in organizing the Metho- 
dist Protestant church, on strictly republican principles, where each member 
should have a vote in the management of the church affairs, especially in the 
finances, and where the higher ecclesiastics should never get beyond a strict 
accountability to the laymen. 

With most of his children John Ewbank sleeps in the churchyard which 
he donated to the church he loved and help build, in the community which he 
helped establish, and any of his descendants that fight as good a fight and 
keep the faith as well, may well claim to show themselves workmen that needeth 
not to be ashamed. 

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The county records contain no reference to any townships previous to 
1826, when the court house was burned, but in the entries a short time after 
that date is found this description of the township of Sparta. Commencing 
on the old Indian boundary line, on the township line between 6 and 7, range 3 
west, thence eastwardly following the meanders of North Hogan creek to 
where the same strikes the line running north and south between sections 8 
and 9, township 5, range 2 west; thence east with said line one mile; thence 
south to the southeast corner of section 21, township 5, range 2; thence west 
one mile ; thence south to the southeast corner of section 5, township 4, range 
2 ; thence west to the old Indian boundary line ; thence northwardly with said 
line to the place of beginning. As herewith described it included some three 
and one-half sections that were afterwards set off to Hogan township, and the 
northwest tier of sections that were added to Clay township when it was cre- 
ated. The township is practically bounded on the north by Manchester, on 
the east by Hogan, on the south by Clay and on the west by Ripley county. 

The lands of this township as entered from the government, with the year 
the transaction was done, is herewith appended : Township 5, range 2 west — A 
portion of section 18, in 1816, to Christian Hershey ; in 1817 to John H. Mus- 
grove, Jonathan Vail and Riley Truitt. A portion of section 19, in 18 16. to 
Christian Hershey; in 1817 to S. B. and David Kerr. A portion of section 
30. in 1817, to Phineas L. King and Theodore Thompson: in 1839 to Jona- 
than Parks; in 1832 to A«?ron Foulk and Joseph Carpenter: in 1836 to Percy 
Wheeler, Wilson Wheeler and Thompson Dean: in 1837 to George Cornelius, 
Wilson L. Wheeler and John Christey. A portion of section 31, in 181 7, to 
William and Thomas Olcott and Claybourn Allen; in 1831 to Michael Flake: 
in 1833 to Lorenzo Wright. A portion of section 32, in 1817, to James Lind- 
say and John Jones; in 1831 to John Columbia: in 1832 to James Lindsay; 
in 1837 to Peter Rough. A portion of section 1 (part in Manchester), in 
18 1 7, to Amor Bruce. Stephen Wood and Benjamin Johnson; in 1829 to 
Stephen J. Paine; in 1833 to Samuel McKinstry: in 1836 to Samuel McKin- 
stry and Thomas Lambertson: in 1837 to George H. Johnson. 

The earliest entries were made about the period following the advent of 



peace in 181 5. From that date until 1820 much of the lands of Sparta town- 
ship were taken up from the government. Squatters may have looked the 
ground over, as they generally did before the genuine settler with his family 
located on the soil, but no entries from the government were made previous 
or during the War of 1812, in Sparta township. 

James Duncan emigrated from Maryland and settled in Sparta in 181 5. 
Moses Musgrove emigrated from Virginia in 1816. Mr. Musgrove is said 
to have killed the last panther that was ever seen in Dearborn county. It was 
in the year 181 7 and the animal is said to have weighed two hundred pounds 
and measured nine feet from the end of the nose to the tip of his tail. Mr. 
Musgrove died ir 1819. Samuel and Demoss Moss emigrated from Massa- 
chusetts in 18 16, but removed from the county. Riley Truitt emigrated from 
Maryland in 1817 and died in 1818. 

Benjamin Johnson emigrated from Maryland and located in Sparta 
township in 181 7. He was said to be a man of very positive opinions and a 
strong character. He was the father of Hon. John D. Johnson, who was 
elected to the Legislature in 1846, re-elected in 1848, and was also a member 
of the constitutional convention in 185 1. He was also the father of Samuel 
J. Johnson, who was a doorkeeper in the House of Representatives at Wash- 
ington. Frank M. Johnson and Pern Johnson, of California, were his grand- 

Samuel B. and Winslow Wood emigrated from New York state in 1817. 
Jonathan Vail emigrated from New York state in 1817, and died in 1847. 
Stephen Inman came from the state of Maine in 181 7. Nathaniel Richman 
came from the state of New York in 1818, and died in 1859. Gilbert Givan 
came from Maryland in 1818, and died in 1868. Adam Moore and family 
came from Maryland in 1818, and settled on the site of the town of Moores 
Hill. John C. Moore, his son, who was born in Maryland in 1810, died in 
1 87 1. Samuel Marshall was bom in London, England, and was married in 
New York City and in 1818 settled in Sparta township. 

Abraham Eversole was born in Virginia in 1791, served in the War of 
1812-15, married in 1818, and in 1819 located in Sparta township. Among 
his early friends were Adam Moore, Charles Dashiell, Morton Justis, John 
Brumblay, Ezekiel Maston, John Dashiell, Ranna C. Stevens and Spencer 
Davis. The residence first erected by Mr. Eversole was a log one. The above 
named friends were present to assist in the log rolling and the construction of 
the cabin.. The clapboards and the roof were made and put on the same day. 
Noah Davis emigrated from Maryland and settled in the township in 181 8. 
and died in 1880, aged seventy-eight years. 

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In the fall of 1818 a wagon road was cut through the woods from what 
is now Aurora to Moores Hill and to the Ripley county line. The first natural 
death is thought to have occurred in the township was that of Riley Truitt, 
which occurred in the year 18 18. Adam Moore erected a grist-mill soon after 
he settled. It was a tread-wheel worked by animal power. A saw-mill was 
erected on Xorth Hogan in 1830, by Lyman Smith. In 1828 James Hayes 
erected a grist-mill on South Hogan, in the wester part of the township, 
which he operated for about fifteen years, when in an attempt to cut the ice 
from the water wheel he fell and was crushed to death. The mill was after- 
wards operated by Joseph Bossong and Jacob Zapp. One of the first steam 
mills in the county was erected by Phineas King in the year 1839, and was 
run together with a woolen factory, which had previously been run 
by a tread wheel. It was situated on King's ridge near Chesterville, 
After King's death the machinery was removed to Milan. William B. Miller, 
in the year 1839, erected the mills known as "Miller's Mills," in the southern 
part of the township on South Hogan. The first tan yard was started in 181 7 
by Samuel and Winslow Wood 

A half-barrel-a-day distillery was built and operated in 1831. by Steven 
Payne, in the northeastern part of the township. It is said that this was the 
first and last enterprise of the kind in the township. 

Sparta township was settled largely by people from Maryland. Later 
on there came quite a number of settlers from the north of Ireland, and in 
still more recent years there has come into the township a number of German 
settlers. As it has been all over Dearborn county, so it is with Sparta town- 
ship; the first settlers have passed away and their children have moved to 
other fields. Many of the descendants of the pioneers have sought homes in 
the West and have prospered. Filled with the same spirit that lured their 
forefathers from their homes in the East and over the ocean, they have sought 
out places where they could accumulate sufficient for their families and lay 
something by for the rainy day. 


The village of Moores Hill is the seat of the college by that name, and 
is finely located in the northwestern j>art of Sparta township and close to tnc 
Indian boundary line that separates Dearborn county from Ripley. It is on 

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the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern railroad and is an active wide-awake 
college town, with a population in 19 10. of tour hundred and twenty-four. It 
has a successfully operated creamery and several stores and a prosperous bank. 

F. C. Holliday in his "Indiana Methodism." tells of the early history of 
this neat little town. "Methodism was early planted at Moores Hill, Dear- 
born county. The early settlers in that neighborhood included a number of 
excellent Methodist families from the state of Delaware and the eastern shore 
of Maryland, among whom were Adam Moore, a local preacher, after whom 
the village was named ; John Dashiell. who was also for many years a local 
preacher ; Charles Dashiell. and Raima Stevens. These men and their families 
gave a moral impression to the society of that part of the country that is 
permanent and valuable. No part of our state maintains a higher standard 
of morals, and no community has been less cursed with intemperance and its 
kindred vices. John Strange once held a glorious campmeeting on the ground 
now occupied by the flourishmg town of Moores Hill. The blessings of a 
covenant-keeping God rests upon the descendants of these early Christian fam- 
ilies. Moores Hill College is a monument to the intelligence and Christian 
liberality of John C. Moore, one of the sons of Rev. Adam Moore, the original 
proprietor of the town, and although he has been gathered with his father 
to his heavenly home, his works remain, and the college that was founded 
chiefly through his instrumentality, it is hoped, will continue to bless the 
world through the ages to come. The village of Moores Hill, now noted 
for the moral and literary tone of its society and for the college of which it 
is justly proud, owes its name to the following blunder. Mr. Moore had 
erected a mill that was driven by horse power, as water power could not be 
commanded in that locality, and as the early settlers from a considerable dis- 
tance brought their corn to be ground, it occurred to someone that it would be 
a good idea to have a postoffice established in the vicinity of the mill; and 
accordingly a petition was sent to Washington praying for the establishment 
of a postoffice at Moores Mill. The postmaster general mistaking the M for 
an H located the postoffice at Moores Hill, and that gave the name to the 
village that subsequently sprang up, and to the college that has been founded 
chiefly through the exertions and liberality of one of the sons of the original 
proprietor of Moores Mill." 

Nine lots were originally laid out in the vicinity of what is commonly 
called Moores Hill, which were acknowledged by Spencer Davis, John Dashiell, 
and a Mr. Ablamoung, trustees of Wesley meeting house at Moores Hill, 
March 10, 1838. The original plat is said to have been laid out by Adam 

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Moore and Andrew Stevens. The record shows that in March, 1839, lots 
were surveyed on the west half of section 10, town 6, range 3 west, on the 
land of Adam Moore and Andrew Stevens, by Nathaniel L. Squibb. 
Additions have been filed since. 

About the first merchant in the place was a man by the name of Samuel 
Hearn or Herron. It is claimed he sold goods here as early as 1828. Another 
early merchant was Samuel Newton, who kept a store prior to 1838. Obid 
Bailey, David Brooks, John C. Moore and Moore Brooks were among the 
merchants during the early history of the village. William McCreary and 
John C. Moore were among the early postmasters. Charles Dashiell was an 
early hotel keeper, and a cooperage business was carried on by a Mr. Darby. 
Morton Justis and his brother carried on a tan yard, and with it a boot and 
shoe-making business. In those days when fine oak timber was plentiful, 
coopering was carried on extensively. John C. Moore established a cooperage 
factory in 1839, and it was a prosperous business for more than fifteen years. 

The town is incorporated and is governed by three trustees and has a 
town marshal, a clerk and treasurer. 


The village of Sparta is situated on the pike leading from Moores Hill 
to Aurora and contains a store, a blacksmith shop, two well-kept church build- 
ings and several neatly-kept residence places. 

Cold Springs is a station on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad that is a con- 
venience to the people thereabout as a shipping point. It has several houses 
and a general store. A mile or so from Cold Springs on the hill to the north 
is the little village of Chesterville, comprising perhaps a dozen families, a 
church and a Knights of Pythias hall. 

Sparta township is one of the best in the county. Its people are indus- 
trious and intelligent, law abiding and thrifty. The township has furnished 
a number of prominent men to the county and to the state. 



Washington township lies between Laughery creek and South Hogan. 
It lies on a high ridge of land between the two waterways and is one of the 
most productive parts of the county. The township was formed in 1852 
from territory taken from Laughery township. The following is the de- 
scription taken from the entry in the minutes of the county commissioners: 
"Beginning on Laughery creek in section 13, township 4, range 2, where 
the range line dividing ranges 1 and 2 strikes the creek; thence up said 
creek to where a line running north and south through the center of section 
21, in said township 4, strikes said creek; thence north to the center of 
said section 21 ; thence west to the east line of section 20, in said township 4, 
being the southwest corner of the northwest quarter of said section 2 1 ; 
thence north on the section line dividing sections 20 and 21, in said township 
4, range 2 west, to where said line crosses the South fork of Hogan creek; 
thence down said South Hogan creek to the range line dividing ranges 1 and 
2 ; thence south on said range line to place of beginning." 

Land was entered in Washington township very early in the history of the 
county. Henry Cloud entered a portion of section 11 in the year 1803, 
and by 1820 the land in the township was all sold to private parties. Among 
the earliest entries were those made by John Livingston in 1806, Michael 
Honich in 1805, Daniel Conaway in 1812. Daniel Lynn in 1813, John Hubbart 
in 181 1, Ralph Smith in 1812. John Walker in 1813, John Buffington in 1813, 
John Buffington, Stephen Peters and James Walker in 181 1, Ira Wright in 

Settlers, however, came into the township as earl}' as 1796. Pretty 
good authority is given that Benjamin Walker and family made a settle- 
ment in the southern part of the township on Laughery creek as early as the 
summer of 1796. Mr. Walker came from Pennsylvania and a few years later 
moved to the south side of Laughery creek and laid out the village of Hart- 
ford. He was the father of Henry Walker, a prominent character in Aurora 
during the decades from 1850 to 1870. Benjamin Walker had quite an ad- 
venturous career and a sketch of his early life shows what trials were had by 
some of the early settlers. 

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"When Mr. Walker first came to the county he lived alone, but having 
decided to make this county his home he sent for his wife to join him, which 
she did with their three children. While living in their forest home they were 
often visited by an Indian chief called Captain Green. One day this Indian 
came into the cabin with such an expression of rage on his countenance and 
his tomahawk in his hand, that Henry Walker, then a little boy, hid behind 
his mother's chair. The chief, addressing himself to Benjamin Walker, said, 
'You kill Indian.' Walker instantly sprang to .his feet at this unexpected ar- 
raignment and bravely replied, 'Yes, kill Indian — me kill two Indians'; 
and stopping for a moment as if to weigh the effect, added, They killed my 
father.' The chief threw down his tomahawk and held out his hand. 
'Right — right — me kill, too.' This led to an explanation of the affair, and the 
boy who had quailed before the savage eye of the wild man of the wilder- 
ness heard the story from his father's lips, and told it to John Cobb, a few 
years since, while on a visit to James Walker, in Illinois, and Mr. Cobb 
narrated it to the writer. 

"More than eighty years ago (from 1876) two Indians visited a village in 
Pennsylvania, and among other things got to bragging how many whites they 
had killed during the Revolutionary War, and showing a stick with notches 
cut, they pointed to it and said, 'So many.' A bystander noticing a few long 
marks, as a boy tallying a game, wished to know what they meant, and was 
told that the long marks were for officers and one of the longest was for 
Colonel Walker. The mention of this name attracted the attention of three 
young men who had been left orphans years before. The Indian continued : 
'Colonel Walker no brave — he beg — wanted to come home,' and with many 
taunts and many particulars of his death, these fatherless boys listened in 
silence, but after the Indians had gotten through and left town these three 
held a council, and decided that these Indians should never brag again of kill- 
ing their father, and started in pursuit. 

"After they had gone some distance one of the brothers hesitated and 
advised them not to go any further, but the two elder were determined to go 
on and drove this one back. They went on and overtook the Indians near 
a stream. Benjamin had with him a short sword, John had a gun. They had 
agreed on a plan of attack when they had got near enough. The one with the 
gun was to shoot the Indian in advance, and Benjamin was to attack the 
other with his sword. At the signal the gun did its work, but not effectively ; 



the Indian fell but only wounded. Benjamin raised his sword to strike, but as 
it came down it struck a limb and the Indian started to run. Walker after 
him. The Indian plunged into a stream, but not alone. They struggled irt the 
water for sometime until the Indian drew a knife, which Walker wrenched 
from him and killed him. By this time the wounded Indian had found his 
feet and seeing the contest in the water tried to get there in time to assist his 
friend, but his speed did not serve him, for when he had got there Walker 
had killed the first and soon dispatched the second. This over a new trouble 
met them. 

" Some of the citizens of the village, suspecting that something might be 
on hand of the character related, had also sought the lonely woods and be- 
fore young Walker had left the stream came in sight and spoke of arresting 
him. He told them not to undertake it as enough blood had been spilled that 
day, and they might take his word for it that he would not be taken alive. The 
two young men avoided the officers by hiding in a cellar for nine clays, then 
they took advantage of a storm to reach the woods, then the mountains, then 
to the Ohio valley ; the younger brother, John Walker, stopping in the western 
part of Ohio and the hero of our story coming to Dearborn county, where 
he resided for many years, improved a valuable farm and was blessed with a 
large, worthy and respectable family." 


Daniel Lynn settled in the southern part of the township in 1796. and a 
son. Joel, was born on Laughery creek in 1799. Rachel Lynn, who married 
John Conaway, it is claimed, was the third white child born in the county. 
She was born in Washington township. 

Daniel and William Conaway were among the earlier settlers, but after- 
wards moved farther up the creek. Benjamin Wilson and family came from 
Pennsylvania and settled in the township in 1805. He was married in 1792 
and removed to Kentucky in 1795, then removed to Dearborn county in 1805. 
Ralph Smith and John Hurlbert and their families came from North Carolina 
to the township in 1813. They first settled at Lebanon, Ohio, but after living 
there a few years removed to this township. Mr. Smith was the father of the 
late Wilkinson Smith, a well-known citizen of the township who died a 
number of years ago. 

One of the earlier pioneers was Major George Nichols. He died in Wil- 
mington in 1863, * n n ' s ninety-third year. He was born in Maryland, immi- 

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grated to Kentucky in 1791, and came to the county in 1808. He served his 
country during the Indian wars on the frontier during the campaign of 
the period from 1790 to 1795, and was also active during the War of 1812. 
George W. Lane wrote in 1876 that "Stephen Peters came, to the county in 
1798 with Ebenezer Foote. They first settled on the river bank just above 
Aurora. A freshet in the Ohio drove them back to higher ground, where they 
lived a few years and then settled on South Hogan in Washington township. 
Stephen Peters was the father of Joseph Peters, who lived and died on the 
land entered by his father, and the old homestead still belongs to the family." 


Ira Wright came to the county from Cincinnati, where he had been 
living for seven years. He settled in Washington township in that year, pur- 
chasing a part of section 1. He lived with his family in a boat that he had 
floated down from Cincinnati, while he was building his house and clearing 
up a place to raise a crop. He was the father of Capt. Henry F. Wright, 
of Company D, Third Indiana Cavalry, who served in the Civil War, losing 
his life for his country. 

Robert Walker, father of the late John P. Walker, came to the county in 
1807, stopping at Lawrenceburg, where he married a daughter of William 
Cook, for years the jailer of the county. He settled on the hills of the town- 
ship and his son, John P. Walker, lived and died* on the same farm. 

James Lindsay moved to the township from Frankfort, Kentucky, coming 
down the Kentucky river in a pirogue, then up the Ohio to the mouth of 
Hogan. then up that stream to his farm. Here he established a tan yard 
and engaged in furnishing leather to the pioneers. He was the father of 
Enoch Lindsay, who lived on the old farm, and of Mrs. John Spidell. 


The Smiths and Crumes were Methodists and their neighborhood erected 
a hewed log meeting house about 1818. This church stood on the site of the 
present Mt. Tabor church, where there have been religious services held ever 
since that first church was built. In the burying ground adjacent lie many of 
the bodies of these old pioneers now crumbled into dust. Among those buried 
in early days were George Smith in 1828. Joseph Smith in 1832 and Elizabeth 
Wheeler in 1828. Among those buried there were the families of the Flem- 
ings, Gulletts, Abbotts, Millers and Becketts. 

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Among the prominent families in the township who are well-known 
are the Tufts. Servetus Tufts was one of the early school teachers and is 
said to have taught at a school house that once stood near the Trester grave- 
yard. The Miller family is another of the well-known families in the town- 
ship. The present township trustee, Alvah G. Miller, is a descendant of the 
early pioneers by that name. Jacob Cooper, a former township trustee, has 
lived in the township for a number of years. Henry D. Tufts, one of the de- 
scendants of the pioneer family of that name, is one of the leading men of the 
township and a progressive, thrifty farmer who takes great pride in the busi- 
ness of the farm. 

The farmers of Washington township have been good tillers of the soil 
and their lands have not grown poorer by cultivation ; a ride over their fine 
roads and a view of their broad, fertile acres is a convincing proof that the 
soil is well cared for. 


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York township must have received the name on account of the number 
of English who came into the township from Yorkshire, in England. The 
tone and character of the entire township was in its early history dominated 
by these thrifty, high-class citizens. Guilford, at the forks of Tanners creek, 
and Yorkville. three miles out the ridge, between the two creeks, by their 
names indicate their English origin. 

The township was laid out at the January session of the county com- 
missioners in 1841. It was created out of parts of Manchester, Kelso ami 
Miller townships, and while not very large in area is perhaps as populous to 
the square mile, or more so than any township in the county with no city 
within its borders. 

Being an interior township, its lands were not taken up from the govern- 
ment at quite as early a date as those nearer the river or father down the 
larger creeks. However, it is found that in 1810 Isaac Ferris, assignee for 
a Canadian volunteer, entered a part of section 23, in township 6, range 2 
west; in 18 13 Samuel Dowden entered a part of section 19, in township 6, 
range 1 ; and in 1814 Nathaniel Tucker and Micajah Dunn entered a part of 
the same section. 

The township remains with pretty much the same territory it had when 
created with the exception of an addition of several sections added from 
Manchester township about 1896. 

The Micajah Dunn mentioned as entering a part of section 19, town- 
ship 6, range 1, is credited with being the first actual settler in the township. 
His father, Capt. Hugh Dunn, was one of the first settlers at Columbia, ju?t 
above where the city of Cincinnati now stands, in 1788. His name appears 
among the list of those that landed there with the first colony. The Captain 
afterwards moved down the river to Fort Hill, and was with the little band 
that lived here during the perilous times of St. Clair's campaign and Wayne's 
victory at the Goose Pond stockade, with Joseph Hayes, the Millers and 
Guards. The family lived here until after Wayne's treaty when they moved 
to where the town of Elizabethtown, Ohio, now stands. This would be about 
1796. Here Captain Dunn remained for a time and his son Micajah married 
and he then removed to the vicinity of Guilford, afterwards entering the land 

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in section 19. Some ten years later, imbued with the genuine pioneer spirit, 
he moved to what is now Manchester township, and it is claimed was the first 
settler in that neighborhood. 

Section 10 is the land on which the town of Guilford is laid out and it 
was taken up by Samuel H. Dowden, Nathaniel Tucker and Micajah Dunn : 
and in 181 7 Joseph Hall took up the remainder. 

George W. Lane says of the stockade near Guilford : "In the spring of 
181 2 the first steamboat of one hundred tons built at Pittsburgh, by Robert 
Fulton, made its first trip to New Orleans in fourteen days. The name of 
the boat was "Orleans." The Indian hostilities now began in earnest. Will- 
iam Crist had been wounded while discharging his duties as a mail carrier. 
The militia was organized under James Dill, colonel ; Enoch Smith, lieutenant- 
colonel; Decker Crozier, major of the third regiment. James McGuire was 
captain of the first company, and Frederick Schultz was captain of the second 
company of rangers. These companies erected three blockhouses, one on 
Laughery creek about fifteen miles from Lawrenceburg, one on Tanners 
creek above Guilford, and one on the headwaters of Blue creek. In each of 
these blockhouses were stationed ten men. The two companies of mounted 
men patrolled the wilderness from blockhouse to blockhouse until the close 
of the war." 

Mr. Lane says that the first settlers in York township were two families 
by the name of Payne and Bean respectively. John Ewbank took up a part 
of section 18 in 181 5, and the same year Jane Bonte and Rucliff Bogent took 
up a portion of section 3, in the next range of townships ; also the same year 
Aaron Payne entered a part of section 11, of the second range of townships, 
and David Perine and John Borel entered a part of section 10, in the second 
row of townships. The English emigration commenced about 1818, and in 
time had taken up much of the land of the township, purchasing from others 
where government land was not to be found. 

It is possible that the Aaron Payne mentioned as entering a part of sec- 
tion 1 1 is the same Payne spoken of by George W. Lane as being one of the 
first two to settle in the township. Many of the early immigrants waited a 
number of years before entering land. 


Hugh McMullen and family emigrated from Pennsylvania, settling first 
on Wilson creek, and in 1818 moved to York Ridge, as the ridge between 

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the forks of Tanners creek is called. The family is said to have remained on 
York ridge only one year, removing to Manchester township, where it is 
claimed he erected the first cabin on Pleasant View Ridge. He lived during 
the year near the present site of the village of Yorkville and had for neigh« 
bors a family by the name of Bonte and another by the name of Davison, 
both of whom had entered lands there. The Davisons soon after sold out to 
John Gidney. Land changed hands or owners in those days much more rapid- 
ly than now and a family by the name of Cherry at one time a little later is said 
to have been large landowners about Yorkville at an early date. 

Among others who located along York ridge and in the township were 
the Rows, Philip and family,* Richard and Leonard Spicknall, the Smiths, 
Bennetts, Thompsons, Snells, Halls. The two latter settling along the west 
fork of Tanners creek. 

Most of the early settlers entering lands were from the vicinity of New 
York City. Among them were the Van Horns, Angevines, Snells and Wards. 
In 1818 James Angevine located in the township, coming from New York City, 
where he was born in 1777. Mr. Angevine was long-lived, dying in 1874, at 
the good old age of ninety-six years. The remarkable coincidence is that his 
son, James Angevine, died December 22, 1909, in his ninety-sixth year. The 
second James Angevine was born in New York City in 18 14. 

In 1822 William Ward and family settled in the township. They came 
from York state, locating at first in the northern part of the township, living 
on the lands of Peter Bonte, who about this time with his family removed to 
Cincinnati. It is claimed that Mr. Ward erected the first frame house on the 
ridge, it being an addition to the log house. John Smith came to the county 
in 18 18. settling on the east branch of Tanners creek, entering land from the 
government at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. He was the 
father of ten children, many of whose descendants yet reside within the town- 
ship and are well known citizens. The Van Horn family came to this county 
a year earlier than the Smiths, in 181 7. Cornelius Van Horn entered a part 
of section II, where his descendants continued to reside until recent years. 

It was not until some fifteen years later that the German emigration com- 
menced. Adam Broom and John Heimburger were credited with being the 
advance guard of the Teutons that have since taken over a considerable per 
cent, of the lands of the township. 

In 1858 Judge Cotton says this concerning Mrs. Perine, her husband, 
David B. Perine, being then deceased: "When she first settled here in the 
forest some forty or fifty years ago, not only were there howling beasts of 

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prey, but Indians too were numerous, and would often enter into her cabin 
at night, strike up a fire, treat themselves unceremoniously to anything and 
everything they could find, enjoy themselves thus for hours and then retire 
without offering her or hers any personal molestation or violence. And a 
Mr. Smith (I think that was his name), who raised the first cabin on the 
ridge, had it partly covered when he chanced to see two big Indians lurking 
about. Supposing them to be there for mischief he stole upon them and 
with a deadly aim made one of them 'bite the dust.' The other precipitately 
fled, paused at the distance of some forty rods and then turned back, unwilling 
to leave or forsake his friend. Meantime Smith had kept his eyes upon him 
and reloaded his gun, and when the Indian had come within shooting distance, 
he too was made to 'bite the dust' and share the fate of his friend. Smith dug 
a grave, put them both in and buried them right here within gunshot of the 


One mile east of Yorkville is located a public cemetery donated for that 
purpose by Philip Row, who then owned the land about it. It is said that the 
oldest grave in the cemetery that bears an inscription is dated 1838. Of the 
older persons buried there : Andrew Scott died in 1839, aged seventy-three ; 
Robert Keightly died in 1856, aged eighty-eight; Philip Row died in 1838, 
aged seventy-two; Mary, wife of Philip Row, die,d in 1838, aged seventy- 
three; David C. Perine died in 1850, aged seventy-six; Catherine, wife of 
David Perine, died in 1863, aged seventy-three. 

Charles R. Allen, K. and Josiah Campbell laid out the village of Guil- 
ford, in May 29, 1850. The surveying was done by an engineer by the name 
of William Rock. An addition was made in 1859 by Joel F. Richard & Son, 
and another in 1870 by Jonathan L. Blasdel. The place has grown in a 
business way and in population in the last two decades, and now has a post- 
office with two rural routes, three stores and a blacksmith shop. Quite a good 
deal of country produce such as hay, corn and wheat is shipped from this 
point over the Big Four Railway Company's line, which has been a factor of 
the life of the place for many years past. The population of Guilford in 1910 
was given at two hundred and fifty. 

The village of Yorkville was laid out by David C. Perine, March 24. 1841. 
The engineer that surveyed and platted the village was S. XV. Math. It is 
a point of some business and had a population in 1910 of one hundred and 

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Capt. Samuel C. Vance, a soldier under Washington, an aid to Gen. 
Anthony Wayne and by marriage a grandson to Gen. Arthur St. Clair, being 
familiar with the nature of the ground at all the prominent points along the 
Ohio river in the Wayne Purchase, conceived the idea that the location just 
below the mouth of the Great Miami called for the site of a city. On July 
23, 1801, shortly after the land office at Cincinnati was opened, he entered 
the land on which the city of Lawrenceburg is located; which is fractional 
sections 13 and 14 and section 15 in congressional township 5, range 1 west 
of the Miami river. 

In April, 1802, bringing James Hamilton and Benjamin Chambers with 
him, he came down from Cincinnati and proceeded to survey and plat the 
town site of the city of Lawrenceburg. The plat comprised one hundred and 
ninety-six lots and lies facing the Ohio river, which runs in a southwesterly 
course at that place. The streets on that account parallel the river and run 
northeast and southwest, while the cross streets run northwest and southeast. 
The town site was bounded on the northeast by Elm street and on the southwest 
by Mulberry street, to the northwest by Partition lane, since about 1882 
called Center street, and on the southeast by the Ohio river. 

The town site was originally on a rather level bottom with one or two 
sloughs or indentations where during the spring months water would stand. 
At the time it was laid out, it was thought to be above floods from the Ohio 
river. The years have, however, shown the citizens of this fair city that the 
Ohio, when it reaches high flood, inundates every foot of the original plat. 

In addition to the tract of land on which the town site was laid out, Cap- 
tain Vance entered fractional section 13 and section 15, but it was said that 
he was unable to pay for them, so on December 3 of the same year Benjamin 
Chambers re-entered the three tracts and received the patents for them. On 
the river front the plat called for a street called Front between which and the 
river there was at one time a common. Vance provided for a public square 
which is the present site of the court house. A cemetery was provided just 
outside the town at the foot of High street. 

Samuel Morrison is authority for the saying that Dr. Jabez Percival 

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erected the first house in the autumn of the same year, 1802. Vance having 
great confidence in the future of the place reserved for himself the very 
desirable location for a residence where the Tousey house is now located,, and 
here he made his home until his death years later. Early additions were made 
to the infant city as desirable lands were called for, for building purposes. 
Captain Vance married a granddaughter of Gen. Arthur St. Clair, a lady by 
the name of Lawrence, and he gave the newly platted location the name of 
Lawrenceburg, after the family name of his wife. 

Like the western country generally at that time the infant town grew 
very slowly. In the year 1806 it is said that the principal buildings were the 
ferry house, on the bank of the river above Walnut street, and a warehouse 
below Walnut street. The residences were those of Benjamin Chambers and 
Gen. James Dill on the bank of the river. James Hamilton and Michael Jones 
lived on the alley by the Fitch livery and undertaking establishment. New 
street at that time went by the name of Second street and on it lived Dr. Jabez 
Percival, Jesse B. Thomas. Captain Vance and Elijah Sparks. Below Maple 
street, on High, lived Rev. Baldridge. William Cook was jailer and the jail 
was a log building on the public square. On the northeast corner of Vine and 
High streets lived James Foster, who was a chair manufacturer. John Gray 
kept a store on the corner of Short and High streets and Jacob Horner a 
tavern in a log house on the corner where the Grand Hotel now stands. On 
the Parry corner William Morgan lived, and on the opposite corner where 
the Gordon store now is he carried on a blacksmith shop. Judge Isaac Dunn 
lived on the corner of Elm and High streets near where he died in 1866. 
The houses were then, six years after the town had been laid out, built almost 
altogether of logs. A newcomer would land at the river front, locate a lot 
and in a few days have a log hut erected, where in a short time he would be 
found confortably at home. Buckeye was very plentiful, and it is claimed that 
on account of the ease with which it was cut with the axe most of the houses 
were erected out of this material. If this was true it would only be a few 
years until they would decay, for this timber was short-lived. If cut in the 
spring they would sprout and the first summer would make quite a pictur- 
esque appearance. 

Jabez Percival was the first doctor to serve the sick in the new town and 
Jesse B. Thomas, Elijah Sparks, James Noble and Michael Jones were the first 
attorneys. The first school house was built on the public square, and the 
early teachers were Rev. Baldridge and a Mr. Fulton. The courts of that 
day were held in the house of William Morgan, on the Parry corner, and 

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were presided over by Benjamin Parke, district judge, who lived at Vincennes. 
Benjamin Chambers was the associate judge, Samuel C. Vance, clerk of the 
court, and David Lamphere, sheriff. 


The Dearborn county history says that the principal citizens of the town 
in the year 1813 were: Samuel C. Vance, Benjamin Chambers, James Dill, 
Stephen Ludlow, Isaac Dunn, Benjamin Piatt, Dr. Jabez Percival, Jacob 
Horner, hotel proprietor ; John Horner, blacksmith ; Walter Armstrong, inn- 
keeper; Samuel Fancher, constable; Timothy Davis, James McLeaster, shoe- 
maker; Charles Lee Brashear, hatter; William Cook, jailor; Mr. Kimball, 
wheelwright; John Cox, William Chamberlain, horse mill proprietor; Dr. 
Ezra Ferris, Chambers Foster, Zenas Hill, school teacher; Mr. Shaw, Mr. 
Thornbury, James Hamilton, William Caldwell, justice of the peace; and 
David Gerard. At that time there were two brick houses, one of stone and 
five frame houses. Samuel C. Vance, Benjamin Chambers, James Dill. 
Stephen Ludlow and Isaac Dunn were the owners of frame houses. The 
court house, which burned in March, 1826, was built in 1810. Dr. Percival 
had a brick house on the corner of New and Vine streets back of the present 
Methodist Episcopal church. It was torn down about thirty years ago. Of 
the young men prominent at that time Walter Hayes, Andrew Morgan, Davis 
and John Weaver and Samuel H. Dowden are all that can be recalled in the 
reminiscences of Samuel Morrison. 

In Daniel Drake's picture of Cincinnati and the Miami country, published 
in 181 5, it is stated "Lawrenceburg, having occasionally suffered inundation, 
has grown but little, and a new village called Edinboro has been lately laid 
out on higher ground, about one-half mile from the river, but it is not a place 
of much promise. The inhabitants of the counties of Dearborn, Franklin 
and Wayne received their supplies of foreign goods almost exclusively from 
Cincinnati, but little mercantile capital being employed at Lawrenceburg, and 
there being on the Miami no depot of merchandise for the region." Two 
years later, 181 7, the author of an emigrant's directory says, "In traveling 
seven miles through the woods of Dearborn county I counted two bears, three 
deer and upwards of one hundred turkeys. In the course of the day I missed 
my way and wandered several miles in the wilderness." 

Real estate, about the time of the War of 18 12. was not moving very 
rapidly. Neither was it bringing very high prices. May 5. 1812, Samuel C. 



Vance sold to William Remy lot 84, on the corner of Mary and William, just 
opposite the Baltimore & Ohio depot for $50. January 3, 181 1, Samuel C. 
Vance sold to Stephen Ludlow for the sum of $300, lots 161, 162, 163 and 
164. These are the lots on the south side of High street between Short and 
Elm — the Fitch corner to the residence of Clarence Hunter. March 5, 181 2, 
Samuel C. Vance sold to Stephen Ludlow for the sum of $100, lot 43 in the 
original plat, which is the lot which the residence of George Volkert and the 
office of Givan & Givan now occupy. January 4, 181 1, Samuel C. Vance 
sold to Stephen Ludlow for the sum of $200, ten acres just above and join- 
ing Elm street and extending to the river. March 14, 1810, Samuel"C. Vance 
sold to Stephen Ludlow for $10, lot 1, at the foot of Walnut street, on the 
west side. The Big Four occupies the ground at present. June 29, 181 2, 
Samuel McHenry, of Hamilton county, Ohio, sold to Stephen Ludlow for 
$200, lots 41 and 42, which are the lots on the corner of Walnut and High, 
from Walnut street to the alley, known as the Parry corner and extending tc 
the alley at John F. Hornberger's. McHenry purchased the lots in 18 10 from 
Thomas O'Brien at sheriff's sale. June 6, 18 13, Jonathan W. Lyon sold to 
Stephen Ludlow lots 167 and 168 for the sum of $150. These are the lots 
extending from Stockman's corner to the alley at W. S. Fagaly's. October 
10, 1808, Samuel C. Vance sold to James Smith, Jr., & Sons, of Philadelphia, 
to satisfy a claim the parties had against him, four hundred and forty-nine 
and one-half acres in section 15, and thirty-nine acres just east of the cor- 
poration. It was sold for the sum of $4,339- Zebulon Pike and James 
Findlay were appointed commissioners to view the personal property and 
they allowed Vance the corn that was grown on the property that year. 
February I, 181 1, Samuel C. Vance sold to James Hamilton for the sum of 
$150, lots 71 and 72 of the original plat, being lots on William street between 
Vine and the Baltimore & Ohio depot, where George H. Wood resides, to the 

Stephen Ludlow seemed to be the principal purchaser of real estate about 
Lawrenceburg at that time. There was little business going on and no 
demand for produce. August 4, 1815, Jesse Hunt, of Cincinnati, sold to 
Stephen Ludlow, four hundred and forty and one-half acres adjoining Law- 
renceburg, it being the Ludlow grounds just north of the corporation, much 
of it still belonging to Mr. Ludlow's son, Omar T. Ludlow. 

As it became evident, in the year 18 15, that the war was not going to be 
carried into the Ohio Valley, real estate commenced slowly to improve in 
price and the demand grew proportionately; January 4, 1820, James McLeas- 

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ter sold the lot where the Carnegie library now stands, being the west half of 
lot 47. for $500. Farm lands about Dearborn county began to sell on account 
of emigrants pouring in from the East and transfers of real estate were 

A number of substantial buildings were erected about this time. Among 
the principal business people of the town in the period from 181 5 to 1820 
were David P. Shook & Company. Samuel C. Vance, John Gray. John H. 
and Benjamin Piatt, David Guard. Isaac Dunn, John Eads & Company, Will- 
iam Pyne, Stephen Ludlow, John Gibson. Israel J. Canby, Andrew Morgan. 
Frederic Lucas, James \V. Weaver, David Rees, William Ewing, Joseph 
H. Coburen. Jacob Brashear, Collins Fitch. Ephraim Hollister, James Hallo- 
well, Harris Fitch, Jesse Hunt, William Tate. Benjamin Stockman. Walter 
Armstrong. Thomas Shaw, John Bates, Noah Noble & Company, Mary 
Brooks, milliner ; Jared Evans, justice of the peace ; and David Bruner, barber. 


In 18 17 it is claimed that a paper was published by a man named 
Brown. The Dearborn county history telling of those times says. "Dennis 
Duskey ran a trading boat from here to Cincinnati, leaving every Monday 
morning." Duskey was a peculiar character and the history narrates. "Every 
attention was given to goods committed to his care, and every accommodation 
possible afforded to passengers. There was no bar on this boat, and smoking 
was positively forbidden, and the first person caught playing cards was at 
once set ashore." It continued facetiously to say. "The captain reserved the 
right to indulge in profanity whenever the occasion required it." It was 
probably a keel boat. 

This first paper published in Dearborn county was published by B. Brown 
and was called the Dearborn Gazette. The office was located in a building 
on the west side of the alley where the residence of Edward Hayes now 
stands. The motto of the paper was "Equal and exact justice." During Mr. 
Brown's editorial career the following incident occurred. Mr. John Jackson 
was the mail carrier. His route was from Cincinnati to Madison. He lived at 
Georgetown and made Lawrenceburg a way station and would bring the 
mail matter, tied in his red cotton handerehief. from Cincinnati and George- 
town. Brown took him to task for his seeming carlessness, which irritated 
the courageous carrier, who was a man of great physical strength, and as 
brave as he was powerful, and he determined to chastise the impertinent 

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editor. Brown was a small man. but did not lack courage. When Jackson 
entered the office to inflict the punishment he was engaged busily with his 
ink balls in hand, printing his paper, and as soon as Jackson had come within 
striking distance, Brown struck him in the eye with the ink balls and suc- 
ceeded in making a "good impression.'' Jackson was so astonished at the mode 
of defense and the weapons used by the Yankee printer, that he retired from 
the contest blinded and blackened, proclaiming he could whip his weight in 
"wild cats" but always preferred to pass by the small odoriferous animal whose 
defense was more effectual than a Chinese stink pot. 

During the period from 1815 to 1820. a bank was organized under the 
name of the Farmers and Mechanics Bank. Isaac Dunn was its president and 
Thomas Porter, father of ex-governor Porter, its cashier. This bank, it is 
claimed with good authority, did business on the north side of High street 
next door to the former residence of W. D. H. Hunter, now the residence or 
Louis Schusterman. Its board of directors elected at the annual election, 
January 3, 1820, was Isaac Dunn. Ezra Ferris. Isaac Morgan. Walter Arm- 
strong. John Weaver, David Guard, Lazarus Noble. Stephen Ludlow, Levi 
Miller, Moses Schott, George Weaver, Samuel Bond and Amos Lane. 

The town seemed to have its quota of physicians, for records show that 
at least seven practiced upon the woes of the people to relieve their suffer- 
ings. The list obtainable is Dr. Jabez Percival. Dr. John S. Percival. Dr. 
Ezra Ferris. Dr. Marmaduke E. Ferris. Doctor Finch, Dr. Abraham Brower 
and Doctor Easton. If there were any disputes to be settled by law there was 
no difficulty in finding an attorney to present the matter to court, for a list 
of twelve attorneys of more or less ability is given as follow: James Dill. 
Jesse B. Thomas, Elijah Sparks. Thomas Wardell. John Lawrence. Amos 
Lane, James Noble, Jesse L. Holman, Stephen C. Stephens, William Hen- 
dricks, Daniel J. Caswell. Moses Hitchcock, Isaac S. Brower and George H. 
Dunn. Some of these, however, only practiced here and resided in other 
county seats. The system in vogue at that time was a circuit court of a num- 
ber of counties and attorneys would ride from one county scat to another to 
get their practice, often riding in the course following the circuit, hundreds 
of miles. 

Prices of merchandise were different from now. On some things fo- 
which we now pay a stiff price, at that time the price was ridiculously low, 
while other things were very high. Muslin was seventy-five cents a yard. 
Calico at sixty-five cents a yard would now be thought too high to wear. 
Indigo was four dollars per pound. Coffee at seventy- five cents per pound 

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made it a great luxury. Tea was two dollars and fifty cents per pound; salt 
four dollars and fifty cents per barrel; flour five dollars per hundred ; potatoes 
fifteen cents per bushel; corn fifteen cents per bushel; pork one dollar and 
fifty cents per hundred; eggs six and one-fourth cents per dozen; butter 
twelve and one-half cents per pound. 

George Weaver ran a saw-mill in Newtown by horse power or oxen. It 
is probable that not many hundred feet were sawed in a day. The hotel at the 
corner of Walnut and High streets was partly built at that time. It is prob- 
able that the residence of Louis Schustermann, owned by Mrs. Conrad 
Stumpf, is the oldest house in the city and the corner part of the Grand Hotel 
is the next oldest. 

Jesse Hunt built the hotel and Benjamin Stockman was the brick mason. 
This hotel building lays claim to being the oldest three-story brick building 
erected in the state. 


Lawrenceburg was, if anything, more of a religious town then than it 
is now. January 6, 1820, the ladies of the town met at the house of David 
Guard, when they proceeded to organize a Sunday school society. Mrs. 
Frances Dunn was chosen chairman and Polly Lane, secretary. The com- 
mittee on constitution and by-laws was Miss Elizabeth Brewer, Miss Mary 
Brooks and Mrs. Elizabeth Percival. Those appointed to have charge were 
Mrs. Elizabeth Percival, Mrs. Frances Dunn, Mrs. Polly Lane, Mrs. Rebecca 
Wright, Mrs. Elizabeth Rice, Mrs. Elizabeth Brower, Mrs. Ann Eads and 
Mrs. Huldah Gardner. Class teachers were Mrs. Mercy Porter, Miss Mary 
Brooks, Miss Elizabeth Brower, Miss Mary Ann Brower, Miss Lucretia 
Earl and Miss Electa Wright. Mrs. Beulah Guard was elected treasurer and 
Miss Elizabeth Brower secretary. 

The men of the town, not to be outdone in well doing, met on the 24th 
of December, 1819. It seems that the men were the first to see the necessity 
for religious instruction, for their meeting was about two weeks earlier than 
that of the women of the town. At the men's meeting to organize a Sunday 
school society, Dr. Jabez Percival was made president and George H. Dunn, 
secretary, David P. Shook, treasurer; and Dr. Ezra Ferris and Dr. Abram 
Brower, superintendents. 

Literary matters too were not neglected and the town, even that far back 
in its history, was the possessor of a public library. It is recorded that during 

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the winter of 1820 the directors of the Lawrenceburg Library Company were 
John Porter, John Weaver, Joseph H. Coburn, Isaac S. Brower, Jabez Per- 
cival, James Dill and George H. Dunn. 

The infant city felt some hope of future prosperity, for the town council 
that same year assumed an indebtedness of three thousand five hundred dollars 
for the purpose of digging public wells and filling High street Some of the 
dug wells now in existence date their existence back to the year 1820. High 
street, in the business portion, has had little filling since that time. The coun- 
try west of Lawrenceburg commenced to fill up so rapidly during the period 
following the peace with Great Britain that Lawrenceburg became a town of 
first importance in the state. Emigrants began to swarm in to the "New Pur- 
chase," as the Grouseland purchase from the Indians was then called. These 
settlers commenced to raise a surplus of produce and Lawrenceburg was the 
nearest town where money could be obtained for it. The Lawrenceburg mer- 
chants at that time were very enterprising and an extensive trade was main- 
tained with New Orleans and the country along the lower Mississippi. Flat- 
boating, which had ever since the first settlers came, been the best method of 
transporting the products to market, commenced to be an important factor in 
the commercial life of the town. Hay boats, cattle boats and boats of every 
description and kind could be seen at the Lawrenceburg wnarf. The New 
Orleans market governed the prices of all kinds of farm products. As the 
settlements extended farther and farther in the wilderness of central 
Indiana the amount of farm products received and shipped south via. the flat- 
boat route increased. River men were in evidence in the town even-where. 


Almost every dealer in merchandise of any description carried on a trade 
with the South. Hogs and cattle, hay, corn, potatoes, apples, poultry, in fact 
every conceivable product of the country, brought a ready market on the 
lower Mississippi. This brisk trade was much encouraged by the advent of 
steamboats. Formerly the return journey was made overland, via the Natchez 
trail, Nashville and Louisville, from New Orleans, and few cared to undertake 
it John Callahan, Walter, Joseph and Jacob Hayes were some of the hardy 
boatmen and traders who were ready in those pioneer days to undergo the 
hardships and dangers of such a trip. The boatmen would, after selling out 
their cargo, purchase a horse and start out, generally with what money they 
received for their produce on their person. Desperate characters were plenti- 

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ful along the route, who would commit most any kind of a deed in order to 
secure the hard earned earnings. In order to prevent such outlaws from rob- 
bing them the boatmen, if possible, came home in squads of eight or ten 'and 
were amply ready to take care of themselves. 

The produce was brought in wagons, or if live stock was driven in, and 
the town in these brisk commercial days presented a lively appearance. It 
is probable that from a commercial standpoint the volume of country business 
far exceeded what it is today. This brisk commercial prosperity brought 
here many noted characters, men of strong intellects and broad minds. 
Keen business men and bright active men of affairs were here, brought from 
all quarters of the East on account of the great volume of business caused by 
the opening of the new country. Some of them were merely birds of passage 
staying only a few weeks, others remained for some years; but the majority 
in time moved on to find other and more promising fields for their abilities. 

It is probable that if the city had been laid out on ground not subject 
to overflow, that the period between 1815 and 1820 would have been the 
starting point for a large city. It was the natural outlet for all the country 
northwest for many miles, before the railways were built ; but the overflow 
and the poor roads in time gave other river towns a chance to compete and 
divide the business. 

Among the characters that the influx of population and trade brought 
into the growing town was a man by the name of Brown. The early "Dear- 
l>orn County History" thus tells of him: "There were many noted characters 
here in the zenith of the town's commercial prosperity, many whose names 
have come down to us, brilliant with the memory of their many good deeds 
and acts, and whose reputation was co-extensive with their young and risjng 
state, and who did much with laying the solid foundations upon which wc 
have builded, while there were some, as in this day, noted for their dark and 
infamous deeds; of the latter class we will mention one, Daniel Brown, and 
there are quite a number of our elder citizens living today who will remembei 
him well. He is said to have been one of the most powerful men of his time, 
nearly six feet in height, straight as an arrow, and very active, at all time? 
appearing in a smiling mood, subtle and courageous as a lion. He was an 
active business man and a member of the county board of supervisors. He 
kept a store on High street in a building situated about where John Roehm's 
store is now. He traded on the river in addition to his business at the store, 
as most business men of the town did in those days. He was a noted counter- 
feiter and gambler and in one of his trips south he got into difficulty with 

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gamblers at a noted place known in those days to all river travelers as 'Natchez 
Under the Hill' and killed one of them. He succeeded in making his escape 
and proceeded to New Orleans, where he at once entered largely on counter- 
feiting, and was very successful, and it was some time before he was detected. 
He was placed in jail with others of the gang and some reports said he died, 
while others claimed he succeeded in making his escape. Be that as it may 
he was never heard of by citizens of Lawrenceburg after that time." 

In the period from 1820 to 1830 the town continued to prosper and 
small fortunes were made by the active business men of the period. Captain 
Vance completed what is now known as the Tousey house during that period. 
Other houses that are yet in existence were erected. Business began to take 
on a more permanent character. Flatboating increased. Sugar, molasses, 
rice and other products of the Louisiana country were brought up on the 
steamboats that now began to ply between the upper Ohio ports and the lower 
Mississippi, and these were exchanged for the foodstuffs of this country. 

To give an idea of what the volume of business was in those days we quote 
from an article in the "Dearborn County History" from the pen of a Mr. John 
Scott : "Some idea of the commercial and growing importance of this town 
and the country adjacent can be formed by the following statement of pro- 
duce shipped at the river for the Missippippi and lower country market, from 
the 1 st of January, to the 1st of May, 1826, four months. In giving this 
statement we have confined ourselves almost exclusively to the produce of the 
neighborhood of the town, not having it in our power to give the whole 
amount of produce exported from the county, which would, it is believed, 
swell the sum to $80,000 or $100,000. 



14,140 bushels of corn at fifty cents per bushel 

51 horses at $75 each 

136 tons of hay at $20 per ton 

45 head of cattle at $25 each 

2. 13 1 barrels of pork at $6 per barrel 

1.393 kegs of lard at $3 per keg 

493 live hogs at $5 each 

$ 7,070.00 


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66 hogsheads of hams at $32 per hogshead 

10 tons of hams at $5 per c\vt 

1 1 barrels of hams at $8 per barrel 

80 bushels of potatoes at fifty cents per bushel. . . . 

186 barrels of flour at $3 per barrel 

500 gallons of whisky at twenty-five cents per gallon 

453 kegs of tobacco at $10.50 per keg 

74 dozen chickens at $2 per dozen 

[2,250 pounds of pork in bulk at four cents 






"The writer said he made no mention of small articles, such as oats, hoop- 
poles, flax seed, etc, etc., which he thought would run up to $6,000.00 or 
$7,000.00 additional. He also informed us that it required twenty flatboats 
to carry this freight at a cost of at least $100.00 per boat. He placed the 
population of Lawrenceburg at that time at 700. It had 150 handsome brick 
and frame residences, nine stores, five taverns, six lawyers and three phy- 
sicians, with a number of mechanics of various professions. There was, he 
said, a storehouse of five stories which was considered the best between Cin- 
cinnati and the Falls, there is also an extensive silk-lace factory established in 
the town that supplies a large district of country with the article and the 
only one of the kind west of the mountains. Also a printing office and a 
Masonic lodge." 

In 1828 a description of Lawrenceburg published in a current geography 
of the time was as follows : "It stands on the north bank of the Ohio twenty- 
three miles below Cincinnati and two miles below the Big Miami, which is 
the eastern limit of the state. This town is in the center of a rich and deep 
bottom. The ancient village was built on the first bottom, which was fre- 
quently exposed to inundation. It is not uncommon for the water to rise 
four or five feet above the foundations of the houses and stores, in which 
case the inhabitants remove to the upper story, and drive their domestic 
animals to the hills. Visits and tea parties are projected in the , inundated 
town, and the vehicles of transport are skiffs and pirogues. The period of 
flood, from ancient custom, and from the suspension of all of the . customary 
pursuits, has become a time of carnival. The floods, instead of creating dis- 



2 4 I 

ease, wash the surface of the earth, carry off vegetable and animal matter 
that would otherwise putrify, and are supposed to be rather conducive to 
health than otherwise. The old town built on the first bank has been station- 
ary for many years. New Lawrenceburg has. been recently built on the 
second bank and on elevated ground, formed by the bank of Tanners Creek. 
Since the commencement of this town, few places have made more rapid 
progress. Many of the new houses are handsome, and some of them make a 
splendid show from the river. Its position in relation to the river and the 
rich adjacent country and the Big Miami is highly eligible. It has a number 
of commencing factories and promises to be a large town." 

In March, 1826, the court house burned and all the records up to that 
date were destroyed. It was during the freshet of that year and the water 
was several feet in depth around the building. It was so cold that the next 
morning after the fire, ice was frozen all around the ruins. It was thought 
to have been the work of an incendiary. 

The people of Lawrenceburg were not lacking in patriotism in those 
early days. The Fourth of July was the favorite time for holding celebra- 
tions, in which twisting the tail of the British Lion was the favorite pastime. 
It was only a few years since the War of 18 12 and it had not been forgotten. 
Many of the public men of the time had either been active participants in the 
struggle, or had taken part in the St. Clair and Wayne campaigns and were 
imbued with much bad feeling against the conduct of the British in their deal- 
ings with the Indians during those campaigns. Captain Vance, General Dill 
and many other of the leading citizens were bitter against the British and 
whenever occasion offered never forgot to deal in severe terms with our 
cousins over the water. Many of the people were either Revolutionary 
soldiers or sons of soldiers of that struggle, and patriotism was rampant on 
such occasions as the Fourth of July or the 22nd of February. July 4, 1825, 
a celebration was held jn which "Major Longley was marshal ; Major Spencer, 
assistant. The procession proceeded to the Methodist church. The Declara- 
tion of Independence was read by Captain Vance, an oration by George H. 
Dunn, after which the procession proceeded to the hotel of John Gray, where 
a dinner was had. After the . ladies had retired, the patriotic old gentlemen 
proceeded to drink twenty-four toasts, and acquitted themselves heroically, 
as they did every task imposed, and with unfaltering courage never shrank 
from any undertaking, and the record of that day no doubt did no discredit 
to their valor. With patriotism swelling in every bosom, they closed the 
scene amidst many cheers ; in response to the following toast : 'O. H. Perry, 
the Hero of Lake Erie.' (16) 

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" 'May the British Lion lie and wheeze 

While swift the eagle flies, 
Spreads her broad pinions o'er the seas 

And picks out both his eyes !' " 


The Indiana Palladium of December 9, 1826, published a report of the 
county treasurer showing that the volume of business done by the county at 
that time was nothing like that of the present day. It says : "The following 
is an account of the expenditures of the county of Dearborn from the date 
of the former exhibit, believed to be the 7th of November, 1825, until the 8th 
of November, 1826, inclusive; together with an account of the amount of the 
county debt at that time, with the receipts of the present year, showing the 
situation of the county debt at this time : 


For this sum paid the Associate Justices $ 96.00 

For this sum paid Grand Jurors 72 50 

For this sum paid Petit Jurors 177-50 

For this sum paid for support of and entering paupers 347- I 9/ / 2 

For this sum paid for record books and stationary for the Clerk 

and Recorder's offices 134.21^ 

For this sum paid for repair of Jail * 2 -37V2 

For this sum paid for Constables attending Court 49.00 

For this sum paid for rent of house for Circuit Court 35-oo 

For this sum paid for wood for Circuit Court 1.25 

For this sum paid Coroners and Jurors of Inquest, holding inquests 

on dead bodies 30.24 

For this sum paid sheriff for extra services 70.00 

For this sum paid Clerk for extra services 70.00 

For this sum paid road viewers, chain carries, etc 27.25 

For this sum paid Collector for collecting County Revenue 108.43 

For this sum paid County Treasurer, receiving and paying out. . . . 66.50# 

For this sum paid Jailer boarding prisoners and jail fees 54.06J4 

For this sum paid for rent of jury rooms 6.00 

For this sum paid attorney defending criminals who were unable to 

employ counsel 10.00 

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For this sum paid to returning judges of elections 1.25 

For delinquencies on duplicate in 1825 70.90 

For this sum paid Listers of Taxable property 122.70 

For this sum allowed for rent of room for supervisors 5.00 

For this sum allowed printers for printing this expose 2.00 

For this sum paid Clerk for making duplicate in 1825 and 1826. . . 40.00 

Supposed County debt last Monday in November, 1825 1.456. 19 

Total $3,102.56^4' 


For amount of duplicate of 1826 $1,818.05 

For Tavern licenses 96.20% 

For Store licenses 290.29^2 

By tax on law process : . . 19 50 

Total $2,224.65^ 

County Debt. , $878.51 

"Done by the Board of County Supervisors John Porter, President. 

James Dill, Clerk." 

One peculiar advertisement is found in this issue of the Palladium a* 
follows: "Adverse scenes in domestic life and the cruel interference of others 
in my family circle, compels me publicly to state that the woman who is by 
law my wife, has been, induced to leave my family. Although I can not con- 
sent hereafter to be responsible for her contracts, it is far from my feelings to 
wage war with women, or add a stain to the reputation of her with whom I 
have lived with affection. A serpent hath beguiled my Eve ; a worm con- 
temptible in its native dust has prevailed to corrode a flower which I once 
deemed fair for domestic bliss." 


In the decade from 1830 to 1840 Lawrenceburg suffered from the great 
flood of 1832 and from the nation-wide financial depression of 1837 to 1839. 
But the prosperity of the town was only checked, not stopped. Buildings 
were erected on every hand. The row of buildings from Short to Elm on 

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the south side of High street were all built during this period. Much of 
what is called Germantown was built at that time and many of the business 
houses and the private residences were erected during that time. School* 
commenced to flourish and the town took on more of a permanent appearance. 

George H. Dunn commenced the promotion of the railway to Indianap- 
olis. It was first a vast dream for those early times. It was to be called the 
Charleston. South Carolina & Upper Mississippi railway. It was projected 
to be built from here to Indianapolis as a part of a great railway trunk line 
leading from Charleston. South Carolina, to the Ohio river at this point and 
thence to Indianapolis and on to Fort Snelling. Much of this was talk and 
dreams, but the road from here to Indianapolis took on a definite character. 
Many of the monied men of the town and vicinity were interested in the mat- 
ter. The road was surveyed, in various places along the route work was 
commenced as early as 1835. The chief engineer, a Mr. Vandegraff. died 
about this time and the tightening of the financial affairs of the country caused 
it to lapse, only to be taken up again by Mr. Dunn and carried on to success 
some ten or more years later. But the postponement of the undertaking meant 
a heavy loss to the stockholders and the business of the town. 

The flood of 1832 was a record breaker and up until the flood of 1883 
was looked upon as a flood that would perhaps never be paralled in the years 
to come. Much property was destroyed but there was little suffering among 
the people. 


The White Water canal was constructed during this decade and it 
brought some additional business to the town. Manufactories were erected 
and business houses. The old flour-mill at the foot of Elm street was erected 
at that time and the river bank at Elm street was lined with warehouses. The 
canal was brought down to Elm street affording considerable water power, 
that was made use of to run the mill. Brown & Lamping manufactured furni- 
ture on the corner of Short and William. The A. P. Hobbs distillery was 
built during this time. A foundry was built in Newtown by Edwin G. Pratt. 
John B. Carrington was manufacturing steam engines. George H. Dunn 
and John Test were trying to promote a cotton factory, unsuccessfully. Much 
pork was packed. The New Purchase and the Big Miami bottoms brought 
to the town thousands of hogs that the merchants slaughtered and packed 
The new flour-mill, under the management of Enoch D. John, was stimulating 
the wheat production and the state road out through Manchester and 10 

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Greensburg, Shelbyville and points still farther, began to be crowded with 
farm wagons loaded with grain for this market. Money in those days was 
scarce and it was claimed that at this point, where a good bank was located, 
made it the only point where money could be obtained for the farm products. 

The following is taken from the Political Beacon of December n, 1839: 
"During this period some of the business men of the town were John Ferris, 
druggist; Frederick Lucas, jeweler; Lewis and Hobbs, ready-made clothing 
E. P. Bond, M. D. ; J. F. Crider, saddlery ; William Tate & Son, lumber ; E. S. 
Close, druggist; John Wymond, merchant; Stephen Burr, boots and shoes; 
John Hunt, insurance; T. C. Thorp, tinware; Norval Sparks, merchant; 
James T. Brown, and Daniel S. Majors, attorneys; Warren Steele, jeweler; 
Dr. Ezra Ferris, William Brown, furniture; Lane & Holman, attorneys ar 
law; George B. Sheldon, tinware; N. N. John, agent for the Rising Sun 
foundry; C. S. Stevenson, wholesale grocery; J, J. Mayers, bakery; D. T. 
Laird, ready-made clothing; E. McNealy, butcher; E. Morehouse, butcher; 
J. P. Ulrey, dentist; William G. Monroe, county treasurer; John Weaver, 
deputy treasurer; W. H. Vaughan, grocer; James A. Morgan & Company, 
books and stationery. M. Gregg, as treasurer, offers for sale the furniture 
in the office of the defunct railroad company. Cyrus and Uel Armstrong 
announce a dissolution of partnership in the manufacture of chairs, and the 
latter announces he will carry on the business." 

An article in the paper is a criticism of the report of the shipments on 
Whitewater canal as compared with the report of shipments on the twenty- 
two miles of railway, just completed from Madison out to Jennings county. 
The editor of the Beacon was Milton Gregg. "It appears by the message 
of Governor Wallace that the tolls collected on the Madison railroad for the 
six months it has been in operation amount to $8,470, and that the tolls col- 
lected on the Whitewater canal for the same time amount to only $620, and 
on the Wabash and Erie canal $4,248. Now we would like to know how 
it happens that there is such a great disparity in the proceeds of these works. 
Can it be possible that there has been, within the last six months, twice the 
amount of goods and produce transported on the twenty-two miles of railroad 
which has been completed, than there has been on the entire length of 
the Wabash and Erie and Whitewater canals combined ? Docs the poor and 
sparsely settled county of Jennings ship off more produce than the rich and 
populous valleys of the Wabash and Whitewater? We hope Mr. Lane, the 
vigilant chairman of the Committee on Canals and Internal Improvements, 
will call for a bill of particulars. Let us know the nature and the amount of 

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the shipments which enter into the account, and whether the tolls have arisen 
from the legitimate business of the country, or otherwise. All may be fair 
in the matter, but we confess, to our imperfect vision, it looks very much like 
a tub thrown out to the whale." 

In the same paper E. G. Brown, as master of the steamer "Indiana," 
announces that the boat will make regular trips between Rising Sun and 
Cincinnati, leaving the former place on .Mondays, Wednesdays and Friday. 
The Beacon announces that the agents of the lx>at line are Luke Evil at 
Wilmington, Daniel Bartholomew at Aurora. Craft & Lynn at Rising Sun, 
Lewis Mason at Hartford, Thomas Guion at Guionville, Jacob C. Egleston 
at Dillsboro, Mark McCracken at Manchester, William S. Ward at York 
Ridge. George H. Dunn and Philip Spooner announce that they are prac- 
ticing law with an office over the lawrenceburg Insurance Company, corner 
of High and Short streets. J. Meyer & Company advertise that they arc- 
doing stone cutting and engraving on the corner of High and Walnut streets, 
opposite the Jesse Hunt Hotel. County Treasurer William G. Monroe adver- 
tises four hundred and eighty-four shares of the capital stock of the Branch 
of the State Bank of Indiana at Lawrenceburg, for sale on account of the 
non-payment of taxes. 


The census of 1830 gave Lawrenceburg a population of eight hundred and 
ninety-five: the census of 1840 found one thousand four hundred and fifty, 
and the town was full of enterprise and business. In 1846 
the town was incorporated as a city under an act "granting the citizens 
of Madison and Lawrenceburg a City Charter." The first election was held 
at Lawrenceburg on April 6, 1846. The city grew and the census of 1850 
showed a population of two thousand six hundred and fifty-one. 

During the decade between 1840 and 1850 the business of the place 
had grown rapidly. Pikes had been constructed which added to the com- 
mercial life of the town. The broad highway leading out towards Ripley 
county had been macadamized as far as Manchester during this period. \ 
stage line was operated regularly between this city and Greensburg, and from 
there the traveler could continue on to Indianapolis and to other points. The 
merchants were ready to purchase from the farmers of the interior country 
anything that was offered and pay for it in good money This stimulated 
trade and the state road was thronged with farm wagons loaded with wheat 

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and other products for the Lawrenceburg market. These wagons would 
return carrying salt, sugar, molasses and many other articles needed in the 
household. A few years back men could be yet found as far west as Green- 
castle, Lebanon and Danville who had driven their teams to Lawrenceburg 
with wagons loaded with wheat, where it would be disposed of ; and returning 
would bring home articles necessary in the household economy. 

This extensive business brought considerable money to the city and in- 
creased its growth and fame. Many of the houses now standing were built 
during this decade and perhaps the most of them in the early part of this 
ten years. Some of the business men who were prominent during this period 
were George Tousey, C. G. W. Comegys, John Gray, Craft & Company, 
Lemly & Dunn, Wymond & Ferris, Hauck & Wedelstadt, J. Gysie & Com- 
pany, R. & A. Parry, L. B. Lewis, James S. Heath and John Ferris & Com- 
pany. The attorneys at that time were George H. Dunn, Amos Lane, Philip 
L. Spooner, John Ryman, Daniel S. Majors, Abram Brower, David Macy, 
W. S. Holman, James T. Brown, James H. Lane, James S. Jelley, and Theo- 
dore Gazlay. The physicians were Ezra Ferris, Jeremiah H. Brower, Elisha 
Morgan, Myron H. Harding, E. P. Bond, Milo Black and William Starm. 

During this decade of 1840 to 1850 the Methodist Episcopal church was 
erected at a cost of ten thousand dollars and other improvements were made 
about the town. The seat of justice for the county, which in 1835 had been re- 
moved to Wilmington, was again located at Lawrenceburg. Its incorporation 
as a city, among the few cities of that period in the state, gave the place quite a 
prestige; and the volume of business increasing with the improvement of the 
highways, the new era of prosperity began to take on an air of permanence, 
until many of the citizens were convinced that the place would be the metrop- 
olis of- the state. Its mercantile business grew with its commerce; steamboats 
and flatboats carried the produce of the farmers to the lower river markets. 
The city became a rendezvous for men following the river. The Mexican 
War period was during this decade and Lawrenceburg was prominent in 
recruiting and equipping several companies for that struggle. It furnished 
the officers for several companies and a number of the regimental officers 
besides privates and non-commissioned officers. The discovery of gold in 
California found many of those who had seen service in Mexico ready to 
go to that far-away country in search of fortunes. 

During this period the flood of 1847 visited the Ohio valley, causing 
much loss to the people, and Lawrenceburg was inundated. However, the 
city recovered from it with apparently little trouble, and business was only 
temporarily suspended. 

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In the period from 1&50 to i860 the railway came to the city. It was 
during that period that both the Ohio & Mississippi and the Lawrenceburg 
& Indianapolis railways were built. The latter was largely built by Lawrence- 
burg capital and Lawrenceburg energy. George H. Dunn, who had been 
the father of the earlier attempt to construct a railway, revived the project, 
and very early in the fifties succeeded in completing it through to Indianap- 
olis. Thus Lawrenceburg bade goodby to its stage lines, its caravans of live 
stock and long trains of produce. At first, with the advent of the railways, it 
was thought that the city would grow by leaps and bounds, and it would 
command the trade of the interior of the state, but before the decade ended 
it became evident to the far-seeing merchants and business men that the 
railways would be the means of building up, in a commercial way, only the 
centers of trade, and that the smaller towns would contribute. 

Accordingly, business men who were dealing largely with the country 
planned to get out of business here and remove to the larger centers of trade 
and distribution. Year by year the country trade was cut off from the city 
by reason of the changes in lines of communication and business. The city 
has been prosperous, but its business has ceased to be largely a mercantile 
one, and it has gradually become a manufacturing center. The merchant 
of today no longer expects to deal with a customer who has spent from a 
day to a week on the road with his load of produce, and who in return for 
the money received for his produce will purchase supplies that will perhaps 
fill a wagon. The country trade is limited to the immediate vicinity of 
the city, within a radius of some ten to twenty miles, owing to the direction. 
People living farther out soon found a market on the railway -nearer home 
and the business that had formerly come to Lawrenceburg was transferred to 
nearer towns. 

Yet with the coming of factories and the development of the nearby 
country, the little city continued to show a growth and an increase in business. 
In 1870 the population had increased to three thousand one hundred and 
fifty-nine, and in 1880 to four thousand six hundred and fifty-four. During 


the decade from 1880 to 1890 the city suffered three disastrous floods, which 
caused the citizens immense loss. The water in the flood of 1884 reached 
a height never before known, and many of the factories and business men 
never fully recovered from the losses entailed. By 1890 the population of the 
city had increased to four thousand two hundred and eighty, and in 1900 it 



was four thousand three hundred and twenty-six. In 19 10 the census showed 
a population of three thousand nine hundred and thirty. The business of the 
city has somewhat slackened, but still shows great vigor. The great flood 
of 1 91 3 caused a loss of an incalculable amount, but the manufactories are 
rapidly recovering and a few years will doubtless bring the city back to its 
old-time vigor. 


For many years Lawrenceburg had no fire department, depending on 
the vigilance and willingness of her citirens to rally to the assistance of the 
town when a fire occurred. -For years it was the pride of the town to be 
able to say that very citizen was an active member of the volunteer bucket 
brigade. It had been at all times vigilant and ever ready to respond when 
an alarm was given. The bravery and heroism of this patriotic unorganized 
brigade was admirable, but it was found by the great fire of July 4, 1866, 
when property estimated at a value of sixty thousand dollars was destroyed, 
and the fire on the corner of Short and High streets in the spring of 1882. 
that it was necessary to find more efficient means of fighting fire. Accord- 
ingly a fire department was organized and equipped with two companies and 
two fire engines. The companies were for years organized on a volunteer 
basis, with an exemption of five hundred dollars on their property for taxes. 
This fire department continued for thirty years and the company was dis- 
solved in 19 10 and a new company organized that is alert and ready to go 
at a moment's notice when duty calls. 

The chief of the fire department is Drewry Northern; assistant, Peter 
Endress. The officers of Fire Company No. 1 are : Captain, William G. A. 
Schneider; first lieutenant, Philip E. Jackson; second lieutenant, John M. 
Fichter; surgeon, Edward J. Emmert. As an organization it also has for 
president, Emil Kestner; vice-president, Isaac Cappel; secretary, William 
Kaf fenberg ; assistant secretary, Oliver Fowler ; treasurer, Adam Vesemmeier. 
The officers of Fire Company No. 2 are : President, Henry M. Poollman ; 
vice-president, Henry A. Menke; secretary, John Beinkamp; treasurer, Jacob 
Spanagel; captain, William J. Sicking; first lieutenant, Frank Schindler; 
first engineer, Frank Sedler; second engineer, John Beinkamp. 


The business men of Lawrenceburg during the decade from 1850 to i860 
were partly as follow: B. T. W. S. Anderson, boarding house keeper; Leon 

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Adler & Company, merchant tailors: Henry Adler, dry goods; George 
Huschart. marble and freestone works : George W. Moore, dry goods ; Heifer 
& Woodward, carriage manufactory ; John Wymond, grocer and commission 
merchant; J. P. Ulrey, dentist: T. & C. Gazlay, attorneys-at-law ; Gaffs & 
Marshall, millers and distillers: Alexander Beckman, commission merchant 
and wharfboat proprietor ; Farmers' Hotel. George Meyer, proprietor, comer 
Main and Third streets ; Adam Kastner. baker; Ludlow & Tate, sash factory, 
C H. W. Werneke, cigar factory ; Lewis & Moore, dry goods : D. S. Barck- 
dell, cooperage: Metcalf & Fagan. lumber; Henry R. Helmuth. dry goods; 
A. Bookwalter, editor of the Register; Henry Godert, boots and shoes : Ferris 
& Abbott, drugs; Orville & Origen Thomson, editors of the Hoosier State; 
Piatt & Reid, attorneys; Amos Bolander, proprietor of Bolander House: 
George YV. Ferguson, house and sign painter; J. P. Chew, insurance; John 
Ferris, insurance: David E. Sparks, insurance; Mrs. T. E. Dunn, ambrotype 
artist; James T. Brown, attorney; Spooner & Schwartz, attorneys; Philip L. 
Spooner, attorney ; George D. Tate, carpenter ; E. G. Burkam, president of the 
Branch Bank of the State of Indiana; C. B. Burkam, cashier: George Brod- 
beck, confectioner; George P. Buell. produce dealer; Chapman & Son, grocers; 
William E. Craft, notary public: Philip Dexheimer, blacksmith; George S. 
Duncan. Ohio & Mississippi ticket agent; George B. Fitch, proprietor of 
Fitch House ; M. H. Harding, physician : Jacob Gysie. grocer ; Nichols Har- 
bold, boots and shoes; John Isherwood, news depot and carrier; John G. 
Kennedy, bank teller; Henry Kirsch. cigars and tobacco; Lewis & Eichel- 
berger, millers; Thomas J. Lucas, watches and jewelry; Joseph McGranahan, 
grocer; Daniel S. Major, attorney; Mathias Miller, coal dealer; Joseph 
Mooney, clothier ; R. H. Parry, dry goods ; Frank Riddell, postmaster ; George 
Preston, carpenter; Robert Rodgers, livery; Hugh F. Smith, grocer; Norval 
Sparks, grocer; William Tate, Jr., physician; Omer Tousey, land dealer: 
Charles Walters, physician. 


The first brick house built in Lawrenceburg is thought to have been erec- 
ted by Dr. Jabez Percival. The building was the old two-story, heavy-walled 
dwelling house that stood some twenty-five years ago back of the Methodist 
Episcopal church at the foot of Vine street. It was a well-built, deep-win- 
dowed, well-lighted brick, with a third story that was used for some years 
by Lodge No. 4. Free and Accepted Masons, for their meeting place. After 

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the Percival family had all departed from Lawrenceburg. it fell into other 
hands and was a tenement house until the Methodist congregation purchased 
it and tore it down. The walls were nearly three feet in thickness and it had 
the appearance of being erected for defense. The building was thought to 
have been erected about 1806. 

The residence now occupied by Louis Schusterman and owned by Conrad 
Stumpf, on the north side of High street, next door to the Dr. W. D. H. Hun- 
ter residence, is probably the oldest brick house now standing and probably the 
oldest house of any description in the city. The Farmers & Mechanics Bank- 
occupied it for a banking house in 1817. and it had probably then been erected 
for several years. The corner portion of the Grand Hotel. High and Walnut 
streets, was erected by Jesse Hunt in 1819 and has been occupied as a 
hotel ever since. It is claimed that it was the first three-story brick house 
built in the state of Indiana, which may probably be true. It was considered 
at the time as a wonder, and it was a common remark of the people. "What 
in the world is Jesse Hunt going to do with them rooms away up there?" 

The brick house on the corner of Main and Third streets belonging to 
John A. Bobrink, county treasurer, is said to have been erected in 1820. It 
has been occupied as a place of business ever since it was built, and is still 
in a good state of preservation. 

What is called the Tousey house, now belonging to the Lawrenceburg 
Roller Mills Company, was erected about 1820. by Capt. Samuel C. Vance. 
It was claimed to be, for many years, the finest residence on the Ohio river 
between Cincinnati and Louisville. The visitor in looking through its spacious 
rooms and critically examining its front walls, will be impressed with the 
justice of this claim. The ceilings are high and the walls thick. The halt 
stairway is a wonder for modern mechanics, with its spiral staircase reaching 
from the cellar to the garret. The front is massive, for those days, with 
freestone steps and arched doorway. It was the home of the Vances until 
the death of the Captain in 1828. Afterward Doctor Pinckard used it as a 
college. Dr. T. B. Pinckard married Catherine Vance, daughter of Captain 
Vance, and was a practicing physician and a druggist. He was also a man 
of considerable culture, and after Captain Vance's death he undertook to 
promote a college in the residence. It was called "Washington Agricultural 
School," and he advertised that with the site of the college building was some 
twenty-five acres of land which he proposed to make into a botanical garden 
where the students could study agriculture at first hand in a practical way. 
He carried on the school for several years and as administrator of the Vance 
estate sold the property to Omer Tousey. 

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The old frame house back of the Methodist church on New street was 
occupied by Amos Lane as a residence in his palmy days, and was probably 
built early in the last century. His law office was on High street next door 
to the Methodist Episcopal church, and the front of it up to the first story is 
the same frame that composed the office. 


It is recorded that on the first of April, 1833, pursuant to an official 
call, the qualified voters of the town of Lawrenceburg met at the tavern of 
Jesse Hunt for the purpose of electing a president of the town board and 
five members of the town council. Fifty-six of the qualified voters of the 
town were present and voted, electing David V. Culley president of the 
council, and George Tousey, John Shook, Thomas Palmer, John Saltmarsh 
and James \V. Hunter councilmen. These held their offices for a term of 
one year and were elected to succeed Arthur St. Qair Vance, president;. 
Thomas Palmer, John Saltmarsh, D. V. Culley and Jabez Percival council- 
men. At that time Charles Spooner, grandfather of Ex- Senator John C. 
Spooner, of Wisconsin, was clerk of the board and remained in that position 
for several years afterward. David V. Culley was president of the board 
until April, 1837; he was followed by Green Sparks, who served until No- 
vember, 1837, when he resigned and was succeeded by William Brown, who 
in turn was succeeded by Philip L. Spooner, who served until April, 1839. 

Isaac Dunn was president of the board of the town council following 
Spooner from April, 1839, until April, 1840, and was succeeded by William 
Steele, who served until April, 1843, when he gave up the presidency to 
Jeremiah Crosby, who served until April, 1846. At that time the town was 
granted a city charter and David Macy was elected its first mayor. Mr. 
Macy served as mayor until April, 1849, when he gave up the position to 
Sidney L. Sandford, who was mayor until July, 1850, when he resigned and 
was succeeded by Jabez S. Ferris, who served until July, 1852, and was 
followed by Jeremiah Crosby, who served until July. 1855. Joseph McGrana- 
han served from 1855 to May, 1856, and was followed by James H. Swope 
until May, 1857, who was succeeded by John Schwartz, who served the city 
from May, 1857, to May. 1861 ; he was succeeded by Francis Riddell. who 
served until October, 1861, when the place was declared vacant, Mr. Riddell 
having gone into the army. 

Following Mayor Riddell the council elected John F. Richards to fill the 

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unexpired term and then he was elected continuously until May, 1869, when 
James H. Swope succeeded him, serving two years, until May, 1871. Mayor 
Swope was succeeded by Richards, who served for two years, giving way in 
May, 1873, to Johann J. Hauck, who served three terms, until May, 1879, 
when he in turn was succeeded by George M. Roberts, who was mayor for six 
years, until May, 1885, giving way in turn to William H. O'Brien, who was 
mayor until 1894, when he was succeeded by Thomas Winegardner, who 
served four years, until 1898. In 1898 William H. O'Brien was again called 
to the position and was mayor until 1902, giving way to Charles J. Lang, who 
served until May, 1904, when he in turn gave up the position to Edwin M. 
Lee, who resigned in September and by virtue of the state law. Joseph F. 
Frazer, city clerk, was made the mayor. Mr. Frazer served until September, 
1906. when he was succeeded by Estal G. Bielby, who was mayor until Jan- 
uary 1, 1910. and was succeeded by Leonard Axby, who served until Jan- 
uary 1, 1914, when he gave way to Estal G. Bielby, who is now mayor. 

The city has had some very able men at the head of its government, and 
its citizens may well be proud of the list herewith given. As the city grows 
older and the state laws relative to city affairs become more strict, the amount 
of legislation transacted in council sessions grows more and more lengthy and 
of greater importance. 

When the town government was first installed it was the custom, and 
perhaps the law. to issue a call for an election signed by the president of the 
board for an election some certain evening. The meeting would be much 
after the fashion of the political caucus of the present day, or the Massachu- 
setts town meeting. They would assemble and a chairman would be selected : 
the candidates placed in nomination and balloted for. In the meeting of 
April 1. 1833. it was stated that the meeting was legally called and fifty-six 
qualified voters were present and the result was as stated that D. V. Culley 
was duly elected president of the board to serve for one year. This method 
seemed to have continued up to the time the town was given a charter as a 
citv. when the office of mavor was filled bv an election the same as it is 

• mm 


In 1830 John McPike was the president of the town council and under 
date of March 17 of tin* year he advertised, in the capacity of president, for 
bids for the construction of a whart for the embryo city, said wharf to be 
between Walnut and Short streets. John P. Dunn also advertised, as t!ie 
clerk of the town, that there would be an election held on the evening of the 
first Monday in April, at the house of Jesse Dunn, for the purpose of electing 
a president of the council and five select councihuen. 

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In 1835, when the railway fever was strong, and George H. Dunn was 
endeavoring to secure money sufficient to finance the road, a meeting was 
called which was attended by a number of representative citizens, at which 
meeting a resolution was unanimously adopted that the town council be re- 
quested to appropriate the sum of three thousand three hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, which was to be donated to the railway company with the understanding 
that it was to be used altogether within the corporation limits in construct- 
ing fills and culverts. It was met by the usual counter, which was in the shape 
of a petition urging the town officials not to donate a cent until it was clearly 
understood that the engineer had made a survey and the estimate of the cost 
filed. This was also signed by a number of representative citizens, thus 
showing that the business of "knocking" was abroad in Lawrenceburg even at 
that early day. 

The select council and its president voted the three thousand three hun- 
dred and fifty dollars in stock at their next meeting, with the proviso that it 
be used in construction work within the town corporation. At the meeting 
of council that ratified the action of the railway meeting, the following per- 
sons were present and endorsed the action of the council : Asa Smith, Edward 
Hunt, J. H. Brower, William Tate, T. L. Percival, Isaac Protzman, J. P. 
Dunn, D. Springer, William Brown, Omer Tousey, Philip L. Spooner, Walter 
Armstrong, James Salmon, George Cable. J. Rees, John Wymond, Morgan 
Welsh, David Guard. James Jones, Isaac Dunn. John Binegar, John Salt- 
marsh, George W. Lane, John Ferris, George Tousey, Jacob P. Dunn. Arthur 
St. Clair Vance, George H. Dunn and Ezra Ferris: twenty-nine in all The 
monied men of the town and many of the wealthy farmers of the vicinity were 
heartily in favor of building the road, and if it had not been for the stringent 
financial situation that came on shortly after the contracts were let at 
points, the road would have been completed at that time — some fourteen years 
previous to its final completion. What would have resulted in Dearborn 
county, by having a railway to enter the rich farming country in central In- 
diana, in the way of trade and commercial activity, is hard to decide at this 
length of time since it was attempted. 

At the time that George H. Dunn and others were agitating the proposi- 
tion of building a railway from Lawrenceburg to Indianapolis, the railway 
business was in its infancy. There were only three or four railways in the 
United States and they were short ones. Xo one even dreamed of the great 

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trunk lines of the present day and George H. Dunn and others favoring the 
project were thought by many to be dreamers only. Looking back at it from 
the present it is easily seen that if the railway had been pushed to completion 
at that time it would have redounded to the advantage of Lawrenceburg more 
than can even now be estimated. To show the interest taken in the project 
at that time and that Lawrenceburg had the usual per cent, of objectors in 
those days; there is appended here the doings of the town selectmen of the 


"Thursday, June 2, 1835. Council met pursuant to adjournment. Pres- 
ent, D. V. Cully, president ; J. W. Hunter, D. Nevitt, George Tousey, James 
M. Darragh and John Saltmarsh. Mr. Hunter, from committee on tax, re- 
ported the assessment as made by and under the authority of the marshal 
amounting to two hundred and twenty-two thousand four hundred and eighty- 
seven dollars, and same was considered formal and accepted by council. Mr. 
Hunter presented the proceedings of a meeting of a respectable portion of the 
citizens of the town of Lawrenceburg held May 22, 1835, requesting the coun- 
cil to subscribe a certain portion of stock to enable the Lawrenceburg & In- 
dianapolis Railroad Company to construct said railroad within the limits of 
said town, which, with a remonstrance presented by J. M. Darragh, signed 
by L. W. Johnson and others, after having been read were laid on the table 
and ordered spread on the minutes. Minutes of a meeting of the citizens of 
Lawrenceburg, as presented by J. W. Hunter to the select council, as follows : 

" 'On motion of Major J. P. Dunn it was unanimously resolved that 
George H. Dunn, Esquire, preside over the meeting and Arthur St. Clair 
Vance act as secretary of said meeting. On motion of J. P. Dunn it was re- 
solved unanimously, the question being taken by the ayes and nays of all the 
citizens present ; that the select Council of our town be requested to subscribe 
three thousand three hundred and fifty dollars of stock in the Lawrenceburg 
& Indianapolis Railroad Company, to be paid in four installments — six, twelve, 
eighteen and twenty-four months from the 28th of last February — on the same 
principle some individual subscriptions have been received, and that the money 
be applied within the corporation of Lawrenceburg ; and that the ayes and nays 
of the citizens present be required. 

" 'On motion of Isaac Dunn, resolved that a committee of ten be ap- 
pointed to go round among the citizens and obtain the sense of the citizens on 
the subject of the foregoing resolution ; and the meeting adjourned sine die. 
George H. Dunn, chairman; Arthur St. Clair Vance, secretary. 

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" 'On the resolution to subscribe three thousand three hundred and fifty 
dollars of stock in said railroad the ayes were : John Weaver, Joseph Boon, N. 
Sparks, G. Sparks, Wrexhan West, W. B. Snyder, E. F. Test, John Gattenby, 
H. McNeely, Reuben Hathaway, Cyrus Clarke, Moses Seeds, Ellis Brown, 
Eph Sutton. Milton Beach, Andrew Morgan, W. T. Chappell, John McPike. 
Samuel Craft, John Bowen, Joseph Daniels, Enos Musgrove, James Thomp- 
son, Jesse Colshire, E. Morgan, A. R. Hinkley, W. A. Rodney, C. R. West, J. 
S. Ferris, Jabez Percival, James Cummins, Ephraim Hollister, V. M. Cole, 
D. V. Culley, D. S. Major, Enoch D. John, Jothan Clarke, John Lawrence, 
Silas Richardson, Uriel Maxwell, Alex McPherson, Horace Whitney, David 
Nevitt, Samuel Johnson, Alex Sugur, William Johnson, Isaac Lothrop, Jr., 
Davis Woodward, Joseph Sutton, W. C. Stewart, Ira Hill, Abe Osborn, A. 
Horton, James Walden, W. S. Durbin, Joseph Groff, Elisha McWethy, W. 
H. Vaughn and N. Covell.' 

"The remonstrance which was filed against the proposed subscription, as 
presented by J. M. Darragh, was as follows : 

" 'To the president and select council of the town of Lawrenceburg — Wc, 
the undersigned citizens of the town of Lawrenceburg, do respectfully repre- 
sent to your honorable body that we have understood that you have been re- 
quested by a part of the citizens to subscribe, in the name of the corporation, 
the sum of three thousand three hundred and fifty dollars shares of stock 
in the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis Railroad Company, for the pur- 
pose of commencing the embankment for said railroad at a point from 
said town of Lawrenceburg. We therefore respectfully request your honor- 
able body not to subscribe for any stock until the survey shall be completed, its 
location fixed and the estimates reported. (Signed). L. W. Johnson, F. 
Lucas, George Johnson, Daniel Bedford, W. H. Runyon, George W. Ward, 
Thomas Blythe. Samuel Packer, T. C. Shaw, Joseph Fitch. William Cook. 
Elias Conklin, John Garnett, Richard Orchard, A. H. Dill, J. M. Darragh, T. 
T. Percival. Hamilton Smith, A. Pugh, Robert Bryant, Jabez Percival. James 
H. Lane, Morgan Welsh, Samuel Kincaid, John D. Crontz, David Spurgin, 
John Wymond, Elijah Bower, Jesse Colcher, Evan Watkins, John S. Per- 
cival. W. H. Davidson, Warren Kincaid, J. West, Henry Pierce, Jones Mc- 
Lester, James Dill, Edward B. Hunt, David Nevitt, John Goddard, W. C. 
Stewart, John C. Craig, Harris Fitch and A. W. Thompson.' " 


The original plat of the town of Lawrenceburg comprised all that por- 
tion of the present city that lies between Mulberry Row, as it was then called, 

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to Elm Row on the east, and Partition Lane on the north, to the Ohio river. 
Besides this there were north of Partition Lane, extending along the entire 
north of the town, out lots numbering from 21 to 55. As the years sped and 
other promoters saw opportunities, other plats or additions were added to the 
town. The first attempt of the kind was done with the idea of laying out an- 
other and a separate town. Pinckney James, afterwards of Rising Sun, about 
1809, purchased the land where that part of the city of Lawrenceburg called 
Newtown lies, and platted it. He gave the name of Edenborough to his 
proposed town, and meeting with no demand for lots, in the year 181 1 sold 
the ground to Stephen Ludlow, George Weaver, John Weaver and Thomas 
Porter. This included the pond and on this side of the depression to Tate 
street. The exact description was from Tate street in a direct line to the 
meanderings of Tanners creek, to a point where the north line of the old 
graveyard struck it, thence east to where the old fence north and south used to 
divide the new addition from the city dirt lot. Isaac Dunn being elected a 
member of the Legislature then meeting at Corydon, got the town of Eden- 
borough vacated. But some years afterwards a demand being found for lots 
in that locality, Stephen Ludlow, who was already a large lot owner in the 
original town of Lawrenceburg, had the old plat, with the exception of the 
two southern tiers of lots, re-recorded, and reinstated as a town under the stat- 
ute and then incorporated as an addition to the town of Lawrenceburg. The 
new addition consisted of lots from 1 to 128 and provided for a park and a lot 
for school purses. The re-recording of the plat was done on April 6, 18 19. 

It was several years after this plat was filed before other additions 
were added. In 183 1 was added what was called Elliott's addition, which was 
a few lots at the foot of Elm street. In 1835 Elliott added several more in the 
same locality. In 1835, Stephen Ludlow filed a plat for the extension of 
Short street to the wharf. In 1839 W. T. Chappell made an addition laying 
off some lots extending from Short street north of Center. Guard, Dunn and 
Gibson's addition was also added about the same time. Other additions were 
Morgan and Spooner's, Enoch B. John's, Daniel S. Major's first and second 
additions; David Guard and Jabez Percival s addition, Pius Frederick's ad- 
dition; Eichelberger and Lewis' addition; Omer Tousey's addition and George 
H. Dunn's addition, Ross's addition, Ludlow's extension and Hornberger's ad- 

In the original plat it was provided that a cemetery was to be laid out at 
the west end of High street, joining Mulberry Row. This was used for a 
number of years, but the plat filed by Isaac Dunn in April, 18 19, provided for 


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a cemetery which seemed to be a better location: and the first burying ground 
was in later years abandoned, and the latter was used for that purpose until 
the new cemetery of Greendale was laid out in 1867. Since that time the 
burials in the old cemetery have gradually ceased until now it is only occasion- 
ally that a burial is made there. The flood of recent years has inundated it 
and the monuments have been badly wrecked, which further hastened its aban- 
donment as a cemetery. 


The blacksmith, the carpenter and joiner, the shoemaker and the tailor, 
represented, in general, the manufacturing interests of Lawrenceburg up to 
the decade between 1830 and 1840. During that period internal improvements 
became the watchword in the state and was an issue between the political 
parties of the time. The building of the Whitewater canal and the unsuccess- 
ful attempt of George H. Dunn and others to build the Lawrenceburg & In- 
dianapolis railway, together with the advent of the state bank, aroused among 
the people a great interest in their ability to manufacture articles in a larger 
way for the trade. It was realized that the town possessed advantages as a 
distributing point and at once the manufacturing interests were stimulated. 
About the first to engage in it was Enoch D. John, who erected a flouring- 
mill at the foot of Elm street, where he availed himself of the water power 
derived from the wasteway of the canal. In connection with Dr. C. G. \V. 
Comegys, afterwards of Cincinnati, he built a three-hundred-barrel flour- 
mill. A small distillery that would make two barrels of whiskey per week was 
erected, in 1809, near the present site of the W. P. Squibb & Company plant, 
by Isaac Dunn and Stephen Ludlow. This concern seems to have been aban- 
doned in a short time. The Hobbs distillery was destroyed by fire in 1839, 
but was rebuilt by Hobbs & Craft soon after. It was again destroyed by fire 
in 1850 and never rebuilt. Other distilleries have since been erected and 
run very successfully, until today Lawrenceburg is known far and wide 
as one of the most successful locations for the manufacture of alcohol and spir- 
its in the country. 


The manufacture of furniture was, for a period, an important part of the 
manufacturing interests of the city. The E. B. Dobell Furniture Company, 
with a manufacturing plant in Greendale and warerooms in Lawrenceburg, 
was established in 1863. It was destroyed by fire in 1873, but was rebuilt 
at once and continued in operation for ten years longer, when Mr. Dobell get- 
ting old, retired. The Miami Valley Furniture Company, with a capital stock 

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of twenty thousand dollars, which was afterwards increased to forty thousand 
dollars, was organized in 1868. The stockholders were George Hodel, Jr., 
John Christena, Henry F. Wencke, Adam Schleicher, George Schleicher, Gus- 
tav Schoenberger, Herman H. Woehla, John F. Sembach. Philip Dexheimer, 
George Hodel, Sr., Johann J. Hauck, Samuel Dickinson, John Bookster, Levin 
B. Lewis and Alexander Beckman. The officers of the company were George 
Hodel, Jr., president; Harris Bateman, secretary; Levin B. Lewis, treasurer. 
The company erected the extensive building now a part of the James & Meyer 
Buggy Company's plant, and continued a successful business until about the 
year 1888, when it discontinued. 

The Lawrenceburg Furniture Company was organized on February 13, 
1868, and had at its start a capital stock of seven thousand dollars. This was 
increased to sixty-three thousand two hundred and fifty dollars in 1876, by 
successive votes of the directory. The officers when first organized were Con- 
rad Sanders, president; Chris Lommel, secretary and treasurer; Frederick 
Kleinhans, superintendent. This concern continued in business until along 
in the nineties, when it too closed out. 

The Dearborn Furniture Company was organized in 1873 w ^ m a capital 
stock of eighteen thousand dollars. It erected a three-story building on the 
lot that had formerly belonged to the father of W. T. Durbin (W. S. Dur- 
bin), now the property of the G. H. Bishop Saw Works. This plant was 
in business only a few years, when it dissolved, and the factory was used by 
the Lawrenceburg Chair Company. It continued for only a short time and 
was purchased by the George H. Bishop & Company, saw manufacturers, who 
have used it as part of their plant ever since. 

The Miami Stove Works was located at the upper end of William street, 
between the tracks of the Big Four and the Baltimore & Ohio railways. It 
was established by Samuel L. Yourtee & Company. The city of Lawrenceburg 
donated to this concern twenty-seven thousand dollars. Shortly after it was 
erected the firm made an assignment and a stock company purchased the plant, 
with Fred Naeher, president; John E. Warneford, vice-president; Benjamin 
Ruthman, secretary. The concern was very prosperous for a time, employing 
ed as many as one hundred and fifty men, but misfortune overtook them and 
they closed out. The plant was shortly afterward taken over by A. D. Cook, 
as a place for manufacturing well supplies. The main building burned and 
Mr. Cook removed his plant to Greendale. The buildings were sold to the 
Batesville Veneer and Lumber Company, who now occupies it. 

Cigar factories were a source of much commercial business to the city 
during the decade ending with 1880. Jacob Rief & Brother ran a large fac- 

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tory for the manufacture of cigars on the corner of Walnut and New streets. 
They commenced business in September, 1869, and continued it until about 
1885, when it was gradually discontinued. William Huber commenced the 
manufacture of cigars in 1866. He continued the business very profitably 
for several years but gradually closed out, and several years before his death, 
in 1905, had entirely discontinued the manufacture. 

The Lawrenceburg Woolen Mill Company was organized in February, 
1866, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars. Its president was E. S. Bias- 
del; secretary, E. D. Moore; directors, E. C. Hayes, Walter Hayes. John H. 
Gaff, Isaac Dunn, E. S. Blasdel, Levin B. Lewis and C. B. Burkam. They 
purchased the site opposite the court house and erected the present three-story 
building. The venture proved unprofitable and it suspended in 1870. 

The Lawrence Gas Works was organized in 1868 with a capital stock 
of twenty-eight thousand six hundred dollars. Its first board of directors 
was John H. Gaff, Theodore Gazlay, Omer T. Stockman, Zephaniah Heustis, 
Andrew A. Heifer, J. Giphard, J. B. Shephard and John Hornberger. The 
first gas was used for lighting the city, October 12, 1868. This concern was 
several years ago taken over by the present management. 


When Captain Vance laid out the city of Lawrenceburg he stated in his 
filing that he had provided for a cemetery adjacent to the plat and adjoining 
it to the south and west. This was the cemetery at the west end of High street, 
just below Mulberry-. It was used as a burial place from the time the town 
was laid out until after the addition of Newtown was added by Isaac Dunn. 
Even after that, and until as late as 1840 and perhaps later, the site was used. 
But it gradually came into disuse and the cemetery in Newtown was the 
burying ground up until the time when Greendale cemetery was incorporated 
in 1865. Since that the Newton cemetery has also gradually been aban- 
doned, until at present only a few of the lot owners bury there. The Newtown 
cemetery, it was found, was subject to overflow, and on that account was not 
desirable for a burying place for the dead. Yet the early residents are all 
buried there. The tombstone of Capt. Samuel C. Vance can be found in a 
conspicuous place. The floods of recent years have wrecked many of the 
monuments and few of those buried have descendants to look after them. 

On account of the smallness of the Newtown cemetery and its being 
subject to overflow, the citizens of Lawrenceburg, as the place grew in wealth, 

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zirm E <.. . 



1 | 



population and importance, saw that a larger and more desirable location 
was needed. Accordingly a number of the citizens of Lawrenceburg organ- 
ized and purchased thirty acres of ground from Joseph Hayes north of the 
town of Greendale (now a part of the village) ; on a beautifully located high 
bottom overlooking the valley. It was tastefully laid out by Benjamin Grove, 
an engineer from Louisville, Kentucky, and the landscape planning was done 
by a Mr. Ihle, who was an artist in such matters. The articles of association 
of the original incorporation in their first two sections state the object as 
follows : 

"Section 1. Under the laws of the state of Indiana, Ezra G. Hayes, 
Andrew A. Heifer, Edward D. Moore, Thomas J. Lucas, Myron H. Hard- 
ing, Omer T. Stockman, William Eichelberger, George Huschart, Zephaniah 
Heustis, John Ferris, Kendal M. Lewis, Henry H. Meyer, Levin B. Lewis, 
E. Sparks Blasdel, John H. Gaff, Joseph H. Burkam, Alexander Beckman, 
DeWitt C. Fitch, John Anderegg, Theodore Gazlay and Daniel S. Major, 
agree to associate themselves together, and they, or their successors, are 
hereby associated as a body politic, a perfect corporation under the name 
and title of the Greendale Cemetery for providing within appropriate dis- 
tance of the City of Lawrenceburg, Dearborn county, Indiana, suitable 
grounds for the burial of the dead. 

"Section 2. The distinct and irrevocable principle in which this asso- 
ciation is founded, and to remain forever, except as hereinafter allowed, is 
that the entire funds arising from the sale of burial lots and the proceeds 
of any investments of said funds shall be, and they are specifically dedicated, 
to the purchase and improvement of the grounds for the cemetery; and 
keeping them durably and permanently inclosed and in perpetual repair for 
all future time ; including all incidental expenses for approach to the cemetery 
and the proper management of the same, and that no part of such funds shall, 
as dividends or profit in any manner, inure to the corporators." 

The desirability of the location and the taste with which it was laid 
out, together with the strict management, has made it a very desirable place 
for the burial of the dead; and the citizens of Dearborn county, that live 
conveniently near have purchased lots from the association and bury their 
dead here. It has been counted one of the most beautiful spots for burial 
purposes in the county. The first person buried in the new location was 
Hugh F. Smith, who was laid away on September 19, 1867. 

Each year the incorporators of this cemetery elect, from their number, a 
board of managers consisting of seven members. They in turn organize by 

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electing a president, secretary and treasurer. The first board of managers 
was elected on August 25, 1866, and were E. G. Hayes, T. J. Lucas, A. Beck- 
man, John Anderegg, A. A. Heifer. O. T. Stockman and D. W. C. Fitch. 
They organized by electing E. G. Hayes, president ; Henry H. Meyer, secre- 
tary, and Omer T. Stockman, treasurer. One of the local papers of the time 
had this to say in regard to the incorporation of the cemetery: 

"The necessity of this community is a first class cemetery. Experience 
has taught us not to establish cemeteries on too small a scale, or in localities 
where it is neither possible nor desirable to extend them. The cemetery for 
this community must be commenced large enough; must have proper man- 
agement, and must be established upon a plan making it perpetual. • The 
Greendale Cemetery Association has been called into existence for this pur- 
pose. The articles of association, as published, will give as good an an idea 
of its object as can be given. The citizens of Lawrenceburg and vicinity are 
now being called upon to assist with their means in this undertaking. Let 
none stand back, but let each do all that is in his power to make this cemetery 
a success. All that is necessary is to raise sufficient means to buy the place, 
and pay for surveying and laying it off into lots; when a sale of lots will 
enable the board of managers to go ahead with the improvements. All 
monies subscribed will be considered as a loan to the association, bearing 
six per cent, interest, and the amounts so subscribed may be applied to the 
purchase of lots. A more desirable location cannot lie found. The soil is 
dry and of a sandy quality and the surface slightly undulating. The dis- 
tance from the city is about a mile and a half, just about far enough." 

The association spent nearly twenty-two thousand dollars in the pur- 
chase of grounds and ornamenting and laving out the same. Yet in the 
report of 1880 an indebtedness of only three hundred and sixty-four dollars 
and one cent was reported. This was all paid the next year. The 
present corporators of the cemetery are Jacob M. Bauer, A. D. Cook, P. J. 
Emmert, W. S. Fagaly, George Fahlbush, E. G. Hayes, E. P. Hayes, \V. 
N. Hauck, J. F. Hornberger, Frank J. Henn. Henry Hodell, O. S. Jaquith, 
George Kunz, Omer T. Ludlow, \V. H. O'Brien, Victor Oberting, John 
Stahl, George H. Wood and George Willers. The board of managers are 
J. M. Bauer, P. J. Emmert, O. T. Ludlow. A. D. Cook, Henry Hodell, W. 
H. O'Brien and George Kunz. The president is Omer T. Ludlow; secretary, 
Archibald Shaw; treasurer, William H. O'Brien. E. G. Hayes, venerable 
and vigorous, the first president of the organization in 1866. is now. at the 
age of eighty-eight, the president of the hoard of corporators. The concern 

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has been managed well and its financial condition such that it will be able to 
perpetuate itself as the years go by. On the 18th of August, 1915, there had 
been forty-one hundred and eighteen burial permits issued and that many 
persons had been laid away in this city of the dead. 


Abstractors — James H. Ewbank. Agents — C. D. Langham, Big Four; 
H. H. Dixon, Baltimore & Ohio; M. E. Ferris, People's Telephone Associa- 
tion; Charles Leist, Wells-Fargo and American Express; C. E. Balsley, 
Western Union Telegraph Company. Attorneys — E. G. Bielby, Givan & 
Givan, W. N. Hauck, Russe & Russe, C. J. Lang, Thomas S. Cravens, Ira 
N. Miller, Charles A. Lowe, Cornet & Hayes. Auto garages— Ed Vogelge- 
sang, V. J. Yingling. Auto dealers — Dearborn Auto Company. Bakeries — 
Conrad Kraus, A. Hoffmeier. Barbers — Richard Nelson. Edward Seekatz, 
Louis Kirsch, Charles W. Dawson, Robert Kirsch. Boat house — C. F. 
Billups. Blacksmiths — Charles Rabe, John Knippenberg, J. R. Meyer. 
Butchers— William F. Fox, Peerless Meat Market ; Blyth & Ruth. Banks- 
Dearborn National Bank, People's National Bank, German-American Bank. 
Building socities — German Perpetual Building Association, Dearborn County 
Loan and Building Association. Bands — Eagle Band, Carl Roehrig, leader: 
Lawrenceburg Military Band, Henry Junker, leader; Junior Military Band. 
Miss Lottie Harry, leader. Confectioners — A. R. Klepper, Ernest Kestner. 
Herman Klepper, Kirtley Baker, Emma Kimmel. Clothing — Clyde Pred- 
more, I. Frankel, E. Dober, N. Frankel & Company, Gordon Underselling 
Store. Coal dealers — Frederick Wesler, People's Coal Company, Schneider 
Coal Company. Druggists— A. F. Schmidt, C. W. Fitch, L. Lommel, Mc- 
Cullough Drug Company. Department stores — C. W. Decker, Ernest G. 
Oertling. Dry goods— Philip J. Emmert, C. McKWim, C. M. Jackson, W. 
M. Corbin, F. C. Heck, A. Kress, S. B. Harris, William Deushcle. Dentists- 
Edwin J. French, Samuel E. Harryman, G. M. Terrill, Guy H. Smith. Fac- 
tories^ — James & Meyer Buggy Company, Ohio Valley Coffin Company, 
Lawrenceburg Roller Mills Company, A. Wieman & Company, William F. 
Ritzmann, Batesville Lumber and Veneer Company, Frohlicher Shoe Com- 
pany, Bauer Cooperage Company, Gamier Brewery, James Walsh & Com- 
pany, rectifying house; Suer Brothers, brick manufacturers; George H. 
Bishop & Company, Lawrenceburg Tool Company; Lawrenceburg Gas Com- 
pany. Florist— Fred Ruff. Groceries— G. H. Wood, O. A. Stockman, 

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James McGranahan, Schleicher Brothers, John A. Bobrink, Louis H. Hel- 
muth, Glockner's Cash Grocery, Adam Vesenmeier, Thomas Vaughan, H. T. 
Bechtel, H. G. Warneford, Elmer Haversick, George Brill, L. & M. Wolff. 
Hardware — E. Barrott & Son, C. O. Kemp. Hotels — Reagan House. Peter 
Reagan, proprietor; Nees House, Thomas Nees, proprietor; New Central. 
Jewelers — John F. Hornberger, I. N. Biddle, R. Kupferchmidt. Insurance — 
Miller & Elder, A. J. Hassner, W. S. Fagaly, O. A. Stockman, Grace Wal- 
ker, Frances Jones, Earl P. Gooden, Edward Hayes, Edward Metzger, Julius 
Schneider. Electricians — Decker & Hauck, F. C. Dile. Granite works — 
Henn & Huschart. Feed store — William W. Bihr. Hay and Grain — George 
T. Bateman. Laundry — Favorite Steam Laundry. Livery and Undertak- 
ing — Fitch Brothers. Livery — R. S. Jackson. Lumber — J. C. Wright & 
Sons, Lawrenceburg Lumber Company. Merchant tailors — Kreig Brothers. 
Millinery — Miss Fannie McGranahan, Bryant Sisters. Newspapers — Press 
Printing Company, Register Printing Company. The News. Physicians — 
E. J. Emmert, O. S. Jaquith, F. M. Mueller, A. T. Fagaly, George F. Smith, 
H. H. Dwyer, E. D. Bateman. Pool rooms — R. B. Moore. Photograph 
gallery — George O. Lane. Postmaster — Albert Spanagel. Rags and old 
iron — Louis Schustermann. Restaurants — L. W. Gramer, T. T. Miller, L. 
H. Aylor. Stoves and tinware— John Roehm, F. Stuber & Son. Shoe store 
—Frederick Pfalzgraf, William G. A. Schneider, Mrs. A. Schneider, C. O. 
Miller, A. L. Fox, Seekatz Shoe Store. Shoe repairers— Schmarr Brothers, 
Anthony Tschaen. Shoe and boot makers— Emanuel West. Real estate- 
Warren Tebbs. Theaters— The Gem, Terrilla & Vesenmeier, The Liedertafel 
Opera House. Veterinarian — J. L. Axby. 

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IIOGAX CItKKK AND B. & O. Bit 1 1 Mil', AlltOKA 




Aurora is one of the most beautifully situated cities on the Ohio river. 
A sweeping curve of the river presents one of the most picturesque views 
to be seen anywhere. The two Hogan creeks, North Hogan and South 
Hogan, join within the corporation boundaries and empty into the river in 
the middle of the city. The river at this point makes an abrupt bend to the 
south, affording a view miles in length of the broad valley of the Ohio. The 
rounded hills that stretch to the south, abrupt and commanding, unroll to the 
view the valley to the east, as far as the Miami river, like a carpet. The two 
Hogan valleys, smiling and fertile, winding through the hills, are a picture of 
pastoral loveliness not excelled in any country. In the growth of the city 
the hills have been climbed and many beautiful homes located where a feast 
to the nature lover can be obtained that is grand and beautiful. 

The original plat of the city contained two hundred and six lots, six 
public squares. It extended from Water street to Bridgeway, and from 
Importing to Library street. The city was platted by the "Aurora Assocation 
for Internal Improvements." Jesse L. Holman was the trustee for the associ- 
ation and the plat was filed on the 14th of January, 1819, Mr. Holman 
acknowledging it before James Dill, recorder of Dearborn county, on the 
30th of January, 1819. Judge Holman gave the proposed town the name 
of "Aurora." 

The land on which the city stands was entered from the government at 
the land office in Cincinnati on the 18th of September, 1804, by Charles Vat- 
tier, at the time a citizen of Cincinnati. The association purchased the land 
from Mr. Vattier. The original agreement, as made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the association and Mr. Vattier, is worthy of being preserved and is 
as follows: 

"Articles of agreement and association entered into this day, January 
14, 1 8 19, between Charles Vattier, of Cincinnati, in the state of Ohio, of the 
first part, and Jesse L. Holman, Richard Norris, Martin Cozine, Samuel 
Moore, Erasmus Powell, David Fisher, Jehiel Buffington and James Powell, 
of Indiana. Elijah Horsley, William Scandrett, Philip Craig and Ebenezer 
Griffing, of Kentucky, John W. Langdon, Daniel Dudley, Benjamin Mudge, 
Charles Farren, Watson Lewis and Jesse L. Langdon, of Ohio, parties of the 

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second part, are as follows: viz: Charles Yattier. party of the first part, for 
and in consideration of the covenants and agreements herein and after 
expressed, to be performed on the part of the said parties of the second part, 
has this day and hereby does grant, bargain and sell to them, the said parties 
of the second part, nineicen-twentieths of two portions of land in Dearborn 
county, in the state of Indiana, situated at the mouth of Hogan creek, viz : 
fractional sections 32 and 33, containing 516 and 35.100 acres, more or less." 

Vattier reserved that part of section 32 which lies on the upper side of 
the creek. The association was to pay nineteen thousand dollars for 
this property, payable in ten annual installments. The association held 
its first meeting on the 20th of January. 1819, with the members all 
present and Jesse L. Holman was chosen its president and Benjamin 
Mudge its clerk. A constitution was formed to govern it, which pro- 
vided that regular meetings should be held semi-annually on the second 
Monday in January and the second Monday in July. Jesse L. Holman 
was appointed the trustee of the land. The constitution was acknowledged 
before Charles B. Cannon, a justice of the peace in Dearborn county, on 
the 25th of January, 1819. 

At this first meeting it was agreed that "the company proceed by them- 
selves or their directors to lay out a town, to build an ox saw-mill and grist- 
mill, a bridge across Hogan creek, a warehouse, or such other improvements 
as they may deem proper." 

On the 1 st of February, 18 19, it was ordered that sealed proposals be 
received by the directors for the building of a bridge across Hogan creek at 
the end of Bridgeway street. Among the conditions that were inserted in 
the notice was that the proprietors of the town reserve the privilege of cross- 
ing the bridge free of toll, with their families included. The bridge, how- 
ever, did not materialize at that time and it remained for George \Y. Lane 
to erect the first bridge several years later. 

The affairs of the association were deemed of sufficient importance to 
make it necessary to put its agent, Richard Norris, under heavy bond for 
those days, and at a meeting held April 13, 1819, he was required to give 
bond in the sum of forty thousand dollars, and the treasurer, Philip Craig, 
was required to give bond to the amount of thirty thousand dollars. 


The first sale of lots took place on the 28th of April, 1819, on the fol- 
lowing terms: "One per cent in hand; one-fifth, including the one per cent, 

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in eight weeks; one-fourth of the balance every year until paid. If not paid 
punctually, interest to be added from the time of the contract." The town 
started off with a promising outlook. At the first sale the two hundred and 
six lots were sold, including lots that were donated to persons that had agreed 
to commence improvements at once. 

The lots sold as low as sixty dollars, and as high as four hundred and 
the day's sales amounted to the princely sum, for those days, of $28,553. July 
11, 1820, Elias Conwell purchased the shares of Erasmus Powell and became 
a member of the association. Other transfers of stock were made from time 
to time. The company undertook to investigate the merit of the claim that 
salt could be found in the vicinity of where the Crescent brewery building 
now stands, and commenced to drill wells to determine the matter : and Hor- 
ace Bassett, afterwards a distinguished attorney of the state, and Elias Con- 
well were appointed by the company to superintend the work. The experi- 
ment was a failure. 

In January, 1820, four lots were donated to Samuel Harris and "friends'" 
to establish a cotton or woolen mill provided that the Fame be completed 
within four years. In January, 1820, at the same meeting, Samuel Harris 
was donated an entire square on condition that he would make improvements 
on the grounds within eighteen months equal to four substantial buildings. 
On the 10th of January, 182 1, the ferries across the Ohio river and over 
Hogan creek were leased to Edward Fairchild for a term of two years. 

Judge Holman resigned as trustee on October 24, 1822. Mr. Holman 
seemed to have gradually absorbed all the positions on the board of directors, 
for at the period of his resignation he was trustee, treasurer and director. 
His resignation was necessary on account of being appointed one of the three 
judges of the supreme court of Indiana by Gov. Jonathan Jennings, with 
whom he had been very closely connected in a political way ever since the 
anti-slavery struggles that were the leading issue when Mr. Holman first 
moved to Dearborn county in 1810. The thanks of the association were 
tendered him "For his ability, wisdom, impartiality and integrity in manage 
ing the concerns of the company." The position of trustee was then given 
to Richard Norris and afterward to Horace Bassett and lastly to Isaiah W ing. 

The following is a copy of the minutes of a meeting held on the 27th 
of April, 1820. It is brief and short. "Resolved, That when any member 
wishes to speak, he shall rise and respectfully address Mr. President. Re- 
solved. That when two or more rise to speak at the same time, the president 
shall decide which shall proceed. Adjourned to attend the sale of lots." 

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In Cincinnati, the dad from Charles Vattier and his wife, Camilla, con- 
veving the property to the Aurora association was acknowledged before Isaac 
G. Burnett, at that time the mayor of Cincinnati. The Dearborn county his- 
tory published in 1885 says of the early sale of lots by the association that: 
"The lots were sold mostly on credit, and at very high prices, and for three 
or four years a great deal of public attention was given to the enterprise and 
quite a flourishing little village was built up ; but at that time there was but 
little irnmigration westward, great scarcity of money, and few of the lots 
were paid for, and many of them forfeited to the association. Charles Vatficr 
became the owner of a large number of the lots and most of the reserved lands, 
and afterwards transferred the same to William Israel, attorney in trust, and 
he to Buchanan, Buell and Lane, which became the property by transfer of 
George W. Lane about the year 1835." 

In the spring of 1820 an addition to the village was recorded and in 1837 
some twenty outlots were added. Additions have been made to the city from 
time to time to the present, among the earlier of which was one made by 
George W. Lane in 1844, one in 1845 by George W. Chrisman, and one in 
1846 by Henry Walker. 


The association was mindful of the necessity of setting apart grounds 
for public purposes that would show the proper spirit of advancing the wel- 
fare of the citizens, and they provided and set off on Literary, now Fifth 
street, lot 208 for library purposes; two lots for a Baptist church; lot 210 for 
school purposes; a public square at the head of Judiciary street; lot 216 was 
donated to the Masonic order; lot 221 to the Methodist Episcopal church; lot 
227 for use of the Presbyterian church and lot 228 for school purposes. 

The first board of select councilmen elected was Edward Fairchild, Tim- 
othy Brown, Elias Conwell, Abraham St. John and Ebenezer Mudge. Hor- 
ace Bassett was chosen the town clerk. On account of the inability of pur- 
chasers to meet payments for their lots, improvements in the town moved 
along very slowly. Further time was granted in many cases, especially to 
those who were making improvements on their lots. It is claimed that one 
of the first houses erected in the thriving young town was built by Henry 
Van Middlesworth. It was finished in 1822 and occupied as a hotel and 
store. It was known as the "Aurora Hotel," and Van Middleworth was 
the landlord. The house is yet intact on the corner of Front and Second 

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streets. About this time the frame house at the corner of Main and Import- 
ing streets and the frame part of the Eagle Hotel were built. The former 
was erected by Elias Conwell and the latter by Charles Vattier. On the cor- 
ner of Main and Second streets the first brick house is said to have been 
erected. It was built by Aaron Foulk, who had a store there. 

aurora's first magistrate. 

Daniel Bartholomew was elected justice of the peace in 1822, and from 
the records left by him it appears that he served about eleven years. The 
first case was entitled "Ebenezer Lange vs. Noah and James Lambert." It 
was a plea of debt to recover ten dollars and was dismissed for want of prose- 
cution. His last entry on the docket bears the date of July 6, 1832. 

This magistrate came to Aurora in 18 19 or 1820, from Vermom. 
During a freshet in the river he landed his family at the mouth of Hogan 
creek in a small boat, in which they had floated from Pittsburgh. His fam- 
ily consisted of a wife and two daughters. One of the daughters afterward 
became the wife of George W. Cochran, a man who was well known by the 
older citizens of the town and was prominently connected with the history 
of Aurora. When the water receded Bartholomew continued to live in his 
boat which was "beached" high and dry on the bank. About a year later 
he built a small house on the bank of the river near where the Eagle House 
stood in later years. Here he lived with his family and kept a small store. 
After he was elected justice of the peace he used it for an office. At that 
time Aurora was a very small settlement.' The house built by Bartholomew 
and another at the corner of Second and Front streets were the only ones on 
the river bank. 

Charles Vattier, the original landowner, was the proprietor of the 
ferry to convey persons across the river. The ferry was a small flatboat and 
a large canoe. Elijah Horsley was employed by Vattier to manage it. 
Hogan creek was crossed by the same means, no bridge having been built 
until fifteen years later, when Mr. George W. Lane, as an individual enter- 
prise, constructed a toll bridge across the mouth of the creek. The bridge 
was of great importance to the young town. ^Mr. Lane afterward sold it to 
Dearborn county and when it became unsafe the present bridge was built. 

Going back to Sqtiire Bartholomew's docket, a brief review of its con- 
tents may be of interest, as showing how and to whom justice was admin- 
istered in Aurora in early days. The following record appears on page 

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four and is among the first cases entered. "State of Indiana vs. John Hiff. 
In a charge of abuse and insult to the wife of Ebenezer Lange; Warrant 
issued on February 18, 1822; the defendant came and the jury was sum- 
monsed, empaneled and sworn. After a. proper and full investigation of all 
things appertaining to the charge the jury retired, and soon agreed upon a 
verdict of eight dollars fine for the State of Indiana. Daniel Bartholomew, 
justice of the peace." 

On the 20th of March, 1822, for breach of peace and swearing. Thomas 
Longlcy was fined ninety-five cents. On the same date, for abuse and threat- 
ening his wife, who prayed surety of the peace, Thomas Dailey was found 
guilty and committed to jail. On May 31, 1822, Axey Wilson was tried by 
a jury for an assault upon a child. He was judged guilty and fined one cent, 
to be applied to the state of Indiana. Samuel Roof appeared on the 22nd of 
July, 1822, and acknowledged himself indebteded to Henry Benson in the 
sum of fifty cents, together with interest thereon until paid. On the 21st of 
August an execution was issued by order of the plaintiff, and in default of 
payment the body of defendant was committed to jail. Samuel Doolittle was 
the constable. "State of Indiana vs. Amasa Ball." This was an action of 
assault and battery on the body of George W. Thornton ; warrant issued on 
September 2, 1822; returned the same day with the body present. The jury 
was unable to agree. To quote from the docket, "The foreman retired and 
the balance was discharged, and the defendant made his escape into Kentucky 
to those people whose countenance favored his character." 

George W. Thornton then comes forward as the defendant in an assault 
and battery case, but no witnesses being present against him, he was dis- 
charged. "State of Indiana vs. Samuel Roof. The defendant was legally 
summonsed and empaneled as a juror, November 2, 1822, when he retired 
from the room after the case was submitted to the jury and was absent for 
some time, after which, without permission, he went home and returned not 
again. It is therefore considered that the State of Indiana recover judgment 
of the defendant in the sum of two dollars, this 2d of November, 1822. 

"Daniel Bartholomew, 

"Justice of Peace." 


On the 1 st of October. 1822, James Green brought suit against Torrence 
Curry to recover thirty-seven and one-half cents. On the same day the claim 

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was paid, and Green's receipt appears upon the docket. "Isaac Cannon vs. 
Jehiel Buffington. An action for neglect of duty as constable; no cause. 
Case dismissed at plaintiff's cost." 

Elias Conwell and Horace Bassett were prominent and influential 
men in those days. Both were leading spirits in the organization and build- 
ing up the town. But they had their little personal misunderstanding, as it 
appears by the record of February 24, 1823. On that day Conwell committed 
an assault and battery on the person of Bassett and was arraigned for trial 
by jury, he was found guilty and fined two dollars and costs. Elijah Whitten 
in an action "for profane swearing for seven different oaths, taken before me 
on the 6th of March,. 1824, at Aurora, for which the said Whitten is fined one 
dollar for each oath." 

On the 7th of June, 1824, Michael Trester brought suit against Isaac 
Miller, on account of the freight on one barrel of salt from Cincinnati to 
Aurora. Execution was issued and placed in the hands of Robert Criswell, 
constable. Edmund Cheeseman, for an assault upon Caleb Woodworth, con- 
stable, was adjudged quilty and for want of bail was committed. In a suit for 
forcible entry and detainer between Luke Erill, plaintiff, and Elias Conwell. 
defendant, March 19, 1825, wherein it was alleged that Conwell took unlaw- 
ful possession of a building belonging to Erill, and in which considerable 
public interest was probably manifested, the court adjourned to the meeting 
house. "The following named persons comprised the jury : David 
Boardman, John B. Chisman. Noyes Canfield, Peter Carbaugh. John Vin- 
son, Walter Kerr, William Hancock, Jonathan Parks, David Walser, Conrad 
Huffman, Asa Shattuck and Stephen J. Paine. Verdict for the plaintiff." 
Thomas Sparks, for swearing in open court, August 23, 1825, was fined one 
dollar. The defendant left the state and died, says the record, but did not 
satisfy the judgment. 

For assault and battery, April 29, 1826, John Brown was fined three dol- 
lars. His fine was not paid and Robert Criswell, constable, was directed by 
the court to convey the defendant to the county jail for imprisonment. John 
Lasine, for an assault upon his wife, Sunday, October 7, 1827, was arrested on 
complaint of J. Wing and brought before the court in a state of intoxication. 
When sober he was fined one dollar. Charles Vattier, the landowner an l 
enterprising business man, found time to occasionally partake of the pleasures 
and pastimes of social life, as witness this: On the 8th of December, 1830, 
he was arraigned for assault and battery on the body of Peleg Bartlett an'l 
fined three dollars and costs. 

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From the files of the Western Commercial, published in Aurora, in 1848, 
it is learned that the following persons were among the active business men 
of the time: Samuel Osgood, county sheriff ; S. P. Tumy, stoves and tinware; 
Johnson Watts and Samuel Cole, administrators of the estate of Ephraim 
Hopping; Aurora and Laughery Turnpike Company — Johnson Watts, presi- 
dent, George W. Lane, secretary, John D. Haynes, treasurer; Eagle Hotel, 
M. Cochran, proprietor; P. B. Vail, book store; J. Chambers & Company, 
dry goods; Reed & Company, drugs; B. Sylvester, dry goods; J. S. Jelley, 
attorney ; James D. Lindsay, administrator estate of Stephen Woods. 

From the records of 185 1 : W. S. Holman and John B. Vail, attorneys; 
H. L. Dean, dry goods. 

Business men of 1852-53: N. & S. A. Leonard, dry goods; L. N. Bush, 
grocery; Milton Taylor, soap and candle factory; Miller & Stockman, boots 
and shoes; T. S. Wallace, leather store; John Blangy, daily bus to Moores 
Hill: Dr. W. H. Terrill, physician: Simon Siemental & Company, bakery. 

City officials of 1854: S. P. Tumy, mayor; William W. Conway, clerk; 
Henry A. Moran, treasurer; Thomas Wright, marshal; William Webber. 
Asa Shattuck, James Cummings, Francis Wymond, councilmen. 

The Independent Banner, Nelson D. Folbre, editor, on April 12, 1852.. 
had the following among its advertisers : Mansion House. J. O. Emrie, pro- 
prietor; Philip Held, clothing; Hurlburt & McHenry,- saw-mill ; W. C. Web- 
ber, grocer ; O. P. Cobb & Company, produce. 


The following article is taken from the Independent Banner, in 1852, 
the paper then being edited by N. D. Folbre : "We are no strangers in Aurora. 
Our earliest recollections in life had their existence here. Our days, from 
our infancy, have been mostly spent in this place; and we profess to know 
something of its early history. 

"All that territory now covered with neat houses, and known as the 
Fifth ward of the town, we knew when it was overspread with Indian com. 
yielding annually a bountiful harvest. Beneath Chamber's store once ran a 
deep ravine, from the hills west of the town, and emptied into the Ohio. So 
deep was that ravine, that a tolerably-sized wooden bridge was thrown across 
it, for the benefit of the citizens and travelers. In summer we have played 

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in its waters ; in winter we have skated on its frozen surface. ' Our playmates, 
who sported with us then, are now nearly all gone; some are in California, a 
few yet reside here, but most of them are dead. 

"Remember the old grist-mill which stood on the bank of South Hogan 
creek, about fifty yards to the right of the walnut tree at the head of Third 
street; saw the oxen when they tramped the wheel that turned the mill, and 
the miller when he took his toll. Recollect when Hogan cieek at its mouth 
was sixty feet deep (when the Ohio was low) and the old Frenchman, Vat- 
tier, when he kept the ferry across it, and took his 'eleven-penny bit.' In 
those days this 

'Town was all covered over 
With bramble and clover,' 

and some dog fennel and a few James-town (Jimpson) weeds. Oh! those 
were brave old days. 

"At a still earlier date, about the year 1828, when four years of age, 
we attended school, held in a log cabin which stood on what was then a grassy 
common, between Fourth and Fifth streets, west of Squire Harris' dwelling. 
This was also used as a place of worship for Methodists, a sect at that time 
few in number. Twenty-five or thirty frame and log houses composed the 
village. A few years later the brick house on the corner of Second and 
Main, occupied by O. P. Cobb as a dwelling, was built by Aaron Foulk. In 
the east part of it he resided and used the other part for a drygoods store. 
This house was considered a vast improvement to the town, and was univer- 
sally styled as the 'big brick.' Above the door of the store room was posted 
a sign of dark green ground with yellow letters which read 'A. Foulk's New 
Store,' much to the delight of the good people of the neighborhood. In 1835, 
where our office now stands, there stood a frame house, occupied by Daniel 
Bartholomew, Esq. (deceased), as a drug and drygoods store. The squire 
was one of the oldest inhabitants, and filled the various posts as merchant, 
magistrate and doctor — there being no regular physician in the village. His 
storehouse was destroyed by fire. The day it was burned we were in school, 
taught by one Gauf Wilson, who will be remembered by all who were so 
unlucky as to have been his pupils, for his peculiar propensity for applying 
the birchen rod. A fire those days in town was a remarkcble event, and the 
school was dismissed and the teacher and scholars hastened, en masse, to the 
scene of disaster, where all the villagers, old and young, male and female, 
had assembled to render their aid to the sufferer. 


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"At that time there were few steamers plying upon our beautiful Ohio. 
Some of them were hard-looking crafts, compared with the splendid boats 
of the present day. When a passenger wished to take passage, if in the night, 
the boat was brought to shore by the discharge of a rifle or other small gun. 
Freights and passage were dear, and many of the people of the village pre- 
ferred traveling on the old 'Fearnot,' a keel-boat, greatly celebrated as a fast 
traveler, making one trip every two weeks to Cincinnati, freighted, generally 
with barrels, hoop-poles and staves ; and returning, brought goods of all kinds 
for our small shopkeepers and the neighboring villages. This unparalled 
speed was eclipsed, however, by a smaller keel boat under command of a gen- 
tleman who was determined to outdo time itself, and a brag trip to Cin- 
cinnati (including taking on and discharging freight) was consequently made 
in eight days. Thereafter, when this swift craft came in sight of our port 
and blew its famous boat horn, the villagers assembled to the river bank to 
greet her and hear the latest news. 

"The year 1836, almost seventeen years since, was a great era in the 
history of Aurora — a newspaper was established in the town. It was 
called the Indiana Signal, and was owned by George W, Lane and several 
others. It was edited by S. C. Hastings, now a supreme judge in California. 
The Signal was devoted to the election of Martin Van Buren to the presi- 
dency. John K. Wilcox, who yet resides here, had the control of the mechan- 
ical department; in that office, under his direction, we set our first type. 
William Webber was also an apprentice in the office and many a boyish 
fracas had we there together. The office was in the upper story of the house 
now occupied by Judge Kumel as a tavern, on Main street near the creek. 
But the Signal was short lived. It rendered all its strength to Van Buren's 
election, for which purpose it was established, and shortly after that event 
its Democratic fires ceased to burn. A paper printed with the same type and 
press, called the Dearborn Democrat, was established shortly after the decease 
of the Signal by one J. C. Whitilsey, but died in a very short time for lack 
of support. In the latter part of 1838 or early in 1839, a newspaper entitled 
the Dearborn County Democrat, was started in town, in the room we now 
occupy, by Alexander E. Glenn. The paper was Democratic and advocated 
in 1840 the re-election of Van Buren. The election of General Harrison was 
too much for Mr. Glenn, and his paper shortly after that event went by the 

"At this period the census of the United States was taken and Aurora 
was found to contain only 499 inhabitants. And not until 1844 did the place 

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give evidence of ever being anything more than a small village. But the country 
for many miles around the town, being exceedingly rich and productive, whose 
trade, if proper inducements were held out, could be secured and the locality 
of the place being one of the best on the Ohio, possessing the finest harbor 
and landing on the river for the largest class of boats in the lowest stage of 
water, were advantages no longer to be overlooked. Strangers commenced 
coming in, building and locating. Business and dwelling houses were in 
demand; property increased in value. The old citizens holding property put 
up substantial houses. Real estate was in constant demand. Men of capital 
were attracted to the town ; and soon Aurora contained a number of valuable 
houses. From year to year the place continued to prosper. Now, in the 
year 1852, Aurora numbers over 3,000 inhabitants, supports two newspapers, 
and contains some of the most elegant and costly houses in the state — sev- 
eral of them erected at an expense of $9,000, $14,000 and $15,000 each. 

"Several hundred flatboats, freighted with produce, every season leave 
our port for southern markets. A superior steamer plies as a regular daily 
packet between this place and Cincinnati. A considerable business is also 
picked up here by the mail and Madison boats. No steamer fails to land at 
our wharves as she passes. In our midst and around us are signs of active 
business. Our landings are crowded with freight, our streets filled with 
wagons from the country, our mechanics busy in the shops, our merchants 
engaged at their counters — all denoting a flourishing little city and prosper- 
ous community. What a change in a few years! At this point the great 
Ohio & Mississippi railroad first strikes the Ohio river: the machine shops 
for which are to be located near the west part of the city. These shops will 
occupy twenty acres, including the dwellings of workmen, and will bring to 
our place, it is estimated, 400 families." 


Nothing better shows the changes brought about by time in its inexorable 
flight than the following directory of some of the men of affairs in the city 
in 1858 and 1859. W. Allen, carpenter; E. B. Allen, blacksmith ; A. Andrews, 
grocer; H. Boettner, barber; W. Beerger, gunsmith; F. M. Bess, hotel; A. 
Bloom, merchant tailor; R. C. Bond, physician; F. A. Burns, boot and shoe- 
maker; B. M. Bush, Adams express; Campbell & York, saddlers; J. H. Car- 
baugh, attorneys ; Chambers, Stevens & Company, dry goods ; George Cheek, 
hay dealer; Mrs. A. P. Clark, postmistress; John Cobb, coal; O. P. Cobb & 

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Company, pork packers and grocers; C. H. & A. J. Cooper, jewelers; A. G. 
Crane & Company, coopers; William Cunningham, liquors: J. Devons, woolen 
factory; G. Dines, barber; N. Dyke, tinsmith; Ebersole & Haines, druggists; 
Ebersole, physician ; W. J. Edwards & Company, carriage makers ; C. Fehling, 
grocer ; Peter Fisher, boot and shoe maker ; T. & J. VV. Gaff, millers, distill- 
ers, dry goods, grocers; B. Garmhausen, grocer; J. Giegoldt, butcher; J. L. 
& M. Giegoldt, livery ; M. Goldsmith, boots and shoes ; Ed H. Green, attorney; 
J. Hamilton, hotel; W. T. Harris, justice of peace; L. Hauck, barber; P. H. 
Held, merchant tailor; S. Hettenbergh, exchange; S. P. Hill & Company, 
druggists; Holman & Haynes, attorneys; Holz, physician; R. Hubbartt. 
grocer ; A. B. Hubbartt, carpenter ; F. Huckery, justice of peace ; L. G. Hurl- 
beit, lumber and mill; J. Ittner, boot and shoe; P. Kastner, bakery; J. A. 
Kelsey & Company, wharf boat; M. Kemp, grocer; A. Kreitlein, grocer; H. 
Lamkin, tailor; A. Johnson, baker; J. G. Lampus, tobacconist; A. B. Lounds- 
berry, wagon maker; T. Lattimore, carpenter; Abram Lozier, dry goods: 
R. E. McCreary, dry goods ; B. N. McHenry, blacksmith ; J. Malony, grocer ; 
H. Marron, furniture; Mayer, Cohn & Co., clothiers; J. N. Milburn, jeweler; 
L. Miles, attorney; S. Parker, fruit and vegetables; L. Phalin, grocer; S. R. 
Pierce, dry goods; J. Pyle, ambrotypist; J. F. Radspinner, grocer; J. Rider, 
boots and shoes; F. Rothert, grocer; Mrs. C. Sadler, milliner; L. Schultze, 
hotel; W. Sherrod, barber; Mrs. Mary Sherwood, milliner; B. Shipper, coal 
dealer; M. Siemental, bakery; Siemental, brewery; M. & C. Siemental, mill- 
ers; Frederick Slater, grocer; E. Small, hay dealer; W. P. Squibb Company, 
dealers in liquors and groceries ; J. Stafford, grocer ; Mrs. M. Stark, milliner ; 
Stedman & Company, foundry ; J. Stevens, blacksmith ; W. F. Stevens, insur- 
ance ; I. Stratton, dry goods ; G. W. Taylor, livery ; R. Q. Terrill, attorney ; N. 
H. Tuck, ambrotypist; S. P. Tumy, mayor, dealer in stoves and tinware; B. 
W. Twyman, attorney; P. L. Veiht, physician; J. W. Weaver, commission 
merchant; A. Wehe, saddler; J. H. Wilke, Grocer; F. D. Worth, hotel; Wy- 
mond & Gibson, coopers ; Young & Miller, boots and shoes. 


The city government of Aurora commenced in 1848, with John D. 
Haynes as its mayor. In 185 1 he was succeeded by Solomon P. Tumy, who 
held the office until 1859, excepting the year 1856, when the position was 
held by Washington Stark. John Gaff held the position as city mayor from 
1859 to 1 861, when Frederick Slater was elected and held the place until 

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2 77 

[863; when he recruited a company for the Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry and 
served until the end of the war, coming out of the service as the lieutenant- 
colonel of his regiment. He is now living in his extreme old age in the town 
of Moores Hill. 

Following the mayoralty of Colonel Slater came Dr. George Sutton, 
who gave of his valuable time four years to the service of his adopted city. 
Doctor Sutton «was succeeded by R. Criswell in 1867, and he by Frederick 
Huckery in 1869. J. A. Emrie served from 1871 to 1873, a °d Dr. Frederick 
Rectanus from 1873 t0 l %77> being succeeded by Edward H. Green, who also 
served four years, and gave up the government of the city in 1881 to Louis 
E. Bienkamp. At present Thomas C. Carmichael is serving his second term 
as mayor. 

The city officials in 191 5 are: Thomas C. Carmicheal, mayor; Carl 
Geigoldt, clerk; Arthur H. Ebel, treasurer; Daniel B. Teaney, Walter Frank, 
Henry Rullmann, James Rushworth, Fred Beinkampen, Frank Morten, 
councilmen ; John Dean, city attorney ; James Green, chief of police ; Charles 
H. Dewers, chief of fire department; Dr. J. F. Treon, city health officer; 
Joseph Huston, Thomas Squibb, Philip Horr, school board. 


On the west bank of the Ohio river, about twe miles below the city of 
Aurora, lies that beautiful home of the dead — River View Cemetery. Situ- 
ated on high rolling bottom land, with its southern border touched by the 
waters of Laughery creek, a stream made historical by the death of Colonel 
Laughery. While on the north and west it is overtopped by massive hills 
giving shelter and protection from the wintry blasts. Here it was that 
Colonel Laughery, that pioneer soldier, and his handful cf brave men, were 
ambushed and massacred by the Indians. Here also was the burying ground 
of a pre-historic race, and here today may be found abundant evidence of their 

After wise and judicial consideration, this historical and picturesque spot 
was selected by the original incorporators as a suitable place for the burial 
of the dead. And of the twenty-one original incorporators but one is living 
today: and of those that have passed to the beyond, nearly all have found a 
resting place in this home that they have selected. It was the desire and the 
distinct and irrevocable principle of these incorporators, and so specified in 
their articles of association, that "the entire funds arising from the sale of 

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burial lots and the proceeds of any investments of said fund, shall be and they 
are specially dedicated to the purchase and improvements of the grounds of the 
cemetery, and keeping them durably and permanently inclosed and in per- 
petual repair for all future time, and that no part of such funds shall as divi- 
dends or profits in any manner inure to the corporators." 

In 1869 thirty acres of this ground were purchased and laid off in lots, 
intersected by avenues and driveways, well graded and graveled. Trees 'and 
shrubbery give added beauty to the place, and a system of waterworks with 
hydrant and hose, is at the disposal of the lot owners. The soil is sandy and 
needs no drainage and the superintendent, whose home is on the grounds, is 
supplied with all modern conveniences for his work. For the permanent care 
of the individual lots the board of managers favors the depositing of mon;y 
with the cemetery association for this purpose and to each person making 
such deposit a receipt is given acknowledging the obligation and specifying 
the ground to be cared for. 

Actuated by a spirit of patriotism, the board of managers have set a;.art 
a circular plot of ground for the burial of soldiers. From its center rises a 
flagstaff and the whole is guarded by a large cannon, a relic of the Civil War. 
A natural mound of great beauty and splendidly located, from whose top a 
fountain plays, is reserved for a historical monument. A handsome brick 
chapel, resembling somewhat the early Spanish Missions, has been erected. 
It is conveniently arranged for the holding of services and is open to the pub- 

The entrance to the cemetery, through a long, shady avenue of lindens, 
is charming. Many rare plants, shrubs and magnificent trees adorn the 
grounds, while in the summer beautiful flowered and artistic landscape gar- 
dening are in evidence on all sides. A number of handsome monuments and 
mausoleums have been erected and under the management of the board of 
managers and competent superintendent it is today the most beautiful ceme- 
tery in southeastern Indiana. 

The original incorporators of the cemetery were George Sutton, Francis 
Wymond, J. Chambers, J. N. Milburn, Philip Wymond, Thomas Gaff, J. J. 
Backman, Henry W. Smith, William F. Stevense, George Shockley, John 
K. Wilcox, E. F. Sibley, Simon Siemental, Jesse Younker, Nathaniel Dyke. 
Charles D. Bienkamp, Richard Gregg, William F. Bailey. Abe Epsteinm. 
Charles Bauer and Elijah Christopher. They were all residents of the city of 
Aurora, and their corporation was made under the name of "River View Cem- 
etery Association." They formulated a set of rules by which the cemetery is 

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governed and which rules have all to do with the great success of the under- 

The officers and managers change frequently on account of death- and 
kindred reasons. Its first officers were George Sutton, president; Thomas 
Gaff, treasurer; Will F. Stevens, secretary. Executive committee, George 
Sutton, Francis Wymond and Will F. Stevens. Board of managers, George 
Sutton, Thomas Gaff, John N. Milburn, Will F. Stevens, H. W. Smith, Simon 
Siemental, Francis Wymond, J. J. Backman, C. D. Beinkamp, George Shock- 
ley and William F. Bailey. 

The officers in 1908 were H. P. Spaeth, president ; H. H. Sutton, vice- 
president; Philip Hoar, secretary; E. H. Davis, treasurer. Board of man- 
agers, E. H. Davis, Fred Schmutte, H. P. Spaeth, H. H. Sutton, Hubert J. 
Louis Stoll and Seth Stedman. Superintendent, George Siemental. 


Attorneys — McMullen & McMullen, L. E. Davies, W. M. Dean, prose- 
cuting attorney, Thomas C. Carmichael. 

Agents — Thomas Ewin, Baltimore & Ohio ; William Klausing, Big Four. 

Auto garage and dealers — Nieman & Linkmeyer, H. S. Neal, Citizens' 
garage, Andrew Burk, manager. 

Bakeries — Walter Frank, Samuel Watts. 

Barbers — Phillip Cosby, Henry Teaney, Louis Hauck, William Ruble. 
Albert Knippenberg, Paul Schroer. 
Band — Harry Smith, director. 
Business college — Lee Richmond. 
Blacksmiths — Harry Doctor, William Knollman. 
Banks — First National, Aurora State Bank. 
Chiropractor — John Good. 
Confectionery — George Demas. 

Carpenters and contractors — J. C. Wright & Son, Jesse Trester, Truitt 
& Probst. 

Clothing — Edward Schulz, Model Clothing Store, Ira Farmer, manager; 
Siefferman & Haug, Dennis Burke, J. R. Macker. 

Coal Dealers — Pittsburgh Coal Company, Opp Coal Company, M. Duke. 

Druggists— J. A. Riddell. C. W. Olcott, John Ullrich. 

Dry goods — Frank H. Rieman, Chambers & Stevens, John F. Vinup, 
Frank M. Cox, J. W. Martin, Mrs. Celia Bush. 


Dentists — H. J. Longcamp, J. E. Cole, C. L. VanOsdol. 

Factories — Royer Wheel Company, Steadman Foundry and Machine 
Works, Cochran Chair Company, Aurora Coffin Company, Aurora Tool 
Works, Aurora Furniture Company, Wymond Cooperage Company, Indian- 
apolis Chair and Furniture Company, Acme Milling Company, Star Milling 
Company, Aurora Brick Works, Aurora Creamery, H. W. Smith Chair Com- 

Furniture — J. C. Schuler & Son, Dearborn House Furnishing Company, 
Theodore Heck & Company. 

Groceries — Bailey Grocery Company, D. B. Feaney, Chambers & Stevens, 
Conaway Grocery Company, R. S. Zeh, Thieman Brothers, Fred Pelgen, John 
E. Steele, William Harrison, Mrs. C. F. Taylor, J. H. Snyder, Charles Steig- 
erwald, James Everett, Jacob B. Bebinger, E. H. Niebaum & Son, Harry 

Harness — Sawdon & Schooley. 

Hardware — Johnston & Smith, Sawdon & Schooley, H. B. Spaeth & 
Company, J. H. Kuhlemeier & Son. 

Hotels — Cottage Hotel, M. V. Heath, proprietor; Campbell House, 
Thomas Campbell, proprietor. 

Ice cream — Henry Knippenberg. 

Jewelers— William Leibe, Phillip Horr, R. W. Clark, W. T. Bascom. 

Laundry — Aurora Steam Laundry, W. S. Walker, manager. 

Uvery — Emery Nocks, G. H. Stier, Joseph Goulding, Edward Holthouse. 

Lumber dealer and building superintendent — R. C. Mattox. 

Meat— Stoll Meat Company, W. F. Scharf & Son. 

Mayor— Thomas C. Carmichael. 

Milliners— Samuel Somerfield, G. & L. Cochran, Flora Hubbartt. 
Newspapers— Dearborn Independent, Aurora Bulletin. 
Optometrists — Leslie Horr. 

Physicians — H. H. Sutton, E. J. Libbert, J. M. Jackson, James Treon, 
J. L. McElroy, C. C. Marshall E. R. Wallace, Ella $. Holmes. ' 
Pool room — Ed. Everett. 
Postmaster — M. E. Maloney. 
Photographer — Mrs. Mar)* Drake. 

Restaurants — E. C. Borgerding, Man' Mason, Heath Brothers, S. C. 

Saloons — John Conoway. George Weaman. Gus Martin. 
Shoe Stores — John Neff, Frank Schipper. 

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Second-hand stores — Charles Winkley, Fred Ruscher. 
Theaters — Grand, Petcher & Kyle; Lyric. Petcher & Kyle; Empire, 
Ross Macker. 

Undertakers— John H. Stier, Ed. Holthause. 
Varieties— Harry Vigran, Chas. Scheuerman. 
Veterinarian— T. J. Martin. 

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The close of the War of the Revolution found many of those who had 
borne a part in that struggle in straitened circumstances. The struggle had 
impoverished the states to such an extent that they were unable to reward 
those who had lost health or been wounded in the service with a pension such 
as the general government now gives to its defenders. During the long con- 
test the Continental Congress found it a diffcult task to raise funds to pay 
the men, often resorting to scrip that proved to be of little or no value when 
the struggle closed. The cord that bound the states together was for several 
years only a thing easily broken if one of the states had chosen so to do. 
The government credit was gone and the veterans who had fought through 
storm and stress, enduring privations of every character, turned their faces 
toward where their homes had been, to find in many cases their houses de- 
stroyed and their lands grown up in weeds. To such as these the lure of the 
Ohio valley appealed temptingly. True, the Indian was to be fought and 
conquered ; the forest overcome, and the land subdued, but ground was cheap 
and game was plentiful. The necessaries of life as then viewed were to be 
found on every hand and many of those who had taken part in the struggle 
cast about for some way by which they might be able to locate themselves in 
this valley which had so much to offer for their future comfort. So when 
Congress, some five years after the treaty with Great Britain, took over all 
the rights of Virginia and the other colonies to the lands north of the Ohio 
river and passed the Ordinance of 1787, making it a country in which no 
slavery could come and creating the possibilities for five new states, those who 
could do so prepared to emigrate to this new Utopia, and companies were 
formed to colonize on a large scale John Cleves Symmes purchased a great 
tract of land between the two Miamis and brought a colony to North Bend. 
Benjamin Stites, with some twenty or more brave pioneers, in 1788, pur- 
chased part of the Symmes land and founded a settlement at the mouth of the 
Little Miami. A few men. led by Mathias Denman and Robert Patterson, 

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landed where Cincinnati now stands and founded the settlement there first 
called Losantiville, which name, in a few months, was changed to Cincinnati. 


The Indians proved to be so warlike that the infant settlements sickened 
and almost died; but after General Wayne's treaty with the Indians in 1795, 
they rallied and grew fast and strong. This treaty gave encouragement to 
others and soon the Ohio was covered with voyagers seeking this new land 
of promise. Most of these settlers were men who had taken part in the War 
of the Revolution, or their children, a brave and independent class of people. 
They had suffered and fought for what they deemed just and were ready 
again to suffer and to fight. They brought with them their household goods 
and the desire to build society on a foundation that would be sound and en- 
during. They were ready to conquer the forest, the savage beast and the 
more savage race of red men that opposed their coming and were justly jeal- 
ous of their occupancy of what to them was a hunting ground where meat 
and bread could always be obtained easily. 

Dearborn county, on account of its geographical situation, received more 
of these desirable citizens than perhaps any other county in the state. It 
was in closer proximity to the stronger settlements and the land office where 
they would have to go to enter their farms was in Cincinnati. The broad 
valley of the Big Miami and the fertile soils of the pleasant valleys of Laugh- 
er)' creek, the two Hogan creeks, and Tanner's creek offered tempting induce- 
ments for the weary veteran of the seven long years of war to stop, locate and 
find a place where he could make a home, with all its comforts and con- 

Nearly all of those who bore a prominent part in the settlement of this 
county were of this type and the county was indeed fortunate in securing 
them. The act of securing the roster of these men who took part in the War 
of the Revolution and who were citizens of Dearborn county has been put off 
too long for it ever to be obtained accurately. Many lie in what are unknown 
graves. It was the custom in pioneer days for nearly every landowner to set 
apart a corner somewhere on his land for a burying place and most of these 
were unmarked. No record was taken in those days, when men were busy 
making homes, of those who died. The neighbors rallied to the assistance 
of those in trouble, and helped them nurse their sick and bury their dead, but 
had no time for caring for the graves of the departed. They were laid away 

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just as reverently as now, but the money for erecting costly monuments or 
even plain slabs, telling the story of the one buried, was oftentimes not to be 

dearborn's revolutionary honor list. 

In 1828 Congress made arrangements for paying the soldiers of the 
Revolution a pension, and it was then found that in Indiana Dearborn county 
led the list. Many, however, had paid the debt of nature long before 1828. 
and there is no way to determine the number that had resided in the county 
before that period. In 1835 there were forty-eight Revolutionary soldiers on 
the pension roll in the county, as follow: John Able, John Baker, Charles 
Cook, John Cooper, John Campbell, John Dixon, John De Moss, John O. 
Gullion, David Haney, Thomas Johnston, Moses Lindley, Noah Miller, Will- 
iam Meserve. Zebulon Pike, David Porter, Samuel Stone, Daniel Shed. Peter 
Lawrence, John Six, John Shaver, Daniel Welch, Robert Wright, David Hall, 
Charles Bisbee, Peter Carbell, Michael Euler, John Elliott. Jacob Ellsbury, 
William Henderson. Moses Hendrickson, Job Judd, Moses Lacy, Daniel 
Loder, James Leeds, Samuel Marsh, John Mead, George Mason. Daniel Rid- 
dington, David Reambe, Robert Ricket, Henry Rander. Elijah Rich, Ezra 
Stanson, William Smithers, Gideon Towers, Timothy Ward, Benjamin 
Walker, Samuel Whetstone and William W'hite. 

Others who were known to have been soldiers of the Revolution and 
who died before 1835 are Capt. Isaac Cannon, Maj. John Calhoun. Capt. Jo- 
seph Hayes, Eli Hill, Zebulon Dickinson, Ephraim Morrison, Joseph Barlow, 
William Kerr, James Skeets, James Dykman, Henry Rayner, John Sacket. 
Baylis Cloud, Jonas Frazier, John Day, Isaac Way, Capt. Hugh Dunn, Capt. 
John Crandon. Jabez Percival, James Scott. Jacob Toothman, Enoch Sacket, 
Winthrop Robinson, Jacob Taylor, Joseph Hannegan and Samuel Richardson. 

Major Calhoun was a near relative of John C. Calhoun, and was active 
in the Revolutionary War and afterwards served against the Cherokees and 
Creeks. He spent his last days with the family of his kinsman, Abram Rol- 
and. Zebulon Pike was the father of the discoverer of Pike's Peak. Capt. 
Hugh Dunn was a forbear of Jacob P. Dunn, of Indianapolis, and of Harry 
R. and Cassius McMullen, their father, recently deceased, having been named 
for the pioneer ancestor, Hugh Dunn McMullen. It may occur to some that 
others on this list have descendants in the county. The Dickinsons are rep- 
resented in the county by Samuel Griffith and John N. Griffith, whose 

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mother was a great-granddaughter. The Hayes family here are descended 
from Capt. Joseph Hayes, who was one of the first to settle in Dearborn 

It has been estimated that at one time in the history of the county there 
were as many as two hundred men who had taken part in the War of the 
Revolution as soldiers. They kept no records in those days, and they sleep 
mostly in unknown graves. Here and there the word is handed down and 
the spot is pointed out where one of these men is buried, but in this fast- 
moving age of commercialism we are looking forward to the future too in- 
tently to have much time for sentiment and for the history of times so remote. 
It is not yet too late to locate many of the last resting places of these men, 
and an organized effort should be made to find these ancient graves and see 
that they are properly marked. 

THE WAR OF 1812-I5. 

The War of 1812 to 181 5 found the good people of Dearborn county 
little prepared to take any other part but that of self-defense. The Indian 
country was at their door. An unbroken forest extended from the hills a few 
miles inland from the Ohio river to the prairies of northern Indiana, where 
the Indian lived. The only forts for protection in the whole state were at 
Vincennes, Ft. Wayne and at Ft. Harrison, where Terre Haute now lies. 
Ft. Wayne was an outpost only, and had little to do with protecting settlers 
in the river counties. Ft. Harrison was attacked by the Indians and they were 
beaten off after a siege of several days, the commander being Capt. Zachary 
Taylor, afterwards President of the United States. He proved himself 
worthy of the title of "Rough and Ready," given him afterwards in the Mex- 
ican War, in the siege of Ft. Harrison, as he did later in life. The only thing 
the settlers here could do was to organize companies for home defense, erect 
block houses at intervals along the front of or at the edge of the settlements, 
where the people could go at night for protection. Occasionally some of the 
more restless would enlist in some of the regular regiments that were sent 
to the Maumee country, but Dearborn county's soldiery during the last war 
with Great Britain confined themselves to protecting the border from raids 
against the settlements by roving bands of Indians. The massacre of Pigeon 
Roost, in Clark county, warned the citizens what could be expected from the 
savage foe and the vigilance shown had its reward in the fact that during the 
course of the whole war of three years no white persons lost their lives or were 
hurt by the Indians. 

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At one time during the War of 1812 a company was organized by James 
Dill and it expected to join the army at the west end of Lake Erie, having 
orders to march there. They joined the volunteers from about Cincinnati and 
marched northward as far as Piqua, Ohio, when the information was re- 
ceived that the frontier here was threatened and they were ordered back to 
protect the settlements at home. When General Harrison called for troops for 
the campaign of 181 1 against the Prophet, the campaign which ended with 
the battle of Tippecanoe, a company was raised under Capt. James McGuire, 
but it was organized too late to take part in the campaign. It acted, however, 
as a frontier guard until war was declared, when it re-organized with the same 
officers and did duty along the border from Brookville to Laughen r creek in 
the vicinity of Farmers' Retreat, where Captain McGuire lived. The com- 
pany built a block house at Brookville; one at Cambridge, not far from the 
residence of Capt. Ferris Nowlins, and a third one at McGuire's. Another 
was also erected at Harmons, near Cross Plains, and one at Vallonia, west of 
North Vernon. The company under Captain McGuire patrolled the country 
between Brookville and Laughery and was vigilant in keeping watch of the 
movements of the Indians that ventured to the frontier. Occasionally a rov- 
ing band would sweep down on some unprotected farmer's home and ste«l 
his horses, but no lives were lost. Isaac Allen, living on South Hogan creel;, 
near the mouth of the branch now known as Allen's branch, one night lost 
eight horses and some tobacco, and Nicholas Lindsay, who lived where the 
George Lane residence now stands, a little farther down the creek, lost two 
horses. Three or four yoke of cattle were ruined by being hamstrung. Some 
of the people became frightened and fled to Kentucky for safety and a com- 
pany of homeguards from Boone county, under Captain Seebree was sent 
over to pursue the robbers. The company chased them out in the state to 
White river, somewhere in the neighborhood of where Indianapolis now 
stands, when they found the river so swollen that they gave up the chase and 
returned home. Among those who were in the pursuit were Major Nichols E. 
Chaff in and Conrad Huffman, from Dearborn county. 


A partial list of those citizens of Dearborn county who took part in the 
frontier defense is herewith appended. Some of these, however, served else- 

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where, than along the frontier of Dearborn county, having emigrated here 
after the close of the struggle ; Major Jeremiah Johnson, Jr., Major Thomas 
Brackenridge, Col. Henry Miller, Capt. Stephen Wood, Capt. Robert Brack- 
enridge, Capt. Charles Stevens, Major John Lewis, Samuel C. Vance, James 
Dill, John Weaver, James W. Weaver, Justice Sortwell, Decker Crozier. 
James McGuire, Capt. Samuel Ewan, George Greer, Joseph Morgan, Samuel 
Frazer, William Randall, Samuel Martin, Obediah Priest, Thomas Annis, 
Ephraim Hollister, Jesse Sacket, John Greenfield, Warren Tebbs, Johnson 
Watts, Aaron Bonham, Joshua Yerkes, James Salmon, Casper Johnson, 
George Lewis, Maston Isgrigg, Willoughby Tebbs, Enoch Blasdell, Abijah 
Decker, William Majors, Stephen Thorn, William King, Jonathan Lewis. 
Timothy Kimble, James Bruce, Elial Chaffin, Thomas Kyle, Jonathan Allee. 
Isaac Randall, Garret Swallow, T. N. Burroughs, Joseph Daniels, Samuel 
Perry, Thomas Porter, Ellis Williamson, Israel Bonham, Nathan Lewis, Obe- 
diah Voshell, Thomas Johnson, James Dart, Isaac Taylor, William Webb, 
James Cloud, Thomas Ehler, William Maserve, James King, Joshua Staples, 
Ferdinand Turner, George Rudisil, Thomas Covington, John Durham. George 
Mason, Levi Garrison, Jesse Calloway, Job Judd, Jr., Joseph Judd, Jacob 
Rudisil, James C. Cornelius, Ira Cloud, Thomas Dart, Michael Farran, Rich- 
ard Pippin, John Lilly, Caleb Johnson, Spencer Wyley, Job Hayes, William 
Ashby, John White, J. Brackenridge, Nicholas Mason, John Majors, James 
Eads, Samuel Johnson, Robert Gullett, John Durham, William Green. Ste- 
phen Green, Philip Mason, Valentine Lawrence, Finley Judd, Michael Rudi- 
sil, Jerry Johnson, Jr., John Hall, Alex Roseberry, Nathaniel Tucker, Caleb 
Roseberry, John Burk, Daniel Mason, Aquilla Cross, John Mason, Matthew 
Landon, Samuel Thornton, John Tanner, Bayless Ashby, W r illiam Lake, 
James Oldfield, Robert Majors, Elijah Eads, Thomas Hackleman, Noyes 
Canfield, James Withrow, James Boyd, James Powell, Joseph Plummer, Dan- 
iel Salmon, Samuel Roberts, Charles Clements, Enoch Pugh, James Holmes, 
Sr., Joseph Huston, William Caldwell, Jacob Fielding, Edward Clements. 
Luther Plummer. 

The writer has been unable to secure any roster of the men living in 
this county at the time of the war and who took part in the struggle. 


During the War of 1812, the thin fringe of people residing along the 
Ohio river, which comprised all the population of the young county, were in 

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constant fear of Indian depredations. Yet throughout that struggle they had 
only one genuine scare, which proved to be only a false alarm. The late 
John Callahan repeated to the writer of this history his version of the story. It 
was only a short time after the massacre at Pigeon Roost and everyone was 
nervous, fearing lest the savages would strike the outlying cabins in this part 
of the country. There was a small stockade at Georgetown, where the Jack- 
son, Crozier and several other families would gather at night for safety. An- 
other stockade, more pretentious, was at Cambridge, where Jacob Blasdel, 
the Dawsons and others were gathered. The rangers and scouts were con- 
stantly passing from one of these outposts to another, keeping vigilant watch 
for any signs of the dreaded foe. One morning a man came riding swiftly 
into the little town, crying that the Indians had been seen lurking near the 
station at Georgetown and urging that the authorities here send out a force 
to protect the little station. All the able-bodied male inhabitants were, during 
the war, organized into companies, drilled and armed, and each man kept a 
gun at his home, ready for any emergency. It was the work of only a few 
minutes for these ready and willing men to start. But the military men in 
charge thought it best not to send all their force to the rescue of the place, 
believing that it would be an act of wisdom and discretion to detail a scout- 
ing party to hurry there and send a messenger back with a report. Towards 
evening the messenger returned, reporting that some of the men at the station 
had seen what tbey took to be Indians lurking near and that word had also 
been sent to Blasdel's station, where it happened that at the time a detachment 
of the rangers had spent the night previous and had not yet departed. These 
men at once went out to scout the country and determine the truth of the 

The people were much excited over the alarming reports, and not much 
sleep was indulged in the following night. The next day, towards the after- 
noon, those who had been detailed to go to Georgetown returned, with the 
story that the rangers had scouted the country thoroughly, well out to the 
flats, without discovering any signs of Indians and that the Georgetown peo- 
ple were either mistaken or the Indians had eluded pursuit and got away. 
Even-one breathed easier and the alarm passed, never more to return, so far 
as the natives of the forest were concerned. 


When the Mexican War commenced Indiana was in worse condition 
from a military point of view than it has ever been, before or since. The old 
militia system had become unpopular. Thirty years had passed since the 

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last war, that with Great Britain — 1812 to 181 5. The "cornstalk" militia 
system, which for several years was carefully kept up and prepared for Indian 
outbreaks or foreign complications, had been lulled to sleep with the tre- 
mendous growth of the country and the continued peace with the Indian 
tribes, which were now beyond the Mississippi, so that only a few com- 
panies of the old militia had kept up an organization. The adjutant-general 
of the United States in a letter to David Reynolds, adjutant-general of Indi- 
ana, calling attention to the apparent neglect of military precautions, was an- 
swered by General Reynolds as follows : 

"Adjutant-General's Office. 

"Indianapolis, Ind., January 25, 1845. 
"Sir : — Your circular of the 8th inst. and blank forms have been duly re- 
ceived. The reason the strength and arms of this state have not been re- 
ported, as required by Act of Congress of 1803, is that our system has so far 
gone down that but few officers hold commissions and scarcely any of those 
few make returns to this office, as will be perceived by reference to my report 
to the Governor for 1845, which is herewith enclosed. 

"I also enclose to you the report of the Quartermaster General to the 
Governor for the year 1845, which will give you an idea of the condition of 
our arms on hand. There are other arms, let out on bonds, not included in 
said report, but to what amount I can not tell. 

"The dilapidated state of our military. system is a matter of much re- 
gret. I trust it is perceived that my failure to return our strength, etc., is 
from necessity and not from neglect. Your obedient servant, 

"D. Reynolds, 
"Adjutant-General, Indiana Militia." 


Military matters had fallen so low that the position of adjutant-general 
was considered simply an honorary affair by which a title could be secured, 
the office only paying, when the Mexican war commenced, the nominal salary 
of one hundred dollars. General Reynolds, however, was full of patriotism, 
and performed his duty regardless of pay. While lacking experience, he made 
up for deficiencies by possessing plenty of sound, common sense, executive abil- 
ity and much ability for hard work. After his work had been completed and 
the war was over, no allowance was made for compiling and preserving the rec- 


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29 o 


ord of the volunteers, and it remained for the Legislature of 1907 to authorize 
Oran Perry, a veteran of the Civil War, and at that time adjutant-general 
of the state, to compile and record the great services of the volunteers of 
1846 and 1847. 

In General Pern's introduction, he gives this eulogy to General Rey- 
nolds, which ought to be appreciated : "His success in rapidly organizing the 
state's quota for the war had no parallel at that time, and in 1847 a grateful 
Legislature recognized the fact by adding $150 to his salary for the year. 
In 1849 the Legislature again made him an allowance of $183 per month for 
four months and twentv-three davs and ten cents a mile for 664 miles 
'travel.' " 


Dearborn county acquitted itself in the struggle with more than ordinary 
credit. It furnished to the governor the first company under the call for 
troops, James H. Lane having offered a company, which was accepted and 
assigned to the Third Regiment as Company K. 

President Polk issued the call for volunteers on May 13. 1846. Gov. 
James Whitcomb issued his call for Indiana's quota on the 22nd day of May. 
and by the 10th of June thirty companies had assembled at Ft. Clark, between 
Jeffersonville and. New Albany, the place designated as the rendezvous. 

Quoting from General Perry's report : "At that time there was but one 
railroad in the state, running between Madison and Edinburg. There were 
but few improved highways and no telegraphs. All communication was by 
mail, mostly carried by men on horseback and over bad roads. There were 
no daily papers, the press services being rendered by small weekly sheets, 
one or two to the county. In spite of these handicaps, the war news traveled 
fast. The governor issued his proclamation on the 22nd of May and the 
adjutant-general his general order No. 1, on the 4th of June, directing the 
companies to assemble at the rendezvous as soon as possible, by the shortest 
route and at their own expense, for transportation and subsistence. 

"As if by magic, the roads were filled with marching men, helped on by 
patriotic farmers, who furnished teams for transportation and whose kind- 
hearted wives fed the hungry volunteers. Notwithstanding these drawbacks 
the concentration was quickly made, and by the 10th of June, nineteen days 
after the call, thirty companies had reported at camp and had been mustered 
into service, while an overflow of twenty-two companies reported from their 
home stations clamoring f^r acceptance." 

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The state at that time had but little money in its coffers and the banks 
of the state came to the rescue, offering funds for the expense of equipping 
the men. The following letter to Governor Whitcomb from the cashier of 
the Lawrenceburg bank shows that Dearborn county was not behind any 
other county in its patriotism : 

"Branch of the State Bank of Indiana. 

"Lawrenceburg, Indiana, June 8. 1846. 
"At a meeting of the board of directors of this branch, held this day, the 
following resolutions were unanimously passed: Resolved, that the cashier 
honor the draft of James Whitcomb. governor of this state, to the amount of 
ten thousand dollars, for the purpose of equipping and supplying th* volun- 
teers called for from this state through the war department. 

"Resolved, that such advance shall be considered a loan to the state of 
Indiana, to be repaid at such time and in such manner as may hereafter be 
provided for by the Legislature, or by the general government. 

"Resolved, that the captain of the Dearborn volunteers be authorized to 
draw the sum necessary to equip and remove his company to the place of 
rendezvous in this -state; this advance to be considered a part of the above ten 
thousand dollars. "Attest: Henry K. Hobbs. Cashier." 


James H. Lane took the first company to Ft. Clark as its captain, but 
on the organization of the Third Regiment was made its colonel. The county 
during this conflict organized and sent to the field one company for the Third 
Indiana Regiment, two companies for the Fourth Regiment, and one com- 
pany for the Fifth Regiment. James H. Lane, who raised the first company 
and was made colonel of the regiment, the Third, when it was returned home 
at the expiration of its term of service, recruited another regiment, called the 
Fifth, to which Dearborn county furnished one company. 

The men were enlisted for only one year and their term of service, while 
arduous, yet hardly accustomed them to the life of a soldier before it was 
ended. In calling for recruits the same mistake was made in the Mexican 
War as in the War of 1812 and the War of the Revolution. Short-term ser- 

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vice prevented the men from acquiring the discipline necessary for a good sol- 
dier and also made it impossible for the men to become inured to the hard- 
ships of campaigning. 


The company recruited in this county for the Third Regiment was num- 
bered as Company K. and was composed of the following officers and pri- 
vates: Captain, George Dunn; first lieutenant, William L. Guard; second 
lieutenant, Benjamin Spooner; second lieutenant, Aaron C. Gibbs; Joseph W. 
Cheeseman, first sergeant; William H. Reed, sergeant; Solomon P. Tuney, 
sergeant ; Robert McGarve, sergeant ; John Goddard, corporal : John Christy, 
corporal ; Charles D. Seeds, corporal ; Thomas W. McRight, corporal : David 
V. Johnson, musician ; privates, Thomas Bell, Strawder J. Byron, Benjamin 
Bodine, Anthony Bloster, Peter Browne, Simeon Bradley, John S. Conger. 
William Croak. Franklin B. Darling, James Foster, James Gilmore. David 
Gilliland, Alexander Gamble, John Gras, Francis M. Gray, Jabez Heeley, 
Samuel Hines, Judson U olden, Nelson Hammel, George Hudson, Joseph 
Irvey. Louis Kissley, Joseph Kussins, John Kelly, Solomon Lafollet, Austin 
McCright, Gerothwell Maxwell, John Medd, Thomas Medd, Thomas B. Moth- 
erell, William North, Nathaniel Olmstead, William M. Perks. Joseph C. Pike, 
John Ross, Joseph Ross. Elisha Scoggins, Tosh Soppiger, Joshua Senit, Will- 
iam Todd, William C. Truitt, William Wilson, John J. Wilson, John Wyers 
and Bamhart Werle; discharged by surgeon's certificate before their term of 
service expired, Moses Bennett, Victor McGarvey, Charles I>auber. C. Law. 
Wallace, Andrew Moss, George Kempp, John Naylor, George W. Knapp, 
William O. Walker, George W. Hamblin, Samuel Crist, George W. Dawson, 
John Godfrey, George Norris, Moses Pryor, James Russell and Jesse White ; 
died in the service, David G. Conger, Richard H. Inman and Jonathan Wal- 
ton. In addition John G. Dunn was assistant surgeon of the regiment. 


The Fourth Regiment was mustered in a year later, with Willis A. Gor- 
man, former major of the Third Regiment, as its colonel and Ebenezer Du- 
mont. of Dearborn county, as its lieutenant-colonel; Mac Crookshank, quar- 

Company C was raised in Dearborn county, with the following officers 

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and privates: Captain, Morgan L. Payne; first lieutenant, Martin M. Van 
Duesen; second lieutenant, Thomas J. Lucas; second lieutenant, James H. 
Thompson ; first sergeant, Joseph V. Bemnsdof fer ; second sergeant, Jasper S. 
Briggs ; third sergeant, George \V. Baldridge ; fourth sergeant, Abner Prather ; 
first corporal, Henry S. Griffin; second corporal, Thomas M. Griffin; third 
corporal, John B. Pike ; fourth corporal, Israel Fowler ; drummer, Thomas L. 
Lockhart; fifer, Samuel Steel; privates, Josiah T. Bailey, William H. Bald- 
ridge, Thomas Barnes, Cornelius Beck, William Binegar, George Brownlake, 
William Britton, William H. Cavil, John Church, Rufus S. Craft, Jesse Cross, 
Andrew J, Dolph, John Fell, Calvin A. Gibson, Eli Goodwin, George Gordon, 
Samuel P. Goucher, John Grapp, Richard Grapp, William P. Gosnell, John 
Hoffman, William M. Hoffman, Valentine M. Hudson, John James, John 
Koontz, James Lecper, William W. Lowe, Jacob C. Larne, Francis McCabe, 
Isaiah McCleaster, William Victor McGarvey, Peter E. Mitchell, John M. 
Moger, James North, John F. Orill, Samuel Protzman, Lycurgus Richard- 
son, William Robertson, John H. Seeley, William Sinick, James W. Smith, 
Mahlon Smith. John Stone, Van V. Tousey, William T. Wade, William B 
Welsh, and Levin Ward. 

Before their terms of service expired the following were mustered out for 
disability or on a surgeon's certificate: James Hudson, William M. Bennett, 
Hiram J. Davis, Johnson McLain, Hiram p. Stage, Reuben Brown, Jacob W. 
Gibson, John J. DeHart, Isaac P. Lewis, George W. Newby, Jacob Wizard 
and Van V. Tousey; transferred to Company K, David G. Cromlow; de- 
serted, Mortico Cross, William Douglas, Theodore Gliff, William D. Haw- 
kins and John King ; absent. George W. Baldridge ; died, David Finley, John 
Handen, Christian Schmeidmiller, James W. White, Benjamin Nalliner, Rob- 
ert Owen. Joseph F. Law and Henry T. Bunner ; resigned, William T. Bald- 
ridge and Milton H. Catlett. 


Company K of the Fourth Regiment was also organized in this county, 
with the following officers and privates: Captain, A. L. Mason: first lieu- 
tenant. James C. Littell: second lieutenant, L. Xoble Hamilton: second lieu- 
tenant. James R. Mills: first sergeant. John Watts: second sergeant. James 
P. Hart; third sergeant. Davis W. Cheek: fourth sergeant. Washington L. 
O'Xeal ; first corporal, James E. Goble : second corporal. David G. Cromlow : 
third corporal. Newton P. Norris; fourth corporal. Henry Kohoy: drummer. 

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2 9 4 


Vandyke Barricklow; fifer, Joseph Stevens; privates, Bale Ashby, Thomas 
Bassett, Adam Baringer, Lemuel Bigney, Ira Brown, John A. Buchanan, 
Mark Collins. Charles Campbell, John R. Churchill, Aquilla Cochrane, Daniel 
Connelly, James L. Consley, Alphonso Doolittle, John A. Forester, Job Envin, 
Edward Gray, Merit C. Grimes, Levi Hamlin, Jeremiah Hallenbeck, Robert 
F. Hume, Isaac Horton. Josephus Jones, James Kitts, Henry Lake, Samuel 
Land, Lorenzo D. Lowe. William Lucas, John Manley, William Miller, Ed- 
ward H. McPike, Litle W. Parks, Thomas P. Paugh, Robert Raney, Hart 
Reno, Eli S. Richmond, Jonathan Roach. Samuel Roach, Robert W. Roberts, 
John Scott, Thomas Shoat, Joseph Smith, Franklin Stateler, William H. C. 
Steele, Aaron Stilwell, Joseph Teany, Joseph Todd, George W. Walker, No- 
ble G. Walters, Jesse White. John Whitaker and Isaac M. Brower; discharged 
for disability. Daniel Cole, Curtis Bird, James Harper, William K. French, 
Amos K. Butterfield. Thomas Lake, Charles Dean, John Duncan, Edward 
Woyciehoskie and Henry Bowers; died, George B. Jones, George N. Lowe, 
James H. Best, Frederick Seifert, Pleasant Chew, Thomas Watts and William 
C. Crookshank ; deserted, Jonas Dodson. John Hum, Harrison Osborne, 
George B. Griffith and Thomas Shoat. 


The Fifth and last regiment raised from Indiana for the Mexican War was 
commanded by Col. James H. Lane. It rendezvoused at Madison, and after 
a short time spent in camp there, was rushed to Vera Cruz to take an active 
part in Gen. Winfield Scott's campaign against the City of Mexico. Company 
G of the Fifth Regiment was organized in Dearborn county and was officered 
as follow: Aaron C. Gibbs, captain; Lewis S. Moffatt, first lieutenant; 
Henry W. Jones, second lieutenant ; Gerothwell Maxwell, second lieutenant ; 
Frederick White, first sergeant; George W. Clavpool, second sergeant; James 
Harris, third sergeant; Christian Lenberger, fourth sergeant: William H. 
Bisbee. first corporal: Thomas B. F. Hewitt, second corporal; Henry O'Briei', 
third corporal ; James Ewing, fourth corporal ; Andrew Herzogg, musician : 
privates, John Cavanaugh. Joseph W. Cheeseman, George P. Christopher, 
Ephraim Darnby. W illiam Duncan. Abram Ferrell. Jackson Poland, Robert 
Green. Samuel Hines. Pacter T. Harden, James Headrick. Samuel Hender- 
son, George Hamblin, Joseph Irvy. George W. Johnson. David James. Jo- 
seph Kussins, George W. Lawrence. Allen Major. Michael McGarv, Nich- 
olas Mitchell. Asa McManaman. James R. McClure. John S. Merrill. Enoch 

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McCarty, Nathaniel Olmstead, Samuel Plomteaux, John P. Pepper, Jacob 
Phillips. Joshua Rounds, Samuel Rayson, Joseph Rounds, John A. Stephen- 
son, Frederick Swatfager. Isaac Strimback, Gilbert Turner, John H. Touner, 
Abram Teney, Stephen Wood and Thomas Wymond; transferred to other 
companies, Jacob Murray, Elijah Earley, David W. Cable, Joseph Jenkins, An- 
drew Robbnett, James Curtis, Joel Wilson, Thomas J. Webster, James D. 
Avers, Samuel Chapman. John C. Campbell, Zachariah Lacy, Charles Palmer, 
Robert Sunman. William Frost and John M. Myers; deserted, James Patter- 
son, Michael Church and Abram Peters; discharged for disability, Samuel 
Cowden, Andrew I. Gray, David C. Lord and William G. Lyon; missing 
and supposed to have been murdered by the Mexicans, William Crook and 
Samuel Dougherty; died, Joshua Shaffer, Giles Hoft, Jonathan Budd, James 
Griffith, William Byram, Patrick Ryan and William Wilson ; left sick, Ben- 
jamin E. Noster, John Diehammer, Elzy Spurgeon, Benjamin Swan, William 
Teney and William Truitt. 


The Mexican War proved to be a good school for the Civil War. Out 
of the officers that were in the Mexican War from this country, there were 
furnished for the Civil War three brigadier generals and one colonel, as fol- 
low: Brigadiers, James H. Lane, Ebenezer Dumont and Thomas J. Lucas; 
colonel, Benjamin Spooner. Besides these many of the rank and file were 
commissioned officers and valuable men in the service of drilling and recruit- 
ing troops for the greater crisis of the War of the Rebellion. 

It was only thirteen years from the close of the Mexican War until the 
call to arms came in 186 1, and many of those who had responded to the 
call for volunteers in the former war were ready at once to shoulder a musket 
in the latter war to perpetuate the government they had made sacrifices for in 
earlier life. The part taken by Indiana in the Mexican W ar was creditablt: 
to the state's patriotism and to the bravery of her sons. It was a tradition for 
some years that her troops had not acquitted themselves creditably in the 
campaign under General Taylor at Buena Vista, but the facts are that there 
was nothing to be ashamed of and much of which every Honsier should lie 
proud. Investigation showed that the responsibility for misconduct was 
all to be charged to the colonel of one regiment, a man who. in after years, 
when the life of his country was at stake, proved to be a traitor to his country. 

The Mexican War broadened the view point of the people and gave them 

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a belter idea of the extent of the country and its extraordinary resources. It 
aroused the restless spirit of the pioneer that had been latent for a decade 
and emigration to the westward was again increased. Shortly afterwards 
the discovery of gold in California gave to all those restless spirits an opening 
for their adventurous blood and the country was for a decade destined to grow 
more rapidly than at any time in its past. 


The War of the Rebellion, from 1861 to 1865, tried the patriotism and 
endurance of the people of Dearborn county more than any former sacrifice 
they had been called on to make. Its mutterings had been heard for several 
years, but had been little heeded. No preparation whatever had been made. 
Aside from these few who had seen service in the war with Mexico, not a man 
in the county knew the manual of arms or any of the duties of a soldier's life. 
The indignation on account of the insistence of the erring and misled friends 
in the South, grew until when Ft. Sumter fell and Abraham Lincoln gave the 
call to arms, they came from every farm, hamlet, crossroads and town, in 
such numbers that it was impossible either to equip, feed or drill them. The 
first seventy-five thousand, called for the three-months service, was filled al- 
most as soon as it was asked for and thousands more offered. 

No one realized that it was to be more than four years ere the last man 
to resist the authority of the United States was to fay down his gun. None 
of the many offering their services thought that many of the sons of Dear- 
born county would go to the front, there to be laid low by disease or the bullei 
of the foe. The government, throughout the long struggle, again and again 
called for more troops, but every time the county responded promptly and 
heartily. Company after company was recruited as the war progressed, until 
it some localities there were scarcely enough able-bodied persons to carry on 
the affairs of life. Farm help was in demand. Those who stayed at home 
could get easily three dollars per day for their services in the harvest field. 
The days of the self-binder had not yet come and the work of harvesting the 
grain required more help than now. Even the "dropper" had not been intro- 
duced. The machines for cutting wheat were the old-fashioned cradle or. in 
few places, a machine on which were a driver and a man behind to rake off 
the grain, the latter to be bound by the men following. Yet, Providence 
seemed to be with the Union. The crops were abundant; the harvest was 
cared for and at no time were provisions or supplies for the army scarce. 

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The first call for troops was for seventy-fire thousand men for three 
months. So manv were offered that a few of the more insistent of the over- 
flow were organized and mustered in for one year. About the time of th<i 
Bull Run disaster, President Lincoln called for three hundred thousand for 
three years, or during the war. This call was filled promptly. Dearborn 
county sent out one company for the Eighteenth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, one for the Twenty-sixth Regiment, two for the Seventh Regiment, 
two for the Thirty-second Regiment, one for the Thirty-fifth Regiment, one 
for the Thirty-seventh Regiment, one for the Forty-fifth Regiment, and one 
for the Fifty-second Regiment, ten companies in all. Besides these who went 
as a body, numerous of her young men enlisted in companies organizing ic 
other counties. In the summer of 1862 President Lincoln again issued a call 
for three hundred thousand men to serve for three years, or during the war, 
and again the country responded. Dearborn county, always patriotic and 
always ready to answer the call of her country for service, gave up of her 
young men cheerfully. The reverses to our arms had brought the exultant 
enemy to the water's edge on the Kentucky side of the Ohio river, during 
August, 1862. and the Confederate soldiers could be found just across the 
river securing cattle, horses and other supplies much needed for their use. 
Their troopers could be heard at all hours of the night by the home-guard 
sentinels, who were vigilantly guarding the river front. It is said that at one 
period, for a month or more, the sentinels of the Union home guards con- 
stantly walked their beats from the Big Sandy river to Cairo. This condition 
of affairs encouraged enlistments. Men past the age for army service 
mounted their horses and assisted in urging the able-bodied and the young to 
enlist. In a few weeks Dearborn county had recruited three companies for the 
Eighty-third Regiment and seventy-five other men who enlisted in the same 
regiment, in companies raised over the line in other counties, one company for 
the Fourth Cavalry and two for the Sixty-eighth Indiana. Later on, in 1864, 
two companies were raised for the hundred-days service, and two for the one- 
year service. 


At the first and second call to arms, in the first and second call for troops 
for three years, or during the war, in the summers of 1861 and 1862, the men 
paid no attention to either the conditions for which they enlisted or what 

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would be their fate if wounded and discharged helpless. They only thought 
of the one fact: That the government was in danger and that it must be 
saved. Later on. matters became reduced to more of a business proposition, 
and while none the less patriotic, yet the impulsive rush of indignation that the 
old flag should be assailed had cooled down to that of firm resolve. Some 
must stay at home to look after and care for the wives and children and to pro- 
duce what was just as necessary as men at the front — supplies to feed the 
latter while battling for their country. Dearborn county offered bounties to 
encourage enlistments; organized help was created to look after the wife and 
family of the man at the front : societies were organized to prepare needed 
articles for the boys on the battle line; the sanitary commission and the Chris- 
tian commission had its branches in every neighborhood, and the whole coun- 
try, by the summer of 1864, had become an organized body to further the 
cause of the Union and to crush rebellion. 

To bring to the people of the county of the present day some idea of the 
cost of the war to the county during the four years, aside from the loss of 
her young men it may be stated that the county paid out for bounties to en- 
listed men during the struggle the sum of two hundred and ninety-five thou- 
sand three hundred and five dollars, and it paid out of the public funds for re- 
lief to the families of the soldiers the sum of ninety-three thousand three hun- 
dred and thirty-five dollars, besides an amount for miscellaneous requirements 
of seven thousand three hundred and seventy-five dollars, making a grand to- 
tal of three hundred and ninety-six thousand and sixteen dollars for all de- 
mands. Dearborn county has for its part in the great war an Honor Roll of 
one thousand nine hundred and forty-six men who were enlisted in the coun- 
try's service. Besides these, numbers went to other counties and enlisted, for 
which there can be no proper account given here. 


The work of recruiting, equipping and preparing for the field so many 
men was heavy and took much of time and money. Indiana had no militia 
system, and people did not even know what officers were necessary for an 
organized company. The details of drill, discipline and equipment were un- 
known and unappreciated, because unknown. It the pioneer days of Indiana 
a good militia system was in vogue. It was well organized and systematized 
into companies, regiments, brigades and divisions, with commands officered 
throughout, so that men could be rapidly mobilized and made ready for any 

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emergency. But . the Indian had gone to the West and. the menace of the 
red man no longer existing, people were lulled to the entertainment of a feel- 
ing of security not justified by existing conditions. At the birth of statehood 
and for some fifteen years afterwards, even up to 1832, the route to much 
political preferment was through the titles obtained in the militia, and captains, 
colonels, majors, and even generals, were plentiful. This, however, ceased 
about 1832 to 1836, and men looked to other fields as a better route to 
preferment in politics, hence when the Civil War came on, the material was 
here, but it was in a state of nature and had to be constructed into a military 
machine. This took much labor and money. However, at no time during the 
struggle did the people of Dearborn county ever shrink from the outlay of 
either men, money or labor. Patriotic throughout, her citizens lived up to the 
reputation of their pioneer forefathers who had fought the battles of the Revo- 
lution and had conquered the red men and the wilderness. 


In the call for troops for the three-months service. Dearborn county re- 
sponded and its men were assigned to the Seventh Regiment. Benjamin T. 
Spooner was appointed by Gov. Oliver P. Morton the lieutenant-colonel of the 
regiment, and David E. Sparks was made its quartermaster. Companies D, 
E and G were furnished by Dearborn county. The officers of the three com- 
panies were as follow: Company D — John F. Cheek, captain; Jesse Arm- 
strong, first lieutenant; Eli Mattock, second lieutenant. Company E — John 
H. Ferry, captain; Henry Waller, first lieutenant; Alexander B. Pattison, 
second lieutenant. Company G — Nathan Lord, captain ; L. K. Stephens, first 
lieutenant; William Francis, second lieutenant. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates of Company D were as fol- 
low : First sergeant, Montgomery C. Howard ; sergeants. James B. Dough- 
erty, James McLeaster and Elsin B. Miller; corporals. Robert B. Huff, Lib- 
erty V. McLeaster, James F. Vaughn and Frank A. Epstein: musicians, Al- 
bert Kem and Jacob Orne ; privates, Minich Ahart, Daniel B. Allen, Charles 
Allen. Joseph Backert, John Bartholomew, Job Bench, James Boyd, Charles 
E. Brashear, John Breakey, Curry B. Brown, William Busch, Charles A. Burk, 
James Chapman. George W. Clermont. Ira D. Chamberlain. George B. Colt. 
David O. Crosby, Philip B. Crooker, William H. Daniels. Thomas J. Daw- 
son, Charles Dougherty, James J. Foley, August Gamier. William Gabler. 
James Glardon, Cyrus S. Horton, William Howard. William H. Hudson, 

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Abraham Junker. John Junker. Lewis T. Kern, James Keys, Eli M. Knapp. 
Cyrus L. Knapp, George \V. Lambertson. Albert Lewis, Edward B. McAllis- 
ter, Charles A. McCright, Charles M. McCright, John McClintock. William 
McGinnis, Jacob Meyer, John C. Miller, David L. Morris, Drury H. Nothern, 
Robert K. Purnell. Jacob Rief, James Reddens, Evan A. J. Sanders, Christian 
Seidel, Henry J. Seigfreid, Seth S. Simonson, Morgan Simonson. James 
Skelton, Christian Slonegar. Paul Truitt, George A. West, Henry White, 
Thomas Whiteford, Thomas Williams, Hiram S. Wiley, Charles J. G. Work- 
hizer, William Young and Benjamin F. Worth. 

Company E — First sergeant, Benjamin F. Burlingame ; sergeants, Ab- 
ner G. Withrow. George C. Watson and John W. Christy; corporals, Schuyler 
P. Shutts, Jesse B. Holman. William V. Hoover and Richard H. Foulk ; musi- 
cians, George H. Durham and John S. Hope ; privates, James Abdon, George 
Anderson, George W. Angelo, John J. Bailey, Joseph Bamhart. Louis Beach. 
George Behrens, James Brown, James Bruner, James Burdite, Dudley H. Bur- 
lingame, Eleazer Cole, Jacob B. Cortant, Charles H. Cronley, George Daniels, 
John Denton. William H. Drake, Porter Durell. Edwin Ellis. Valentine 
Ewald, Harvey Fisk, Henry Fisk, Casper Flusch, Cyrus B. Goodwin, James 
N. Gould. Charles F. Gregory, John Hisey, Gastrous Hockstetter, James 
House, Archibald Johns, Levi B. Jones, George S. Johnson, Charles Kerch- 
mer, Albert Kerr, William Kerr, Gottleib Keiser, Giarles Lacock, George W. 
Lowe. Wesley G Markland, Charles B. Miller, Ernest Navel, James "Nelson, 
Henry Niebaum, John Parker, James L. Passell, Richard Pattison, Henry 
Smitkin, William Shcpperd, Henry C. Shepperd, Henry Shryer, Isaac W. 
Shutts. Henry J. Smith, Levi Smith, Theodore Sheldon, William Speer, Dun- 
reith Stage, James C. Stewart, Washington Stockwell, Ebenezer D. Vincent, 
James Ward, William Wheeler, Henry Wheeler and Richmond Wymond. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates of Company G are as follow : 
First sergeant, Isaac D. Jones; sergeants, John Griffith, George Meyer and 
James M. Brashear ; corporals, Solomon H. Hayes, Charles Bryant, John Lo^v 
and John H. Wemke ; musicians, George T. Harbold and Isaac Bolander ; pri- 
vates, Joseph Ahart, Simeon Alfred, Frederick Amann, Michael Amos, Joseph 
Ashcraft, William Beggs, James Biddinger, Richard Bryant. Charles B. 
Burkam, James Callahan, James M. Christie, Charles G. Davis, Charles Degan, 
William H. Durant, Peter Emmert, Stephen Exceen, Frank Farrar, Edward 
Fasnacht, Charles Fasnacht, Lewis Hasbagh. Omar T. Hayes, Charles Han- 
nessy, Christopher Hennings, Charles Hennings, Jack A. Hudson. Conrad 
Herzog, Edmond H. Kelso, John G. Kohlermann, Robert M. Kauffman. Dan- 

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iel Leroy, Louis Ix>mmel, Simeon D. Lowe, Henry F. Mason, Nicholas Miller, 
Thomas McBride, James H. McBride, Robert McBride, Myron McMullen, 
James McMullen, Charles Neff, Thomas Posey> Middleton Purnell, John Re- 
gairet, Michael Risner, John M. Robinson, William Ross, Frederick Schultz, 
Charles A. Simonton, John P. Smith, Peter C. Smith, George W. Smith, Will- 
iam Smith, Anthony W. Snyder, Benjamin Southard, Frank Shornhauser, 
John Stancombe, Thomas Sykes, Sebastian Tittel, Edward H. Taylor, John 
Vogel, Henry Williams, Charles Worth, Paul Weber and Mathews Weibel. 


At the first call for three-year men Dearborn county furnished two com- 
panies for the Seventh Regiment, the commissioned officers being as follow : 
Company A — David Lostutter, Jr., served as adjutant for a time and Benja- 
min F. Burlingame as quartermaster. The officers of Company A were, 
John H. Ferry, captain; Alexander B. Pattison, first lieutenant and Benjamin 
F. Burlingame, second lieutenant. Company K — Jesse Armstrong, captain ; 
Homer Chisman, first lieutenant, and James F. Vaughn, second lieutenant. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates of the two companies were 
as follow : Company A — George C. Watson, first sergeant ; sergeants. James 
C. Stuart, William Wheeler, Albert Kerr and Richard H. Foulk; corporal.*, 
Palmer Chisman. Thomas Hess, James Wheeler,. Austin Robertson, Ernest 
Xoebel, Henry Fisk, Harry Fisk and James Abbott ; musicians, William H. 
Nelson and John Miller: wagoner. Daniel H. McMullen; privates, John An- 
derson. Clarence Ball. Mitchell Bernard, Joshua Blackburn. Richard Block, 
James Brewington. Ellis Brown. William Buffington. William Burke. George 
W. Canfield. Robert Chancem. John Christy, William Clark, Joshua Clements. 
George Columbia. Samuel Cole. Jacob B. Coutant. John A. Ceigher, John 
Cure. George Curtis. Samuel Davis. James Davis, Lewis B. Day, William 
Edwards. Marion Elwell. Samuel Gillison. Ezra Gillingham, Henry Glismar. 
Warren Goodrich. Cyrus C. Guysinger, Thomas Holcomb. James Hundley. 
Asa B. Hubbartt. James Hubbartt, John X. Hubbard. George H. Husher- 
man, William Tuman, Alfred James, John Ketcham, Sylvester Knapp. James 
Loundsberry, Charles Liebhart, William Luke, Martin Matting. William 
Marsh. Henry E. Miller. Levi Miller. Patrick Murphy, Clinton McAdams. 
Michael McGee, Fernando C. Nichols, Henry Pieper. Henry Pottebaum. Will- 
iam Ramsey. Lemuel Record. James Richardson. Oron Richardson. John 
Richards. Christian Schlereth. Mahlon Shaw. John Skelton, Henry J. Smith. 

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Andrew H. Smith, James Stansfield, Gillette Stevenson, Enos Suits, Austin 
Sweet, Joseph Thompson, William Vincent, John Walker, Michael Whalen, 
John White, William White, John Whiteaker, Jesse Whiteaker, William 
Windsor, Benjamin Windsor, James B. . Wills, Jehiel Williams and Oliver 
Worley; recruits, William Armstrong, William Baker, Alzimo Buck, William 
Chamberlain, Charles Cole, Bonaparte Ewan, John D. Holcombe, John Little, 
Harvey Piatt, Jesse Stage and Henry Wheeler. 

Company K — First sergeant, Peter Galen ; sergeants, Seth S. Simonson, 
James Chapman, Thomas Williams and Paul Truitt; corporals, George W. 
Lambertson, Volney McLeaster, Philip E. Crooker, James M. Boyd, Andrew 
J. Connelly, Daniel Allen, George W. Harding and James Murray ; musicians. 
Henry Pruitt and Minich Ahart ; wagoner, James Skelton ; privates, William 
G. Abbott. Joseph Ahart. Hugh Alexander, Chris Y. C. Alden, Francis M. 
Brown, Jacob Bump, Henry Bull, William O. Butler. W illiam W. Campbell. 
James Coleman, Isaac Crontz, John Crozier. Levi Culver, Jonathan Curtis. 
William B. DeHart, Henry Dennis, Alonzo Dixon, Asa C. Emerson, William 
W. Fitzgerald, Frank Funerheide, George W. Furgason, Thomas Godfrey, 
Isaac L. Goble, Thomas Grogan, Michael Gleason, John H. Groff. Philip B. 
Grubbs, James Hamilton. Jesse Harper, Theodore Halberstadt, Martin Hines, 
William Howard. John F. Iscntrager, John M. James, John Westfall Johnson, 
Charles Jones, Mack Joseph, Abraham Junker. Andrew Kunkel, James Lam- 
bertson, David Lawrence. Merit I.eming. Benjamin Marshall. George Mar- 
quett, William Merrill, Fletcher Meredith. John C. Miller, Nicholas Minich, Jo- 
seph Mitchell, John Myers, James McBride, Robert McBride, Charles A. Mc- 
Cright, Peter J. Newman, George W. Nevitt. Frank R. New, Jacob Orn, Aaron 
Osborn, Albert Parsons, Thomas Peak, Sidney Pile, John W. Pine, John 
Roark, William Ripking, James Robinson, John Roberts, James Ross, John 
Russell. Frederick Schultz, Giristian Slonegar, James M. Smith, John Smith, 
George Smith, William Snyder, Leonidas Sowders. Robert Stack, William 
Standriff, John Tracy, John H. Weaver, Patrick Welsh and William Williams; 
recruits, Jonathan P. Alden. John Chapman. Joseph Felix. John Gladwish, Ve- 
chel Hobbs, Peter Miller, Peter Parsons. David Rapp. Orland Stuart. Lewis 
Stone, Edward Taylor. Jacob Weber. Elliott Wainscott. John Brown. Harry 
Roberts. Charles A. Shepard and John Sturdeman. 

The Seventh Regiment served in the Army of the Potomac during llw 
whole period of its service. Tt was in every campaign that that army under- 
took, and suffered heavy losses, both from disease and battle. Company K. 
from this county, lost eight men killed outright in battle: seven wounded: 
four died from disease, and sixteen were discharged for disability. 

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Company A lost nine killed in battle ; had sixteen wounded, and twenty 
were discharged for disability, the company mustering out forty-six men at the 
end of the service. Company K mustered out forty-eight men at the* end 
of the service. 


The Sixteenth Indiana Regiment was mustered in for one year, April. 23, 
186 1. It was made up from the overflow of men offered for the three-months 
service, along with five other regiments for a similar term of service, the 
Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth and Seventeenth. In the one-year 
service Thomas J. Lucas was commissioned the regiments' lieutenant-colonel, 
and Edward Jones, of Aurora, its chaplain. Two of its companies were re- 
cruited in Dearborn county, Company G and Company L The officers of 
Company G were. Albert G. Dennis, captain; William J. Fitch, first lieu- 
tenant, and Philip Dexheimer, second lieutenant. Companv I had the follow- 
ing officers: John A. Platter, captain; William Copeland, first lieutenant, 
and Israel Phalin, second lieutenant. 

Non-commissioned officers and privates of the two companies were as 
follow : Company G — First sergeant, Peter F. Glardon ; sergeants, John Lem- 
uel, George W. Robinson, Henry H. Robertson and Thomas Clinton; cor- 
porals, Lewis B. Rounds, Henry J. March, John T. Pruett and Henry Geisert ; 
Musician, Samuel Plummer ; privates, Amos G. Barrett, Thomas E. Blaisdel, 
Nicholas Brownagel, Virgil D. Bridges, Hiram Crist, John B. Erwin, Petor 
Fisher, Alfred Fisher, Charles Fisher, John Fitzpatrick, Peter Froyn, Habom 
Garrison. James N. Gregory; John Haas, John Hingstler. Jacob Howser, 
Lawrence Krieg, William Knapp, William Kress, Joseph Lansing, John Metz- 
ler, Rudolph Meyer, George Miller, John Miller, Thomas Murray, Patrick 
McCullough, John McGraw, John Oldenback, Jacob Orth, Jacob Obert, Peter 
B. Parsons, Robert Patterson, Henry Peppenhouse, Moses Preston, Joseph 
Posey. Michael Roth, Hczekiah K. Rounds. Henry Rosenbush, Solomon Scott. 
John Skelton, Joseph Sell, John Sullivan, George Sullivan, William Samitz, 
Charles Wells, Adam Whipple, Franklin Wright and Steward Wilson; re- 
cruits. John Burkhart. Enoch Blaisdel, James Bridges. Daniel Castorm. John 
Curtin, Jenkins Davis, Martin Doughty, William Hayman, George W. Hollis, 
Joseph Lemuel. Jesse Lee. John T. May. John A. Merrill. Benjamin Morgan 
Hiram McCarty. Benjamin McCoy. Thomas Robinson, William Robinson. 
John Roclgers and Amos Robinson. 

Companv I had non-commissioned officers and enlisted men as follow: 

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First Sergeant, Edward H. Green ; sergeants, Curtis K. Ernrie, James Steven- 
son, Charles C. McCreary and Allen W. Lewis; corporals, William R. Mil- 
burn, Robert J. Bennett, John H. Thompson, Zarah Teany, Daniel Holbrook, 
James M. Davis, Edwin T. Gipson and Benjamin F. Richards; musicians, 
James H. Bailey and Joseph L. Stilwell ; privates, Francis M. Abbott, Enoch 
Abbott, William H. Barker, Byron Brier, William H. Bamett, Joseph W. Brit- 
ton, Mathew Burris, Franklin Burris, Asaph Buck, Algemore Buck, Manard 
Bell, Henry J. Boatman, Charles M. Bailey, William H. Connell, Wilford A. 
Connell, Joshua Conn, James H. Childers, William Chamberlain, David Cris- 
well, George W. Cain, Jacob Dcffner, George H. Davis, Michael Dunfrey, 
William B. Daniel, John H. Durbin, Christian HaUer, George W. Harvey, 
Henderson Huffman, William H. H. Isgrigg, Allison Johnson, George Les- 
lie, Mollika Loftus, William Loftus, William H. Masury, Reuben L. McCon- 
nell, Manius McDermott, Joseph T. Plummer, John Quinn, Elliott W. Rozell, 
Lemuel Smith, James R. Smith, Michael Skaal, Joseph Supernaut, Jesse Stage, 
James Stokes, Abram Seay, William H. Taylor, Albert E. Trester, Andrew J. 
Thornton, Patrick Tool, Varnal D. Trulock, Isaac M. Thompson, Edwin 
Woodward, David White, John Ward, Robert Walsh, Edmond Yocum; re- 
cruits, Blythe W. Buffington, William Commons, William H. Conn, William 
V. Enos, Henry C. Hutchinson, William B. Huffman, John Q. Kelso, Peter F. 
Norris, Thomas D. Powell. Calvin D. Stodghill, Charles W. Ward and John 


The Sixteenth, in the one-year service, served with the Army of the 
Potomac and took part in only one engagement, that of Ball's Bluff. Virginia, 
where it was involved in a slight skirmish. After its return home and mus- 
ter out, the regiment was reorganized and recruited for three years. Thomas 
J. Lucas was appointed colorel by Governor Morton ; Benjamin F. Gatch, of 
Dillsboro, chaplain, and James D. Gatch. of Dillsboro, assistant surgeon. The 
regiment had one company from Dearborn county, which was designated as 
Company E. When the company was filled William H. Terrell, of Man- 
chester, was made its captain : James Stevenson, of Aurora, first lieutenant, 
and William H. Jordan, of Manchester, second lieutenant. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates were: First sergeant, 
Charles B. Miller : sergeants. John Simms. Lewis Van Wedding. William H. 
Barker and John H. Whitetord : corporals. William W. Jennings. Theodora 
Cross. John Anderson and Robert C. Williams: musicians, Oliver D. Piatt and 

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Thomas F. Duncan; privates, George Anna, John Bolley, David H. Bishop. 
David Barrows. Levi Brown, Charles \Y. Bennett, William Britz, Robert 
Beggs, Alexander Campbell, Patrick Carty, Henry Cortez, John Courtney. 
John Cunningham, George Defenbaugh, Frederick Dixon, Frederick Daymon. 
John Eikler, James Erkskine. William Felick, Thomas Fisher, Christian Gab- 
ler, Joseph H. Graham. George Gutzwiller, Jonathan H. Hutchins. Joseph 
Huber, Samuel Kittle, Edmund A. Kastner. William H. Lowes, Jacob La- 
ment, William Lows, Francis M. Long, Andrew J. Larrison, Oliver Larrisor.. 
Philip Lantz, Claiborne H. Morris, Mahlon H. Morton. William Morton, 
Henry Morton. Lorenzo Manlief, Robert Manlief. John W. Manlief, Samuel 
McMullen, Robert McMullen. Daniel H. McMullen, Luther Mason. Frank 
Moll, George W. Mendell, Peter Mudica, John G. Miller, Henry Mintzman, 
Valentine Xead, John Oatman. Purdy Piatt, Lewis M. Piatt, Henry Palmer. 
James A. Parsons. Robert E. Russell, Joseph Russell, Jeptha K. Ruble, Will- 
iam W. Runyan. George XV. Roesch, William Shafer, George W. Sawdon. 
Henry Sillett, Thomas Shanks, John F. Todd, William Tibby, Reuben H. Ter- 
rell, Joseph Weaver, John Weaver. Jeremiah Weller, Philip Weller, George 
W. B. Wertz, Joseph H. Wise. Talma Wilcox, Americus Walser, Perry Wit- 
son and Frederick M. Zeh ; recruits, John Barrows, Edward Byron, Charles 
Bohlans. John M. Clark, Robert M. Clark, William Cline, Daniel Callahan. 
Maston Dashiel, William Eikler, Johnson J. Fiddick, Daniel B. Guernsey, Ed- 
ward Holmes, Thomas J. Huffman, John Healus, Harmon Hilshir, Joseph 
Hilshir, Thomas Healy. George Morris, John Mills, Elymas S. Prall, Jam<.*s 
M. Ruble, James R. Sousley, Omar T. Tibbetts, William Wilson, Thomas E. 
Wallace and Joseph T. Waters. Besides these men there were twenty-three 
unassigned recruits from Dearborn county who were sent to the regiment, but 
were soon musteredy out before being assigned to any company. 

The Sixteenth Indiana, after being recruited for three years, saw much 
service. It took part in the battle of Richmond, Kentucky, in less than a 
month after it was mustered, losing nearly two hundred men killed and 
wounded. The companv from Dearborn county was recruited mostly from 
Manchester and Dillsboro and it lost, by being killed in battle, six men. It had 
nine wounded and twenty-one who died on account of wounds or disease. 


The Eighteenth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was one of the 
first to organize under President Lincoln's three-year call in 1861. Its colonel 


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was Thomas Pattison, of Aurora, and Henry D. Washburn, of Newport. In- 
diana, was its first lieutenant-colonel, but Jesse L. Holman was afterwards 
promoted to that position. Andrew P. Daughters, of Moores.Hill. was its 
surgeon at one time, and Peter M. Bigney, assistant surgeon. 

The company from Dearborn county was raised about Aurora and Moores 
Hill, and the officers, when mustered into the service, were: James L. Hol- 
man. captain; Andrew P. Daughters, first lieutenant, and Robert G. Cun- 
ningham, second lieutenant. The non-commissioned officers and privates 
were: Judson B. Tyler, first sergeant: Sanford G. Given. Robert R. Patti- 
son. George W. Brown and George B. Bruce, sergeants: George Bailey, Al- 
fred C. Brumblay. Benjamin Draper and Michael Tearney, corporals ; James 
Huffman and David H. Frazier, musicians, and Jacob Bedenger. wagoner. 
The privates were: Edward Abbott, David C. Alfred, Thomas J. Bailey, 
Omer T. Bailey, James Barkley, John Bailey, Hugh Barkley, Lawren F. Bai- 
ley, W illiam M. Berry. Andrew Beinkamp, Freeman J. Bell, Ephraim J. Brun- 
son, James Burns. Andrew J. Burlingame. George Brownaclc, James Byard. 
Sandford Carbaugh, George Carbaugh, Laban H. Cox, Thomas Cunning- 
ham, David Daniels, Henry J. Daughters. William DeSaune, George Degant. 
William DaTby, James Dewitt. John Davis. Joseph Emberger, Philip Frank, 
Jacob Garth, Martin Garrity, Thomas Garrity, Thomas Gavin, Thomas C. 
Gillis, Ephraim Gooderson, John Graves, Albert Harding, David Harding. 
John M. Haught, John F. Hankins. Henry Hephentine, Oscar Henry, John 
Henderson, James B. Hunt, Aaron Hunter, Joseph Hill, Charles Keiser, Will- 
iam Kelley, Andrew Kemph, Samuel Knapp, John N. Lee, William Little. 
Adam C. Loder, Thomas J. Lowe, Daniel Maple, Nicholas Miller. Martin 
Mitchell, James Moore. Otho W. Moore, Robert W. Pendergrast, Robert 
Ramsey, Jackson A. Reed. Benjamin Roberts, James T. Robinson. James 
Schofield, John Sell, Harrison Smith, Norval G. Sparks, Frank Staker. Will- 
iam Stanton, Van Buren Straight, John C. Swift, Jesse L. Summers, James 
Thompson, William W. Thornton, Michael Trapp. Levi Wainscott, John R. 
Walser, James Wirts. Judson Williams, Lewis Winkley and George T. 
Wright; recruits, Elias Bridgewater, Benjamin Cobb, William Farley, 
Adolphus Mark, George Patterson, William Richards. Leonard Rigsby, Noah 
Tryon, William White and John P. W r orley. 

The Eighteenth Regiment was sent to Missouri as soon as mustered in 
and saw service west of the Mississippi and at Vicksburg and on Red river. In 
the autumn of 1864 it was transferred to the Shenandoah valley, where it took 
part in Sheridan's campaigns up that valley. Company A, which was fur- 

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nished by Dearborn county, lost five men by battle and seven mustered out 
for disability. 


The Twenty-sixth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was recruited 
in August, 1861, and Dearborn county furnished one of its regimental offi- 
cers, in the person of Samuel R. Adams, president of Moores Hill College, as 
its chaplain, who gave up his life for his country, dying on December i«). 
1862, in the service. Company K was recruited mostly about Manchester and 
Aurora. Alden H. Jumper, of Manchester, was its captain when it was mus- 
tered into the service: Abram Hill its first lieutenant, and Nathan \V. Man- 
ning its second lieutenant. The non-commissioned officers and privates were: 
Thomas L. Hayman, first sergeant; Warren W. Morris, James Rodder.. 
Thomas Whiteford and Thomas Elwell, sergeants; William H. Colsher, Rob- 
ert Buchanan, Wilson H. Thompson and Attila L. Harding, corporals. The 
privates were : Peter Southard, Elisha Frazier, Charles B. McCoy, Hugh B. 
McMullen, promoted to corporals ; Sylvanus A. Palmer and Edward B. Tib- 
betts, musicians; Oliver McCoy, wagoner: Charles S. Allemong, William II. 
Allen, Charles Allen, Mathias Buckle, Silas Barton, William H. Barton, 
Charles Bennett, Benjamin Bennett, Warren Bennett, James Burke, Joseph 
Baxter, William Beggs, Henry Chaisell, Seth Conner. Benjamin C. Colsher, 
Jacob W. Crosby, George W. Crawford, Charles E. Carr, Lewis Disbro. John 
W. Durkee, Peter Downey, Christopher Eighthart. William Engleking, Joseph 
Frazier, Jacob Firestone, John W. Givan, Charles Granger, John Grubbs. 
William Hicks, Christian J. Horeman, William J. Harding. David Harding. 
Thomas B. House, Jacob Hendrickson, Christian Holdendick, John W. Ham- 
lin, Philip Hirsch, Conrad Hoosock, Jacob Ham, George W. Johnson, James 
W. Johnson, John Kyle, William J. Kennet, William Lange, Alexander Man- 
lief, George W. McMullen, John W. McMullen, John S. McMullen, Ignotz 
Mosar, Owen McDonald, John A. Maxwell; Christopher Need, Lewis Noyes, 
Charles D. Noyes, Charles Neimeier, Jacob Palmer, William Piatt. William 
Posey, Joseph Posey, John W. Ross, Isaac Robbins, William Riggs, Chris- 
topher C. Ruble, John Rowin, Thomas Strong, Gilbert Smith, William Senior, 
Washington Sowers, George Spicknall, Levi Stevens, David Sloan. John 
Thompson, William H. Tulley, Richard Tenney, Valentine Volz, John Vogel, 
Anthony Walters, Charles Whitsel, George Wood, George Wayner, John 
Whiteford and Mathew Whiteford ; recruits. William B. Anderson, William 
D. Alexander, Amos Anderson, Robert Bennett, William Bannister, William 

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3 o8 


Burk, George M. Brooks, Edwin J. Qark, Erastus Ewing, John R. Edwards, 
Perry Elzy, Van Buren Ferris, Andrew J. Fleming, Hugh G. Glancy, Alonzo 
Graham, John Greek, Thomas Golding, Samuel Hupp, Joel Hunter, Thomas 
T. Hearse, William Hill, John W. Hughes, Christopher John, Leonard John- 
son, Daniel A. Johnson, Benjamin S. Jumper, Jonas Kline, Peter Lacey, 
Daniel Leroy, Israel N. Morris, Daniel McPherson, Amos G. Morris, Will- 
iam Moody, Samuel S. Mitchell, Louis Nail, Thomas J. Oldham, Van Buren 
Phares, William Rolph, John Russ; Dayton Shannon, John Schubert, Rufus 
N. Stilwelt, Benjamin Sutton, John Stemler, John L. Stough. William 
Tommy, Richard E. Turner, Samuel Vesser, Henry White, James H. Walker, 
Francis M. Whittaker, Michael Wertsbarger and Casper Zulley. 

Company K lost eight men killed in battle or died from their wounds; 
lost by disease, twenty-three, and there were discharged for disability and 
wounds, fifteen. The regiment saw much service on the western frontier in 
Missouri and Arkansas. Several lost their lives in prison at Tyler, Texas. Of 
the one hundred and fifty-three or more officers and men who went out in 
1861 there were only thirty-eight mustered out on January 15, 1866. The 
regiment was mustered into the service on August 30, 1861, and those who 
veteranized were mustered out on January 15, 1866, serving longer, perhaps, 
than any other regiment in the service. 


The Thirty-second Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, recruited in 
September, 1861, was called a German regiment on account of the fact that the 
officers and most of the privates were of German descent. Dearborn county 
furnished most of two companies for the regiment. Company C had for its 
captain, John L. Geigoldt, of Aurora ; Max Sachs, first lieutenant, and Henry 
Bellman, second lieutenant. Company D had John Schwartz, of I-awrence- 
burg, for captain ; Frank Knorr, first lieutenant, and Emanuel Eller. second 

The non-commissioned officers and men of Company C were as follow. 
First sergeant, Charles Schulz ; sergeants. Simon Peter, Frederick Gillett, Au- 
gust Schulz and George Hause ; corporals, Henry Eisenbeis, Adam Mathias, 
Gustav Hochstetter and Charles Kretschmar; musicians, John Wenzel and 
Theodore Wittich; wagoner. Ernest Stelzner; privates. Gottlieb Weigle. 
Charles Miller. Ernest Goedike, F. R. Caden. John Adam, George Anderson, 
Moritz Anderson. August Bloom, Herman Braun, John Bleistein, Casper Bis- 

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choff, Louis Bietsch, Peter Buttner, Michael Boehin. August Defloe, Louis 
Ellerbruch, John Frey, John M. Fisher, Adam Fellenzer, Polycarp Guther- 
muth, Martin Goldschmidt, Joseph Grogg, Anton Grabhorn, Louis Gresholz, 
Henry Holtegel, Adam Heller, Frederick Habedank, Christian Kastner, Will- 
iam Kuepferle, Charles Knab, Henry Kunzil, Henry Kuhn, George Knoll. 
Frederick Koch, Louis Leonhardt, Henry Lohse, Gerhard Martin, Herman 
Milgers, Michael Miller, Henry Meyer, Henry Niebrugge, Charles P. Oben- 
dorf, Peter Oeth, Christian Petscher, Frederick Pepper, John Richter, Theo- 
dore Seldan, John Schroedoer, August Spaeth, Charles Staerker, Christian 
Scherger, Lorenz Scherger, Frederick Schumacher, Henry Schmiedel. Peter 
Schwamp, John Schwamber. Henry Schoppmeyer, Pius Schall, Louis Schut- 
tendube, George Schmit, Frederick Siemer, Anton Schoenig, August Thomas, 
Louis Trebna, Charles Thum, John Unger, Henry Wunderlich, William 
Weber, Charles Walter, August Walters, Philip Wenzel, Richard Wehe and 
John Zink : recruits, Christian Aehle, William Ackerman, John Beer, August 
Baumeir. Charles Bulkhardt. Charles Brauchle, Herman Cohn. John Cripz. 
August Duttenhausen, William Degg, Charles Draeger. Henry Debbe, George 
David. Lonhardt Elsfelder. Mathias Enler. Jacob Erhard. David Fischer. John 
Fiehe, John Giebel. John Goray, Henry Grove, Joseph Gruber, John Gerlach, 
Giarles Haak, Charles Hahn. Frederick Hettenbach. Henry Hausfeld. William 
Krieger. Frederick Kepler. Christian Lippert. John N. Long, John Miller. 
Royal Martin. Gustave D. Rinke. John Reuss. Samuel Spring. William 
Schmidt. Simon Schneider. Bernhardt Schmidt. Christian Sanders. John 
Stamper. Herman Saenger. John Schmier. Louis Vierling and Albert Wipp. 

Company D had for its non-commissioned officers and privates : Henry J. 
Seifert, first sergeant; Valentine Koehler, Sebastian Tittel. John Becker and 
Nicholas Mueller, sergeants: Erhard Seidel. John H. Warnke. Charles Fas- 
nacht. Martin Steinhilber. George Deuschle. Louis Jung. Mathias Fritsch and 
Henry Stahl. corporals ; Edward Fasnacht and Peter Zwickel. musicians : An- 
dreas Barthoolomoe. wagoner: privates. Adam Bauer. Adam Bauereiss, Jo- 
seph Betzer. Balthazar Binder. Michael Buetter. Charles Bulk, Charles Degen. 
Frederick Dorn. William Elker. John Elmer. John Faber. Christian H Feus.-. 
Henry Fischer. Jacob Foschag. Joseph Gardner. Frederick Goebler. William 
Goebler. Jacob Gnjh. Joseph Gutzwiller. Frederick Harung. Peter Henks. 
Christian Hennings. John F. Hotz. Joseph Huber. W illiam Huber. John L 
Huber, William Huelpuesch. Otto Hunt. Dominic Ingenthron. Jacob Ingen- 
thron, Frederick Tung. Frederick Just. Michael Kautz. John C. Keitel. Martin 
Kirsch. John Knoebel. William Koop. Charles Krell. Frank I.ang. Allien 

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Maus, George Meister, George Opp, Adam Petscher, John Pining, John G. 
Probst, John Renner, Joseph Resch, William Rettemeier, Charles Reidel, Cas- 
per Reidel, John Riegelroth, Michael Roeffner, Conrad Sanders, Henry- Sand- 
rock, Michael Schaeffer, Adam Schmidt, George Schmidt, John A. Schmist, 
William Schneider, Frank Schoenhauser, John C. Schrey, Michael Schech. 
Gustav Schwarz welder, Constantine Schwcizer, August Stemmler, Michael 
Stemmler, John H. Steuer, William Stigelmeier, George Sturm. Michael 
Sturm, Henry H. Toerner, Christian L ntcnuiner. George Vesenmeier Martin 
Vogel. Christian Weber, Adam Weiss, John Wemp, Abraham Weinacht, Gus- 
tav Wehrling, John A. Willers. Philip Wuest and Herman Ziegelmeier; re- 
cruits, Charles Buehler, John Berendes, William Conrad, Jacob Hildebrand, 
John Hengstler, Jacob Hauer, Joseph Heiser, Edward Hecker. William Hofs- 
wehlie, William Joergensmcier, Valentine Kirsch, John C. Kuhn, Louts L. 
Lain, Charles Laush, Tacob Lay, Philip Meader, \\ ilhelm Pierre, William 
Rose, Frederick Rinnicker, August Schaeffer, Fleming Smith. William Shie:i- 
meyer, James Wilson, Rudolph Weitzel, Jacob Zushann and Peter Zwickel. 

The Thirty-second Indiana served in the Army of the Cumberland, tak- 
ing part in the battles of Pittsburg Landing, Perryville, Stone's River. Chick - 
amauga, Missionary Ridge and the Atlanta campaign. Company C lost thir- 
teen men killed in battle ; five died from disease and fourteen were discharged, 
during their term of service, for disability. Company D lost seventeen men, 
either killed in battle or died from wounds received in battle shortly after- 
ward. It had twelve men discharged for disabilities incurred in the service. 


The Thirty-fifth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was called the 
Irish regiment. Several of i lie companies in the regiment were made up ««f 
men of Irish birth, but the one recruited in Dearborn county, Company 1". \v;«s 
not dominantly Irish. 

Company F. of the Thirty-fifth Regiment, was officered as follow: Cap- 
tain. Jonathan H. Green: first lieutenant. Abram F. Farrar; second lieutenant, 
James M. Brashear. The company was for the larger part raised in Law- 
renceburg and out along the Manchester pike. Besides the one company. 
George H. Dunn was first lieutenant of Company H ; George Bennett, second 
lieutenant of the same company, and Albert Tower was, later in the service, 
captain of Company K. The non-commissioned officers and privates of Com- 
pany F were as follow: First sergeant. John M. Palmer: sergeants. John C. 

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Hibbetts. Edwin Bowlin, John Bartholomew and James Keys; corporals, 
James Parker, Andrew J. Briddle, Edward J. McChester, Abram W. Watson, 
Santford Burton, George W. Barkdol, Marion L. Howerton and Nathaniel 
Wood ; musicians, Thomas J. Palmer and Benjamin Holden ; privates, Jacob 
Bonewitz, John Aukerman, George W. Bolin, John Brown, Stephen Bolin, 
John Bonewitz, George Bennett, William Blood, John Collier, Hugh Choat, 
Alvin Choat, Rolans S. Carpenter, David H. Clark, William Carbaugh, Regan 
W. DeHart, William M. Emerson, Gotthert Evenberger, Augustus D. Fair- 
banks, John T. Flora, John Farlow, Thomas Freeman, Franklin Freeman, 
John Goldsmith, John T. Hubert, Thomas B. Hamson, Aaron B. Henry, Ed- 
ward D. Hulbert, Edward T. Hulbert, Jacob Haines, James B. Hibbetts. Mar- 
tin Hill, Montgomery Kastetter, Aaron Kroft, Ebenezer Knox, Michael King, 
William B. Laird, John W. Low, L. David Morgan, Andrew J. Morgan, 
James W. Mefford, Benjamin McCutcheon, Thomas Morton, Samuel Mounts, 
William Martin, William Mock, Joseph P. Noftzger, Jacob Xagle, James 
Phinney. Samson Parker, Harley Parker, James P. Parsons. Henry P. Par- 
sons, Harvey Richardson, William Smith, William Stoneking, George W. 
Shilt, John J. Sperlit, Aaron Schaeffer, Thomas B. Tanner. Albert Tower and 
John Wagner. Recruits were sent to the company as follow : Henry App- 
man, Martin Addlemam, Charles W. Bennett, George Brown, August Burg- 
turf, Henry Bloom, Isaac Bennett, Greenville Boston, Clark Boyer, Henry 
Busche, Hermann Bulker, Robert Crozier, John Collier, George Collier, Mei- 
ritt Dorsey, Lafayette Doe, John F. Dittman, James T. Esbery, Samuel M. 
Faugt, Francis French. Isaiah Fuell, George Gaff, Vinson Gaff, John Gwilt, 
George Harwood, Thomas Hornbeck, James Honaker, Joseph Hill, Peter Hill, 
Andrew Jackson, Amos Judd, Walter Knibbs, Abram X. Kneedy, George W. 
Knasal, Thomas McDowell. Samuel Maharan. Peter Marshnow, Francis M. 
Maple, James Xewhouse. William Parks, Rucker Perry, John Perrin, Jacob 
Runstead, John Reynolds (1), William Russell, John Reynolds (2), John 
Reabe, Joseph Spires, William Sprout, Amos Sutton, Thomas Spaulding. Har- 
vey Stagg. William Stoneking. Daniel Trowl, William Vassar, James L. 
Waller. Henry Wilson and James Younker. 

The company lost seven men killed in battle; five died of wounds and 
disease, and twenty-four discharged for wounds and other causes. 


The Thirty-seventh Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was organized 
in the fall of 1861. and was mustered into the service for three years. Dear- 
born county furnished several of its field officers and the regiment, while be- 

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ing drilled, rendezvoused at Lawrenceburg. When it was mustered in, in 
1 86 1, Carter Gazlay was made its lieutenant-colonel; James S. Hull its major, 
and John H. I-ozier its chaplain, all of whom were Dearborn county men. 
One company from Dearborn county was raised mostly in the vicinity of 
Dillsboro, although parts of several other companies were recruited in the 
county. Company F had for its officers, Wesley G. Markland. captain ; John 

B. Hodges, first lieutenant, and Joseph P. Stoops, second lieutenant. Robert 

C. Pate, of Lawrenceburg, was, during the service, captain of Company C; 
John S. Henry, first lieutenant, and James M. Hodshire, second lieutenant. 
The non-commissioned officers and privates of Company F were as follow: 
First sergeant, William Speer; sergeants, William I. Hoover, Joseph I. Barn- 
hart, James L. Passel and Eleazer Cole ; corporals, William H. Wallace, John 
F. Spencer, Josiah Richardson, George S. Hoover, William Hundley, James 
Gray, William Ayers and John Pearson ; musicians, Adam Meyer and Ezekiel 
Shott; wagoner, Aaron Shutts; privates, Jacob Ard, Thomas Acre, John P. 
Busby, Isaac Beall, Foster Beck, James L. Burroughs, George Burroughs, John 
T. Bruce. John Beall, James M. Carnine, Henry Craven, James Daniel, Rob- 
ert Danford, William H. Gordon, William Green, Heartly Gankroger, Will- 
iam Gloyd, John F. Goddart, George Headley, Mathias Hess, David H. Hair, 
Samuel Herendon. Samuel W. Hess, John P. Hcaton, Thomas A. Jennings 
Robert T. Knowles, John J. Kirk, George Kinkead, Henry Kolkmire, John H. 
Kile, George Lenover, John T. Lemon, Benjamin Lenover, Elias Lazure, Will- 
iam F. Leiker, George S. Mitchell, Squire T. Moreford, John Martin, Jacob 
S. Morgan, Solon Martin, Alfred G. Munson, Philip McDonald, Edward 
Newberry, John Parker, John Palmer, James Palmer, Stephen W. Palmer. 
Thomas Proctor, Leroy Roberts, William Rowland, George Ruble, Samuel 
Roberts, Augustus E. Spencer, John G. Smith, James H. Shutts, Abram 
Shutts, George W. Sanks, William H. Sprong, Daniel Sanks. John M. 
Sweazy, Samuel C. Smith, Charles B. Smith, John M. Shepherd, John Staf- 
ford. Charles Stewart, William H. Shipman, William J. Shull. John Teake, 
George Tate, Thomas Thomas, Joseph C. Vandolah, Willis Vidito, Joseph 
Vandolah, John O. A. Withrow, Tohn Wilson, William T. Wilson, Marcus 

D. Warner, William White, Henry F. Winter and Henry M. Weitzel; re- 
cruits, Charles W. Bnimblay. John G. Godert, William K. Maritz and Johnson 

Company I was also recruited in Dearborn county, with William N. 
Doughty, captain ; John Breakey, first lieutenant : James H. Connelly, second 
lieutenant. Its non-commissioned officers and men were as follow: First 

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sergeant, George W. Meyers ; sergeants, Jeremiah M. Bodine, Robert B. Huff, 
William A. Bodine and Isaac M. Dunn ; corporals, Jacob Meyer, Joseph Back- 
ert, Robert K. Purnell, Theodore W. Ong, Eli Cox, John J. Owen, James B. 
Jones and Thomas J. White: musicians, John D. Pierce and Michael J. 
Chrisopher; wagoner, Harry James; privates, William Abercrombie, Fred- 
erick Aman, Joshua Alfred, James A. Bodine, John Burlbaw, John H. Burch- 
ard, Robert W. Brashear, Ezekiel J. Childers, James H. Cross, Henry H. 
Cuppy, Oliver Carpenter, Thomas J. Cox (1), John Camron, Thomas J. 
Cox (2), William A. Cox. Alfred De Armond, Isaac Dove, Samuel H. Dunn. 
Mansion Davis, Charles H. Gibson, Andrew A. Goss, John Gordon, John Hen- 
nessy, Daniel L. Hough, Levi Harrison, Charles F. Johnson, Jacob Johnson, 
Reuben Jones, John Kennedy, Barnard Kelly, Peter Longely, Littleton Lof- 
land, Frederick Larman, Francis M. McClelland, Michael McKinney, Eleazer 
Martin, Levi Morris, Sterling A. Martin, Ephraim "B. Maple, Drewrey A 
Massey, N. Jerome McWethy, George H. Mitchell, Derastus W. Nelson, 
Thomas J. North, Joseph Nulker, William Payne, John Powell, Tyre Rees. 
William H. Straight, John G. Stoll, Daniel O. Stowbrig, Joshua Shaw, Will- 
iam H. Shively, John Spears, Daniel Sails, Joseph Shoure, John Snyder, John 
W. Smith, Eppenetus Smith, Marcus Thorp, William Tucker, William Tra- 
vilian, John Taylor, Samuel H. Turk, Abram T. Widener, Leonard Widener. 
John Williamson and Lewis Whitcomb; recruits, John Bohlander, Evans 
Critchlow, Charles L. Dalrymple, Lewis Hornung, Andrew Hornung, John 
Kinney, Thomas Linville, John Long, Henry Maynard, James H. Mulkins. 
Daniel M. Bedloe, James Somerville, Eli F. Uppinghouse and John B. Up- 

The Thirty-seventh saw service with the Army of the Cumberland 
throughout its entire term. It was called to Kentucky soon after it was or- 
ganized, and took part in the second-day fight at Pittsburg Landing. It also 
was at Stone's River, at Chickamauga and in the Atlanta campaign. Com- 
pany F lost nine men killed in action ; eighteen from disease and wounds and 
eighteen discharged on account of disability during their term of service. Com- 
pany I lost six men killed in battle; seven died from disease, and eleven were 
discharged on account of disability during service. 


The Forty-fifth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was known as 
the Third Cavalry. It had one company from Dearborn county, designated 
on the roster as Company D. The captain of this company was Daniel B. 

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Kiester; first lieutenant, Mathew B. Mason; second lieutenant, Henry F. 
Wright. The non-commissioned officers and privates were as follow: First 
sergeant, John Parker ; sergeants, James A. Kelsey, John D. R. Spencer, Dan- 
iel R. Cole and John W. Senior ; quartermaster's sergeant, James E. Bussel! ; 
corporals, George A. Golding, Pleasant Buchanan, James I. M. McConnell. 
George H. Porter, James Calhoun, Aaron Huffman, Bowman H. Younker 
and Augustus Wright ; buglers, Rozel Bigney and Jacob Heck ; farriers and 
blacksmiths, Robert W. Rea and Emsley Suits ; saddler, John W. York ; wag- 
oner, Benjamin Howard, Sr. ; privates, George W. Armstrong, John Barring- 
ton, David S. Benson, Joseph Baskea, Sanford W. Briddell, Cornelius Buch- 
anan, John S. Barricklow, John R. Beach, Augustus S. Bryan, William Brom- 
ley, Thomas L. Baker, Elijah Barker, Joseph Clements, James M. Cooper. 
Thomas B. Connell, Josiah Dorn, George Day, Marmaduke Green, Henry Gar- 
rison, Henry Griffith, Benjamin Howard, Silas R. Hubbard, James Hattcn, 
John Hofstetter, James House, Omar Howerton, John Jones, Jacob Kraus, 
Philip Kirsh, David Kert, George R. Kennedy, Sebastian Kalb, David D. 
Kerr, Charles F. I^ycock, Hudson Lamkin, John B. Lynch, Joseph Mon- 
dary, Valentine Meier, John W. Morgan, Gillett Porter, Benjamin Porter. 
John W. Parmer, Franklin Powers, James L. Redding, Frederick Strouse, 
Abram Swang, Andrew Skirving, Oliver H. Trester, William Taylor, George 
Tupper, Alonzo Ward, James Ward, Henry White, Jackson Wheeler and Hi- 
ram S. Wyley; recruits, Benjamin Ahdon, Reuben Clements, George W. 
Chance, George R. Daniel, George L. Siemendel, William Shepherd, Enos 
White and Milton Wright. 

The part of the regiment to which Company D was assigned served in 
the Army of the Potomac and took part in all the skirmishes and battles in 
which that army was engaged. The adjutant-general's reports fail to give a 
detailed account of the losses the regiment suffered during its term of service, 
but these were heavy, since the regiment was in active service protecting the 
flanks of the army and took part in all the pitched cavalry engagements of 
the East Thoroughfare Gap, Gettysburg and other places were engagements 
in which the company took part, and where it suffered losses. 


The Fifty-second Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was one of the 
later regiments organized under the President's call for three-year men in 
1 86 1. It was first rendezvoused at Rushville and then was taken to Indian- 

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apolis, where it was consolidated with the Fifty-sixth Regiment, and was mus- 
tered in as the Fifty-second, about February 1, 1862. It was at once hurried 
to the front, where it took part in the capture of Ft. Donelson less than a 
month after it was organized. From that time on, until its discharge, it took 
a prominent part in the campaigns in the Mississippi valley, winding up with 
the pursuit and elimination of the command of the Rebel general, Price, and 
the battle of Nashville, in December, 1864. Two companies were furnished 
for the Fifty-second Regiment by Dearborn county, Company C, with George 
W. Tyer, captain ; William Francis, first lieutenant, and Eli Mattocks, second 
lieutenant, and Company D, with William L. Guard, captain; William M. 
Raymond, first lieutenant, and Benoni N. Beale, second lieutenant. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates of Company C were as 
follow : First sergeant. Alexander Edwards ; sergeants, Thomas C. Simmons. 
Thomas D. Martin, Edwin H. Madison a,nd Jacob L. Biddinger; corporals, 
David M. Tilford, Charles White, Richard S. Spicknal. Henry Becker, James 
Brown, Frank Schwing, Myron H. McMillen and John R. Stewart; musicians, 
Michael Regner and Daniel Thompson; wagoner, Hiram J. Palmer: privates, 
James Biddenger, Jesse C. Biddenger, George Christopher, Hiram Collier, 
Francis Corwin, Thomas Cox, William Curry, Patrick Davis, Patrick Dunn, 
John D. Edwards, William L. Edwards, John Eggatt, Lucius Fasnacht, John 
W. Faucett, Charles Failing, George Filler, John D. Filler, George Feist, 
Christopher Fryer', Littlebury Francis, Marcellus Francis, Joseph Gabel, Si- 
mon Gillo, George Green, Frederick Gemphf, David C. Hamvay, John Har- 
rington, George L. Hidely, William Hickay, Frederick Houk, John Hunt, 
John Hughes, William L. Isentrager, Edward P. Jones, Edward Kelley, Fran- 
cis Lane, Charles A. Lanman, William Lawson, Wanlaler Lethk, John P. 
Madden, Charles M. McCright, Thomas McDowell, August Miller, George 
Neifront, Michael O'Donnel, Patrick O'Flannegan, John H. Palmer, Obadiah 
B. Priest, John Proctor, Orwell Roosa, Andrew J. Rowin, William H. Rich- 
ardson, Christian Rah, Dennis Suttler, James Shed, Michael Shoemaker, 
George Sits, Emanuel Smith, Henry Smith, Richard H. Smith, Robert L. 
Smith, William H. Smith, Tames H. Spicknall, William Todd, James R. 
Truitt, Anthony Welch, Edwin Welch, William H. Whitaker and John Will- 
iamson recruits, Thomas Bailey, George Cook, Charles Campbell, Thomas 
J. Dawson, John L. Filler, John H. Levenburgh, William J. Lee, Jacob Miers, 
Levi L. Miles, Wilson H. Miles, Samuel Munson, Joseph A. Noble, John Old- 
field, Austin Sammon, Josiah Thompson and John Young. 

The non-commissioned officers and enlisted men of Company D were as 

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follow: First sergeant. Joseph H. Smith; sergeants, James C. Kirkpatrick, 
Edward W. Golden, Uz N. Moak and Francis M. Watson ; corporals, Thomas 
Houston, James W. Billingsley, Jeremiah M. Kellogg, Middleton M. Purnel!, 
Joseph F. Bright, Mahlon B. Guard, Henry B. F. Baker and Benjamin M. 
Piatt; musicians, Robert Simmons and William H. Loper; wagoner, John L. 
Lambertson; privates, William B. Ake, John Allen, Otto Berens, Robert R. 
Billingsley, Simeon Bradley, Samuel W. Carr, John Cain, Thomas D. Clark, 
Matthew Clark, Frederick Cleckter, Robert M. Cole, William Conley, William 
Conner, George G. Collier, William H. Cox, Thomas Dougherty, James 
Dinan, Patrick Dinan, Thomas O. Dowdell, James E. Ehler, William N. 
Elliott, Thomas J. Ewing, •Abram Ferrell, George W. Fletcher. Aaron I* 
Goble, John Godfrey, William Goodpasture, Gideon Hart, Alexander Harris, 
Henry Heckheiser, William Herseley, William Homer, Edward Keeley, Eli 
M. Knapp, William Lyon, Cornelius McGuire, John J. McLerter, Charles Mc- 
Dole, William R. McDole, Roger McHugh, Mathew ,McGowan, Adam L. 
Miller, Patrick Moran, Henry L. Nitmeyer, John Oldfield, John Osborn, 
Andrew J. Peters, John Peters, Andrew Pea, Jedediah Pea, Joseph Rigby, 
John W. Riley, Henry Schinnaman, James Sexton, Christopher C. Searcy. 
Thomas J. Shafer, George W. Smoot, Richard C. Sweazey, Charles Swift, 
William Tilford. Theodore L. True, Julius A. Victor, William W. Wheelan 
and Ezra W. Whitt; recruits, George T. Ewbank, William T. Kidd, William 
Parrott, Simeon R. Swift, Robert Wilson and Robert W. Wilson. 

There were men from Dearborn county in nearly every company of the 
regiment, and it is impossible to mention only those who were members of 
the companies organized in the county. A number from Harrison township 
enlisted in Company H, of which at one time Oliver. H. Ashby was captain 
and James A. Leonard, first lieutenant, both from Harrison township. Zalmon 
S. Main, at one time the lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, was also credited 
to Lawrenceburg. 

Company C lost three men killed in battle; ten died from disease, and 
thirty-two were discharged on account of disabilities incurred during their 
term of service. 

Company D served with the same gallantry as the other companies, and 
lost two men killed, and six from disease, but the adjutant-general's report 
fails to show their losses. George P. Buell was colonel of the Fifty-eighth 
Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, appointed by Governor Morton, but 
no companies from Dearborn county were attached to the regiment. Colonel 
Buell was a native of Dearborn county and was afterwards promoted to brig- 

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adier-general, serving through the war. When the war was over he entered 
the regular army, serving in the West in the Indian wars, until his death, in 
1876, at which time he was a colonel in the regular service. 


The Sixty-eighth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was organized in 
August, 1862, under President Lincoln's second call for troops for three years. 
It was rendezvoused at Greensburg, and Dearborn county furnished Cyrus B. 
Goodwin, of Aurora, for its adjutant, and Myron H. Harding for assistant 
surgeon. Two companies were recruited in Dearborn county, with the follow- 
ing officers and enlisted men : Company E — Captain, Alexander Beckman : 
first lieutenant, Charles H. Bryant; second lieutenant, George W. Sheldon. 
Company K — Captain, Hanson D. Moore ; first lieutenant. Robert F. Brewing- 
ton ; second lieutenant, George H. Gould. 

The non-commissioned officers of Company E were Oliver B. Liddell, 
first sergeant; Hiram C. Crist, Jeremiah Robbins, Charles Xeff and James 
Terhune, sergeants; George W. Smith, Albert Lewis. Worden Babcock, Sim- 
eon Alfred, Lewis C. Stockman. Michael Eckert, Luallen J. Wade and Fran- 
cis Wardell, corporals : Adair Goebler, musician ; Austin McCright. wagoner. 
The following were the enlisted men : Joseph Alfred, James Baines, Lemuel 
Babcock, Lafayette Beggs. Chris W. N. Bohlander, Michael Borden. Henry 
Beanies. William Callahan. Hiram R. Clark, Martin Claspil. Robert M. Cady, 
James S. Campbell. John Donner, Michael Davern, Charles Darragh, Richard 
Daniels, Robert T. Ewbank, John A. Ewbank. John Goodwin. Jacob Godfrey. 
Peter F. Glardon, Richard H. Gould, Joseph Gould, Alonzo Graham, Asa 
Gibbs. Theodore Gibbs. Joseph Gruber, Jesse Haynes. Joseph Hohn. Nelson 
Hammel. Abram Hendrickson. Thomas L. Hall, William Hall, William Kline - 
man, John W. Koh, Amasa Knowles. Charles Lyons, Marcus Moore. John 
Morley. Rudolph Neff. Jacob Probst. Michael Rudelson, John Rinerson. John 
Ross, William Rockaway. Rudolph Sohn. John Skelton. Michael Shaffer. 
George Smith. John R. Sullivan. William F. Smith. Charles Snell. James A. 
Smith, Jacob Schmidt. George Schmidt, Levi B. Swan, Abram Snell. Chris- 
topher Texter. William Tuley, Elias Taylor, James Tuley. Hiram G. Walter*. 
William G. Walters. Benjamin F. Weigart, Jacob Wvneman. William Ward 
and John Wilson: recruits. James Bennett. John R. Crawford. Stephen A. 
Dutton. William H. Dyke. Robert W. Ewbank. John W. Grove. Charles Irish. 

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Jesse L. Laine. John A. Mavity, Robert J. Noble, Deforest Parker. John L. 
Smith, Isom Tull, David Weatherford and Caswell York. 

The non-commissioned officers and men of Company K were: William 
C. Pierce, first sergeant ; John H. Dawson, Edward W. Wood, Omar A. Ar- 
nold and Robert W. Wood, sergeants; Edward P. Johnson, Constantine 
Kelley, Monroe Abbott, Oliver C. Wilson, Benjamin F. Moore, Joshua Dun- 
can, David H. Gault and Robert Todd, corporals: Melvin M. Riggin and 
John W. Moore, musicians ; Harvey S. Loyd, wagoner. The privates were : 
George C. Arnold, William S. Arnold, Milton Arnold, Ithiel S. Arnold, Sam- 
uel L. Austin, Isaac M. Abbott, George L. Buhrlege, William G. Beggs, Will- 
iam W. Bowen, John E. Brooks, Stephen Burlingame, Henry Bohmer, Charles 
Cannon, William H. Cornell, Thomas Carr, Allen Craven, Benjamin Quids, 
Thomas Darby. William H. Frazier, Michael Grow, Josiah Gray, Elton H. 
Gualt, James H. Gualt, Samuel Halt, Jonathan Herndon, Curtis Hancock, 
John W. Johnson, John H. Jones, George King, John P. Knott, John W. 
Kidwell, David Laughlin, William S. Lewis, William F. Losey, Columbus 
Lippard, William McGehan, John M. Mulvaney. Benjamin Mills, John 
Mackey, James H. McKinley. Samuel B. Nelson, William Purnell, Monterville 
Robbins, Thomas S. Shuman, Conrad Shafer, John Shockley, William T. 
Stevenson, John Smith, Henry Strasinger, Henry P. Sutton, Francis A. 
Soper, Joseph Sitzger, Adam F. Stautsman, William F. Sedwick, John Todd, 
Martin L. Tanner, Alvah W. Tower, Robert K. Taylor, Thomas J. Truitt, 
Arvah D. Wilson, Moses P. Wilson and Henry E. Wood ; recruits, Archibald 
Curry, Jared W. Hall, William H. Malott, Adam F. Stutsman, James H. 
Smith and William H. Tucker. 

The Sixty-eighth Indiana served in the Army of the Cumberland in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee in the Atlanta campaign and participated in its battles of 
Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge. In the battle before Nashville it suf- 
fered heavy losses. Company E lost in battle none ; thirteen died from disease, 
and ten were discharged before their term of service expired on account of 
disabilities incurred in the service. Company K lost two men killed in battle ; 
five died from disease and wounds and nineteen were discharged on account of 
disabilities incurred in the service. 


The Seventy-seventh Regiment. Indiana Volunteer Infantry, or Fourth 
Cavalry, had one company organized at Aurora. Its captain, John A. Platter, 

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afterwards became the colonel of the regiment, and the Grand Army Post at 
Aurora is named in his honor. Not all the officers of the company were 
from Dearborn county, and some of the privates were from other counties. 
The company was designated as Company B, and its captain was John A. 
Platter; first lieutenant, William H. Bracken; second lieutenant, John P. Wil- 
son, the two latter from Brookville. The non-commissioned officers and en- 
listed men of Company B were as follow: First sergeant, William H. H. Js- 
grigg ; sergeants, John H. Thompson, Oliver H. Williams, Henry H. Black- 
man, Philip B. Barker and Robert Walsh ; quartermaster's sergeant. Austin 
Andrews; commissary sergeant, Joseph T. Plummer; corporals, James R. E!- 
rod, Banner D. Hall, Enoch Abbott, Leigh H. Haymond, George XV. Newman, 
Ignatius L. Kohler, James R. Smith and Elijah P. Briddle; buglers, Lewis F. 
Rover and John R. Hope ; farriers and blacksmiths, Elijah Scoggins and Rob- 
ert M. Stoops; saddler, William H. Measury; wagoner, Andrew J. Heason; 
privates, James H. Abbott, Marmaduke Barman, John B. Bobe, William 
Baker, James W. Bell, Alfred Bedgood, Charles M. Bailey, Franklin Burris, 
William H. Berry, Joseph M. Clark, Wilford M. Connel, John D. Cook, 
George M. Cottingham, William Castle, Thomas A. Conley, Robert J. Cain, 
Frank Defenbach, Cassius M. Deyerman, Charles Disbrow, Charles M. Davis, 
George W. French, Henry B. Fenton, William Fogle, Frank Fox. John Gagle, 
Jonathan W. Green, Joseph B. Gray, Henry Gibeke, Cornelius C. Gooderson, 
Peter Garber, Judson Hayes, James Harris, Robert Hover, John Hine, George 
W. Hayman, Henry Hartman, Samuel Harryman, Thomas M. Isgrigg, Rnb- • 
ert A. Jamieson. Ezra Keeler, William Keeler, William P. Knight, Hartzell 
Legg, William T. Lambdin, John Lackey, John F. Lewis. John Moulton, 
George Monroe, Clinton Misner, James Myers, James Miles, Edward McAllis- 
ter, John Osborn, Samuel Roe, Henry A. Risk, William W. Robertson, Powell 
Stant, Isaac Spore, George Shouh. Hartzell Shepherd, George W. Smith, 
William F. Smith. William J. Stewart. Obadiah Stevens, John A. Thul- 
keimer. Stephen B. Tilley, Shelby Utsler, John Utsler, Isaiah Utsler, James R. 
Williams. John T. Whitlock, John Ward, Hugh West, James B. Wymoml, 
Lewis Wagoner, William Yonge and John C. Young; recruits, William H. 
Bailey, Mathew Burris, Isaac Bowman, Robert H. Brooks, Jefferson M. Cox, 
John W. Durbin. Curtis K. Emrie, William L. Hunt, Albion Jackson, George 
W. Lemon. Thomas M. Lamkin, James R. Linch. John Mills, William Moran, 
George Monoleary, Jacob Neal, Oscar Parker. Eli S. Richmond. Washington 
Stockwell. Mahlon W. Scott, Samuel Spoore. John Stitt. Henry St. Clair, 
James W. Thompson, Robert \V. Thompson. John Wells and James B. 

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Company B saw active service during its whole term. It was attached to 
the Army of the Cumberland from the first and lost one man killed in action, 
and eleven died from disease or wounds. Eighteen were discharged during 
their term of service for disabilities incurred during their term of service. 


The Eighty-third Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was almost a 
Dearborn county regiment. Its colonel was Benjamin J. Spooner when it first 
went to the field and George H. Scott, of Dearborn county, later on. Jacob 
W. Eggleston, of Dillsboro, was its major for a time; George D. Tate, of 
Dillsboro, its quartermaster, and James M. Crawford, of Guilford, its chap- 
lain; Henry C. Vincent, of Guilford, and Samuel M. Weaver, of Dillsboro, 
assistant surgeons. Company B was raised about Dillsboro; Company H re- 
cruited at Guilford and vicinity, and Company I at Wilmington. The officers 
of Company B, when they were mustered in, in 1862, were Jacob W. Eggle- 
ston, captain; Henry Gerkin, first lieutenant; Dandridge E. Kelsey, of 
Farmers' Retreat, second lieutenant. The officers of Company H were, James 
M. Crawford, captain; John Rawling, first lieutenant; Ferris J. Nowlin, sec- 
ond lieutenant. Company I was officered with Henry J. Bradford, captain; 
William N. Craw, first lieutenant, and George W. Lowe, second lieutenant. 

The regiment went into camp in the fair grounds at Lawrenceburg and 
was there until ordered to the front. Its quartermaster's sergeant was Charles 
Crowley, of Dillsboro, and its commissary sergeant was John V. Rockafellow, 
of the same place. Its hospital steward was David C. Beach, of Aurora. 
Company B's non-commissioned officers and men were : Stephen K. Cofield, 
first sergeant : James S. Sheerer. Perlee Rowland, William J. Randall and 
Stephen M. Bassett, sergeants; James Bruner, Henry Smithkin. Benjamin J. 
Wilson, John Opp. James Long, James T. Bailey, Ferdinand Sebring and 
William Lemon, corporals ; Darius VV. Cooper and Lewis B. Hunt, musicians ; 
James Jewett, wagoner; privates, Ezekiel Abraham, Isaac J. Alfrey, Samuel 
K. Alford, James H. Abbott Wash M. Barnhart, John Bennie, William H. 
Barnhart, Thomas Butt, Benjamin F. Berry, John Cravens, Andrew A. Cole- 
man. Charles H. Clements, Edwin S. Cheeseman, Jesse Daniels, John V. Den- 
nis, August Damann, Zachariah Ester. Thomas C. Fisher. Henry C. Foster, 
Richard Gray, Benjamin F. Girard. Joseph Gray, William H. Gray, William 
G. Green, Jonathan R. Green, David H. Helms, James M. Hunt. Joseph B. 
Hunt, John H. Hull, Davis Hess. John Hamilton, George B. Hess. Jacob 

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Hoover, William Helms, Ulysses Johnson, Alex James, Nathan P. Johnson, 
John I. Johnson, Daniel E. Knowles, Derrick C. Kerr, John H. Lazier, John 
F. Linkmire, John W. Leach, James Lindsey, William Meeh, James G. Ma- 
thers, John I. McComas, David M. Minks, Neal Maginley, Francis M. Miller. 
Wallace M. McLain, Henry Parker, Demas Perlee, John Pendergrast, Will- 
iam Perlee, Amos Reymer, John V. R. Rockafellow, Frederick Roter, Henry 
Roter, Alford Suits, Joseph Sweezey, George Spangle r, Reason K. Sanks, 
Amos A. Smith, George O. Sanks, William B. Suits, Joel Sheperd, Sullivan 
Smith, John Spangler, John Shutts, Henry Schmolsmire, Thomas S. Shepherd, 
William H. Smith, John D. Smith, Isaac Trader, John W. Toph, Hiram 
Thompson, John Thompson; William L. Wayt, Stephen Warner, Charles 
Wilson. George W. Young, James Young and Christopher Zeigenbein; re- 
cruits, James Churchill, David Chillas, James L. Cook, Joshua Cockley and 
Archibald Caldwell. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates of Company H were as fol- 
low : First sergeant, George H. Scott ; sergeants, Milton B. Wood, Jeremiah 
Boatman, Thomas Sykes and John P. Dowden ; corporals, Daniel S. McCau- 
non, Jonathan Nowlin, John H. Jackson, Paul E. Hiett, John Darling, George 
Herbert, Thomas Rawling and Alex Baldridge ; musicians, Christopher Filoncs 
and George D. Horner ; wagoner, Huron Blasdel ; privates, Charles B. Blasde), 
John Burbank, George F. Brinkman, William Broughton, William Boatman, 
Milton Bodine, Anthony L. Bledsoe, Thomas Blasdel, Thomas M. Craig, Rob- 
ert Cassaday, Robert Cook, John J. Colwell, Robert Cox, William C. Camp- 
bell, Alex Cassaday, Joseph Cox, Christopher Ewbank, Benjamin Ellsing. 
George W. Ewbank, Lewis Etter, James W. Freeman, Franz X. Frie, Casper 
Feirstein, Jonathan Garrison, David Giffin, John Griffith, Philip Gahlert, 
John Gahlert, Henry Hensler, William Hornung, Timothy A. Hyatt, James 
Isgrigg, Alfred J. Knapp, Henry Kolb, James Kirkwood, Charles H. Kelso, 
William C. Knepp, Seth Kelso, John G. Kohlermann, Jonathan Lewis, Enoch 
Lynas, James Larry, James McDonald, James McCann, Jonas McKee, Will- 
iam Maynard, Elias D. Moss, Hugh Muldoon, Henry Miller, Eaphael Miles, 
Samuel McClure, Jesse McCannon, John Probst, George H. Robinson, Rich- 
ard Rawling, John Rinnert, Jacob Schelah, Richard M. Stater, John C. Smith, 
Henry Sykes, George Smith, Jesse H. Smith, Matthias Smith, James Starkey, 
George Seibler, George Schite, Frederick Stevens, Andrew Shipe, Simeon 
Umble, Abraham Volz, Joseph Weibert, Herman Weighmier, Joseph Weik- 
ley, Piatt Ward and Adam Zimmer; recruit, George Fulcher. 

Company I had as non-commissioned officers and privates the following : 


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First sergeant, George S. Johnson; sergeants, John H. Durbin, John B. Er- 
win, James L. Smith and Joshua S. Christy : corporals, Charles Buffington. 
Erastus Vinson, Andrew J. Huffman, Hamilton P. Helphenstine, Howard 
Thomas. William H. H Stalder, James Dunn and Oliver C. Mennach; mu- 
sicians, John E. Baker and Thomas J. Spicknall ; wagoner, James F. Winkle- 
man; privates, James G. Adams, James M. Baker, David C. Beach, Benjamin 
Bainum, Joshua Bell, David G. Boardman, Amcr Bruce, Henry Barney, 
David K. Bruce, Omer T. Canfield, Wesley Canfield, William Chisman. 
Clark Canfield, John N. Clements , George Colwell, Jackson Chance, Charles 
H. Crowley, Oliver P. Christy, Benjamin Dresser, William H. Dunn, James 
B. Flinn, James L. Frazer, Richard Falsum, John F. Goodpasture, Jacob 
Goodpasture, David G. Gay, Charles D. Griffith, Elvare M. Goodrich, Will- 
iam A. Griffith, John M. Glass, William F. Gillison, William H. Hutton, 
George House, Alfred Helphenstine, Philip Held, Varderman Hamilton, 
John Howard. Charles H. Hollowell, Mahlon B. Hayes. Robert B. Kirk, 
Clark Lindsey, Charles Lindsey, William Lane, Paul Lemuel, Thomas W. 
Morrison, William Mendall, George Mondary, Joseph Mondary, Alfred 
Naylor, Jacob H. Oslage. Milton E. Roach, Thomas E. Rider. Charles B. 
Sparks, William P. Sparks, Virgil Shanks, Quincy F. Smith, John W. Spick- 
nall, Theodore T. Stockdale, Eli Smallwood, Henry Shuter. Daniel Smith, 
Leopold Stall, John M. Taylor, Ebenezer D. Vinson, John Wellhoff, George 
Ward, Charles W. Ward, Christian Weisel and James Welsh. 

The Eighty-third Regiment was sent to the Mississippi Valley as soon 
as organized. It at once took part in the operations around Vicksburg 
and was present at the surrender. It was then transferred to the Department 
of the Cumberland, where it took part in the battle of Missionary Ridge, 
the relief of Knoxville, and the Atlanta campaign. It went with Sherman 
to the sea and was at the surrender of Johnston at Raleigh, North Carolina. 
It took part in the Grand Review at Washington and was shortly afterward 
mustered out of the service. Company B lost seven men killed in battle: 
twenty-four men who died from disease and nineteen discharged on account 
of wounds or disease. Company H lost two men in battle; seventeen men 
from wounds and disease and nineteen discharged from the service on account 
of sickness or wounds. Company I lost one man killed in battle, seventeen 
men died from wounds or disease and eleven were discharged before their 
terms of service expired on account of wounds or disease. 


The Ninth Cavalry was organized in January, 1864, and Company K 
was furnished from Dearborn county, with the following officers: George 

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R. Brumblay, captain ; Henry Canficld. first lieutenant ; Ira D. Chamberlain, 
second lieutenant. The non-commissioned officers and men of Company K 
were : John M. Adams, John Arbuthnot, James R. Allender, George R. Ad- 
kins, John Beckel, Valdesse O. Burns, James T. Burns, Thomas Blankenship, 
Ozro Baker, William Block, Hiram Bailey, Peter Barwmger, Conrad Baker, 
Henry A. Clubb, Ira D. Chamberlin, Thomas M. Canfield, Isaac T. Cotting- 
ham, William Collier, John Calloway, Andrew D. Debord, David Debord, 
Henry Dorman. John W. Emmons, John Ent, Abraham S. Foreman, John W. 
Foreman, Thomas J. Fish, George S. Fisher, Barnett Folderman, John Groat, 
Stephen M. Gaston, William Gorman, George D. Garner, John Garrigues, Seth 
J. Green, William W. Goble, Charles A. Goble,- Curtis W. Hancock, Jacob 
Hurald, Harvey U. Haines, Franklin Hartley, John Heimberger, William 
Jones, John W. Johnson, Frank B. Keith, Peter Kessler, Louis Klingelhoffer, 
George Leslie, Thomas B. Laughlin, George Myers, John Madden, William 
W. Mendal, Thomas Mahoney, John G. Murray, Mitchell Mallett, Allen 
Miller, John McCoy, Charles Metz, James Nichols, Henry Newton, Henry 
Patterson, Thomas A. Pilbean, Thomas A. Putman, Joseph Ringer, William 
F. Rea, Robert Ramsey, Uriah G. Ross, James H. Ross, Jacob Russell, In- 
dependent Rork, Joseph Survant, Thomas D. Shuler, Thomas D. Shepherd, 
Dennis Satter, James E. Stokes, James K. Spencer, William Y. Sibert, 
George H. Shookley, James Scott, Frank Schwartzweller, Jacob Schmidt, 
Darius Stevens. Louis F. Schrader, Josiah Saucer, John Thompson. George 
W. Utter, Andrew J. Umphlett, George Vargeson, Charles M. Vargeson, 
John Vinson, Milton White, Thomas White, George Wilson, Jonathan Wind- 
horst, Isaac T. Webster, John Warnkcenig, James T. Woods, William 
Woods, John Wesick, Edson S. Winkley, William F. Worley and Matthew 

The Ninth Cavalry served in the Army of the Cumberland in Tennessee, 
Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. Company K lost by death in battle 
three, by disease and wounds, six. Just about the close of the service Com- 
pany K lost ten men on the steamer "Sultana," just above Memphis, when 
the vessel's boilers exploded, and some fifteen hundred men, just returning 
from Rebel prisons and convalescent hospitals, were drowned or killed by 
the explosion. 


Indiana furnished eight regiments for the hundred-day service, 
in the spring of 1864. Of these eight regiments, Dearborn county furnished 

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two companies. One was recruited around Aurora for the One Hundred 
and Thirty-fourth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and the other was 
recruited about Lawrenceburg and was assigned to the One Hundred and 
Thirty-ninth Regiment. The officers and enlisted men from Aurora were 
assigned as Company I and were as follow: Captain, George Shockley: 
first lieutenant, Edwin T. Gipson; second lieutenant, George \V. Wood. The 
enlisted men. were, Henry Ashcraft, Frank Abbott, Nathaniel Abbott, Charles 
Bailey, Chris Baker. David Billingsley, Stephen Beardsley, Henry A. Bur- 
roughs, Charles G. Brooks, Charles Bruce, William Bennett, George P. Beahl. 
John Bittner, James Chance, William Chance, Alfred Cobb, John S. Cole, 
Joshua Conwav, Charles Cadwell, Robert C. Cooper, Francis W. Cheek, 
Smith Cunningham, Frank Clark, Nathaniel Dresser, Nathaniel Dyke, George 
L. Durbin, William Durham, Thomas Darby, Henry Darby, Samuel Dean, 
Edwin Desiwo, Walter Denton, John W. Davis, William Dunkin, William 
Dougherty, George Dennerline, Joseph Ewan, Samuel Gardner, Edwin Grif- 
fith, John Gault. James H. Gaines, Julius Houk, William House, John E. 
Hayman, James Huffman, William Harshelroad, Henry Hann, Lewis C. 
Huckelberry, Anderson H. Huckelberry, Theodore R. Johnson, George W. 
Johnson. James Kates, Ezra Knapp, Charles Lamkin, Enoch D. Lamb, Rob- 
ert P. Lewis, Elias Little, David Melson, Alfred Merrill, Jesse H. Mcllvoy, 
Andrew J. Miller, James R. Miller, James Nelson. John W. Pool, Smith 
Pate. Charles Parker, Thomas A. Rees, David Rice, George Runyan, Ed- 
ward C. Runyan. Joseph Smith, Eli Stout. James Schofield, Abraham Stalder. 
Virgil Shank?. Charles Small, Frank M. Soper. William Stanton. William 
Snyder, John S. Sparks. Denn Thompson, Milton S. Trester, John L. Taylor, 
Pinckney J. Trester, Joshua Thompson. David Thompson, Daniel Vaughn. 
Lorenzo Vidite, John Valentine, Thomas Ward, David Walser. Luther Will- 
iams, Celestine Wood, John Woolery and George L. Zeh. 

The company assigned to the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Regiment 
was Company C, of that command, and was officered as follow : Captain, 
Wellington F. Howard; first lieutenant, George W. Sutton, of Dillsboro; 
second lieutenant, Ezekiel Stott. The enlisted men were, Charles W. Ash- 
ley, George W. Allen, William B. Ake, Henry Ake, William Bryant, Theo- 
dore Byars, John Becker, Peter H. Bradley, Joseph G. Bradley, William 
Bruce, Samuel Badey, Ralph Butler, E. T. Crosby, Charles D. 
Crosby, Pendleton Cloud, John Cook, Francis M. Conaway, Amos Cain, 
John E. Callahan, Marion Douglas, Jonathan Dunn, Bruce Downey, John 
M. Diller, Andrew Ebert, Jacob Eggleston, Jesse Francis, James P. Frakes, 

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Thomas E. Francis, John Gillas, Frank Glardon, Charles W. Greenfield, 
Charles H. Gysie, Henry Hall, Jackson Hall, William C. Harrison, Joel D. 
Hambre, C. D. Hankins, George Houston, Charles H. Hoover, George Ilif, 
William Johnson, Levi Johnson, Robert Johnson, Lewis Kyle, J. Ketcham, 
Henry Lancaster, James Liddle, Charles I. Love, Cornelius Luther, William 
Loper, Richard Merrill, John Myers, Morgan Mitchell, Samuel Martin, Rob- 
ert McKein, William Moulton, Clinton C. Misner, John McComas, John 
Martin, Samuel Nulfk, Joseph Nevers, Walter F. Nothern, Omer Pierce, 
George Robison, Robert Ross, James Stockwell, David Sea, John H. Sackett, 
George Skelton. William E. Schrader, John G. Schrader. William Sparks, 
John Spooner, David A. Suits, William M. Shepherd, William Sweazey, 
Isaac Shutts, George Sweazey, Benjamin F. Shutts, James Shafer, James 
Taylor, William C. Truitt, Jacob Tucker, Owen Todd, Jacob B. Thompson, 
John Vanosdol, Wood W. Withrow, John B. Weitzel, Charles Walker, Abner 
Waldon. Myron Warner, Alfred Warner, Albert G. Withrow and George 
Weaver. The hundred-day men were enlisted to take care of the work 
of the army in the rear; to look after communications and guard prisoners 
and other duties that would relieve veterans and permit them to go to the 
front. Few of them ever saw the enemy, except as a prisoner, but they 
served a very useful purpose in relieving the veterans so they could reinforce 
those at the front. 


In the closing period of the Civil War. men were called on to enlist 
for one year and Dearlxmi county furnished two companies in part for the 
One Hundred and Forty-sixth Regiment. The officers of Company G were : 
Joseph Dom, captain: Sanford Briddle, first lieutenant, and Enoch Allen, 
second lieutenant. George W. Sanks, of Dillsboro. was second lieutenant 
of Company I, and Peter F. Glardon first lieutenant of Company H. The en- 
listed men of Company G were : Marion Trow, first sergeant ; James Huff- 
man, James Humes, Isaac D. Robbins and Samuel Gardner, sergeants ; Martin 
Garrity. Miller Jackson. George L. Durbin. James X. Kates, Jacob Kumplv, 
George W. Seeds. Joseph L. Pool and Isadore Strawback. corporals: musi- 
cians. John Beahl and Elijah Christopher: privates.' George H. Allen. William 
W. Anthony. John Aker. Nicholas Anderson. William Anderson. Benjamin 
S. Avers. David Banfil. Harvey Bennett. John Bittner. Horace M. Burr. 
John Bush, Nathan M. Bryan. Henry A. Burris. John Cheek. James Collins. 
Henry Cleaver. McDonald Cheek. Samuel Campbell. James Chance. Josephus 

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M. Clark, James Clark, John F. Churchill, Charles G. Crosby, Elias T. Crosby, 
John M. Dickerson, Valentine Ewald, Noah Fox, Titus Fasnacht, Albert Fly, 
Andrew Fyllenlove, Charles Gillison, Jacob T. Gallimore, William Hubbartt, 
Zachariah Holland, Jackson Horn, John Hayes, William H. Harwood, George 
Iliff, Thomas Judd, James W. Johnson. Austin Kerrigan, Charles H. Lam- 
kin, William E. Lamkin, Henry Leap, Henry Lancaster, George Loffin, John 
A. Linniny, James L. Laird, William Miller, John E. Martin, Elmore Mc- 
Clain, James Murphy, John McClintock, William W. Miles, Barney Maroneu, 
James B. Newby, James C. Ogle, Rufus Pierce, James H. Perry, Charles W. 
Parker, Alfred M. Pate, William B. Pate, Henry Pollard, Milton Quick, 
Romanus Roach, William N. Ruble, John Settles, Moses Swango, John 
Snider, George Spangler, David K. Slusher, James Spencer, Jacob H. Teney, 
Franklin J. TJlrich, Arthur E. Ward, Charles R. Wolfe, Thomas Webb. 
William E. Willey, Charles W. Willey, John Williams, Celestine Wood, 
Chris Watson. William Werts and Albert C. Withrow. 


A number of enlisted men in the regiment were furnished by Dearborn 
county, but assigned to various companies, so that they can hardly be given 
here. This was the last full company raised in Dearborn county for the 
War of the Rebellion. It was mustered in near the last days of February, 
1865, and near the last days of the rebellion. The rebel armies, while 
bravely keeping up a front, were sadly depleted and badly off for supplies. 
Six weeks after this last company of Dearborn county's quota for this gigan- 
tic struggle was furnished, the opposition collapsed and the war was over. 
It had been a terrific struggle, costly in both men and money. The county 
of Dearborn alone, besides the nearly four hundred thousand dollars of outlay 
in money, had been losing the labor of those who had gone to the field and 
the time of those who were busy caring for the sick and preparing supplies 
needed for the hospitals. By the time the war came to an end the whole 
country was an armed. camp. Everything was given up to assist in carrying 
on the war. Anything that would assist was willingly sacrificed. When 
the war commenced everything was confusion and waste. Men going 
into the army knew nothing of their duties. The first great law of war is 
for the men to take care of their health. This they knew at home, but army 
life was a different matter and the knowledge was gained at great expense 
in lives and money. During the closing months of the war the greenest 

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private knew more when he enlisted than the soldier in the beginning after 
several months of experience. 

The losses of Dearborn county were heavy. The toll of death never 
ceased. From the Potomac to the broad prairies of Missouri and Oklahoma 
the men of this county were busy in the struggle to perpetuate the Union, 
and every day came news that cast a shadow on some hearthstone. The 
muster rolls of the companies sent from the county show a total of two 
thousand eight hundred and four men. Besides these, thirty-eight were fur- 
nished to the Seventh Cavalry and thirty-one to the One Hundred and 
Twenty-third Regiment and numerous others were enlisted from companies 
organized in other counties, which would swell the number of men furnished 
to the government for the perpetuation of the Union to more than three thou- 
sand. The toll of death was awful. One hundred and seven were killed 
outright on the battle line, and two hundred and fifty-seven were called upon 
to meet the Grim Reaper, by reason of wounds or disease. Besides all this, 
many were discharged before their terms of service expired on account of 
sickness and disabilities. Some regiments suffered more than others, just 
as some companies suffered more than other companies in the same regiment ; 
but the county may well be proud of its record in those trying years from 
1861 to 1865. 


The closing scenes of the Civil War were fraught with tense excitement 
and deep feeling. The home-coming of many of the companies, battle-scarred 
and with thinned ranks, revealed that some had perished in the storm of 
battle and that others had fallen before the foe that is not so dramatic, but 
just as certain — fell disease. As the forces of the Union drew the lines 
closer and closer about the Rebel strongholds, it became more and more 
evident that the time would soon be at hand when the surrender would be 
inevitable. The following extract from the Aurora Commercial of April 13, 
1865, will give to the present generation some little idea of the tense feel- 
ing of those closing days of a great civil war : 

"Last Monday was a day of wild excitement in this city. The news of 
Lee's surrender, following so quickly upon the capture of Richmond, was 
almost too much of a good thing, and produced demonstrations on the part 
of some of our patriotic citizens that would, under other circumstances, be 
disproportionate to their years. The cannons were brought out, the bells 
were rung, houses illuminated, and the town poured its population into the 
streets to witness the display and to exchange congratulations. 

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"Songs, speeches, and shouts of joy and praise were indulged to a late 
hour, when all retired to their homes to dream of the peace and prosperity 
in store for our beloved country." 

Lincoln's assassination. 

Yet this great joy was in a day to be turned into grief and anger. For 
Abraham Lincoln, the beloved President, was assassinated and the country 
was turned from the highest pitch of joy to the profoundest depths of grief. 
The same paper of the 20th of April, 1865, refers to the President's death 
in the following words: 

"The news of the assassination of President Lincoln has produced a 
deep impression in this community; every person seems to feel as if he had 
met with a severe and irreparable loss. Last Sabbath was one of the most 
mournful and solemn days we have ever passed in Aurora. Wherever 
we would turn, our eyes would rest on troubled countenances, which bore 
the impress of a deep and abiding affliction. 

"Men conversed with each other in undertones, and even the spirits 
of the children, too young to know sorrow, seemed to be impressed with the 
universal sadness. We hope we may never see such another day. 

"Yesterday nearly our whole population attended the public exercises 
at the Methodist and Lutheran churches, to pay their Jast tribute to the mem- 
ory of our late President While eloquent speakers discoursed of the virtues 
of the deceased, and of the loss the country has sustained in his death, the 
sobs of women and the silent tears trickling down the cheeks of brave men, 
told how heavily the blow had fallen upon our patriotic people. God grant 
that they may never again suffer such an affliction." 


One of the proudest periods in the history of the county, state and 
nation was that following the close of the Civil War, when thousands of 
citizen soldiery returned from the four long years of strife and laid down 
their arms, took off their uniforms and donned the dress of the citizen. 
Not only that, but they resumed their places in the every-day walks of life. 
To be a patriot and respond to the call of the country in her time of peril 
was noble, but to return to the ways of peace, when the country was safe, 
after the results of their serv ice had been secured, was a greater service. 

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Dearborn county's men in the war returned home and quietly resumed 
their places, much the same as though it had been "a day off" from business. 
One man, when the call to arms came in 1861, had dropped the lines on the 
team he was driving and the next day was in camp. The war went on and 
he served his three years, meeting danger on many of the bloody battle- 
fields with the Army of the Potomac. He returned to his home and family 
one evening and the next day he might have been seen driving the team 
for the same firm by whom he was employed when he enlisted three years 
previous. This could be multiplied a thousand times, for the Civil War sol- 
diers were citizens first — soldiers if duty called them. 


During the summer of 1863 there were many stirring events occurring 
that kept the hearts of the lovers of the Union on the qui vwe and the char- 
acter of the news was such as to bring much encouragement to the people. 
Grant had made a wonderful campaign in front of Vicksburg, closing with 
the Confederate general, Pemberton, and some twenty-five thousand of his 
men being penned up in that city, which, on July 4, was surrendered with 
all its men and munitions of war. Lee had turned the right flank of the 
Army of the Potomac and had crossed the Potomac over into Maryland, 
hoping thus to bring the war into the North and divert some of our western 
forces from the front at Vicksburg and Tullahoma, where Rosecrans and 
Bragg, were watching each other. Lee's army ran up against the Union 
cavalry at Gettysburg and a general engagement was brought on, resulting 
in the Confederates falling back to their old base on the Rappahannock. 
Thinking to create further confusion among the armies of the Union and 
to further divert attention from the Vicksburg battle front, General Bragg 
detached the Confederate cavalry chieftain, John Morgan, from his army, 
lying between Tullahoma and Chattanooga, with instructions to raid Ken- 
tucky and the Ohio river points and carry the destruction into the North 
wherever he could find an opportunity. It was expected that this diversion 
would prevent the hurrying of troops to resist the marching armies of Lee, 
should that general prove successful in obtaining a permanent foothold in 
Pennsylvania. It also might divert or prevent reinforcements from being 
tent to assist Grant in his siege of Vicksburg. 

Morgan, however, arrived on the Ohio river, at Brandenburg, Kentucky, 
too late to be of any assistance to either Pemberton or Lee. He was not 

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deterred on that account, however, but at once set to work to invade the 
North and destroy as much property as possible. He seized the steamers 
"Alice Dean" and "J. T. McCombs," which, not being aware of the prox- 
imity of the raiders, were rounded up by Morgan's light artillery. Some 
resistance was made to his crossing, by Captain G. W. Lyons, with one piece 
of artillery. This was on July 7, 1863. In tne artillery duel, Captain Lyons 
lost two men. Two of Morgan's regiments having crossed on the night of 
the 7th, formed under the bank and charged the militia, capturing several 
and causing Colonel Timbcrlake, who then was in command, to retreat 
towards Corydon. where the militia had concentrated under command of 
Col. Lewis Jordan, of the Sixth Legion, which numbered about four hundred 
men. Morgan, having no further opposition, succeeded in landing all his 
forces on the Indiana side, and on the morning of the 9th advanced upon 
Colonel Jordan's forces, which had taken up a position about one mile from 
the town of Corydon. Here a sharp fight was precipitated, resulting in the 
Confederates charging the small force, outflanking and compelling the home 
guards to surrender. In the fight the Legion lost three men killed and two 
wounded; Morgan losing eight killed and thirty-three wounded. 


From Corydon Morgan moved rapidly north and east and on the evening 
of the nth of July was in front of North Vernon. The Indiana Legion 
of Dearborn county, which was under the command of Col. Joseph H. Bur- 
kam, of Lawrenceburg, was ordered by Governor Morton to secure trans- 
portation, rendezvous his companies and proceed to Seymour at once. This 
was on the morning of the 8th. The Legion was stopped at North Vernon, 
however, on account of more definite information being obtained of Mor- 
gan's course. On the evening of the nth, Morgan appeared in front of 
North Vernon and demanded its surrender, demanding that the women and 
children be removed and giving notice to the commander that in two hours 
he would shell the town unless the place was surrendered. The brave com- 
mander, Colonel Williams of Rising Sun, rejected the message with an 
answer to the effect that if the place was wanted, let him come and take it. 
Morgan, however, was only playing for time, and' long before daylight his 
legions were hastening eastward on parallel roads, camping on the evening 
of the 12th (Sunday) near Sunmans. Monday morning (the 13th) he left 
his bivouac at five o'clock in the morning and moved eastwardly. crossing 

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the Big Four Railroad at Weisburg, Harmons and Van Weddings. Morgan 
hastened on through Hubbells, New Alsace, Dover and Logan, reaching 
Harrison a little after the noon hour. In the "History of Hamilton County, 
Ohio," is the following description of the behavior of the cavalrymen as they 
passed through the town : 

"About 1 o'clock in the afternoon of the 13th of July, the advance of 
the rebel command was seen streaming down the hillsides on the west side of 
the valley and the alarm was at once given in the streets of Harrison. Citi- 
zens hastened at once to secrete their valuables and run off their horses, but 
in a very few minutes the enemy was swarming all over the town. The 
raiders generally behaved pretty well, offering few insults to the people and 
maltreating no woman or other persons. They secured what horses they 
could, thronged the stores, taking whatever they fancied. One gentleman 
who kept a drug store was despoiled of nothing but soap and perfumery. 
Similar incidents were related of other shops in the village and from one 
and another a large amount of goods in the aggregate was taken, but there 
was no robbery from house to house or from the person; and after a few 
hour's stay, having refreshed themselves and their horses and gained all 
the information possible, the head of the column began to file out of the 
village on the Harrison turnpike, in the direction of Cincinnati." 


An unfortunate loss of life occurred at the Hardintown school house 
that evening, causing the loss of five men killed, one mortally wounded and 
eighteen wounded more or less seriously. The account herewith is the re- 
port of W. H. H. Terrell, who at that time was the adjutant-general of 
Indiana : 

"The resistance and pursuit of the rebels was as nearly bloodless as any 
hostile movement on so large a scale could be, but it was destined to cause 
more bloodshed after its departure than it did by its presence. On the evening 
of the 13th, Colonel Gavin, in command at Lawrenceburg, having been in- 
formed that Morgan had taken Harrison and had turned back and was ad- 
vancing upon Lawrenceburg, took prompt measures to meet him. He sent 
out his own regiment, the One Hundred and Fourth, half a mile beyond 
Hardintown, on the turnpike, where a strong barricade was constructed, and 
a line of battle was formed along the towpath of the canal, so as to use the 
canal bank as a defense. Colonel Shryock's regiment, the One Hundred and 

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Fifth, was ordered to take position a half mile in the rear. About nine 
o'clock at night, while marching towards the desired position through a very 
short curve in the road at Hardintown, the rear of the column, seeing the 
head indistinctly in the darkness, and unaware of the curve, which threw 
the men in front on a line parallel with those in the rear, mistook it for a 
portion of the expected enemy's force, and a shot accidentally fired at the 
moment made the impression so strong that they fired into the advance. The 
advance, of course, mistook the fire for that of the enemy and returned it. 
Colonel Shryock instantly rode down the line to stop the firing, telling the 
men that they were killing their comrades, but though promptly obeyed he 
was too late to prevent a serious catastrophe. Five men were killed, one 
mortally and eighteen more or less wounded; the following is a list of the 
casualties caused by this sad mistake: 

"Killed — Sergeant John Gordon ; privates Oliver P. Jones, William 
Faulkner, Ferdinand Hefner, and John Porter. 

"Wounded — Captains A. K. Branham and William Nicholson; Lieu- 
tenants William E. Hart (mortally), Samuel Bewsey and Joel Newman; 
Sergeants Richard M. Baker, John Pyle, and James E. Bates ; Privates Sam- 
uel E. Duncan, Edmund Bloomfield, Martin Hoover, William Flint. David 
S. Gooding, W. G. Johnson, D. W. Parish, R. T. Raines, Jabez Wilson, Allen 
R. Bates and Hart." 


It was claimed that Morgan had received assurances from spies that if 
he would once pass through Indiana, especially the southern part, he would 
find plenty of people ready and willing to assist him and might even re- 
ceive some recruits to his thinning ranks. Be this true or not. he soon found 
that he had few, if any, friends. The whole state was an armed camp. He 
met with resistance at every cross roads. Wherever he turned he met armed 
resistance. Governor Morton, who had a genius for rapid organization, put 
thirteen regiments into the field in less than three days, armed and equipped, 
officered and ready with everything but experience. The Indiana Legion 
of the river counties was already armed and to some extent drilled, many 
of them uniformed. It took a very few hours for these to be ready. In 
Switzerland county the messengers, horseback, went out to the country about 
one o'clock in the afternoon with notices for the companies to assemble and 
rendezvous at Vevay. By six o'clock that evening the town was full of 

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men and they departed for Madison, where it was then thought Morgan 
was going to try to cross the river. In Dearborn county the Legion was 
equally as well organized. Colonel Burkam sent out his orders for the 
companies to assemble and it was only a few hours until the whole command 
was under way for North Vernon. Besides the regular armed and equipped 
Legion there were other companies hastily organized, officered and equipped 
with arms and ammunition. It seemed as though armed men sprang out of 
the ground, there were so many who had guns and ammunition. 

Squads of men from the country neighborhoods assembled on horse- 
back and hastened to join themselves with others, pursuing the Rebel cavalry- 
men on both front flank and rear, picking off the tired, sleepy raiders when- 
ever they wandered from the main command. As Morgan hurried to his 
doom in eastern Ohio he was continually losing men, who were so heavy 
with sleep that they were easily captured; while General Hobson's force of 
cavalrymen, who had kept close on the raiders' heels from Brandenburg to 
the final capture, was continually augmented by volunteers who, for the 
adventure, rode with them to the finish. 


Morgan, no doubt, after he had crossed into Indiana and had traveled 
a day or two. desired very much to recross the Ohjo and return to Bragg's 
army. The federal authorities, realizing this, were alert to prevent it. In 
those days steamboats were plentiful and it was the work of a few hours 
to collect a fleet of six or eight boats, mount cannon on the lower deck, put 
aboard as many troops as could be conveniently carried and follow the route 
of Morgan paralleling him as near as possible. General M. D. Manson, of 
Crawfordsville, was put in command of this force and so well did he do 
his work and so vigilant was he in keeping informed as to the whereabouts 
of Morgan that to him may be given much of the credit for the capture of 
the Rebel general and his command. When Morgan was in front of Norrh 
Vernon on Saturday evening, July n, Manson was at Madison, or near 
there. In the afternoon of Sundav. the 12th, when it was not vet known which 
direction the rebel forces had taken from North Vernon, he was at Vevav 
and by daylight on Monday morning, the 13th, while Morgan was yet in 
camp at Sunman, Manson, with his fleet of improvised gunboats, was at 
Aurora and Lawrenceburg. This was kept up all the way to Buffington's 
island, where the exhausted command of the Rebel chieftain attempted to 

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cross the river by fording. After a few hundred had crossed to safety and 
while others were in midstream, the vigilant Manson came upon them there, 
halting the crossing and causing their capture soon thereafter. 


Many amusing stories are yet told in the county ot the celebrated 
Morgan raid; how cautious housewives would conceal their valuables and 
afterwards forget where the place of concealment was located; how panicky 
men, frantic with excitement, would say things and do things that afterwards 
seemed comical. The order was disseminated throughout the country that 
every impediment should be put in the way of the rebel forces, in order to 
delay their march and enable the Union forces to catch up with them. Somt- 
of the stories of the obstructions placed across the roads are amusing. It 
was said that by the side of a very level piece of pike there was a wild-cherry 
tree and an excited patriot was found by a squad of men riding by, chopping 
it down as rapidly as his excitement would permit. On being asked if ne 
realized how long the fallen tree would stop Morgan's command he hastily, 
like one waking from a dream, swung his ax to his shoulder and departed. 
Others have laughable stories to tell of how horses were taken quickly to the 
thickest forest nearby to conceal them from the lynx-eyed Confederates, when 
they would ride right into a squad of them. The Confederates took what 
horses they needed, sparing no one. Hobson's command was in no better 
condition. Their horses were footsore and weary from the long pursuit and, 
in order to keep close on the heels of the raiders, the troopers must have 
fresh mounts. Accordingly whenever they found a horse that the raiders had 
missed in passing they were not slow in taking it. Some years after the war 
these horses were all settled for and the loss from this source was negligible. 
The damage done by the raider was in Manchester, Jackson, Kelso, Logan 
and Harrison township. He rode through so hastily, however, that he had 
no time to destroy much property. Bridges on the Big Four railroad over 
Tanner's creek were burned: horses were taken and eatables used when 
needed. But the rebel forces were well behaved and no complaints of out- 
rages or wanton destruction could be made. 


The raid, as planned to arouse the disloyal element in the North, was 
worse than a failure. Morgan found a united enemy. Armed forces were in- 
evidence even-where. The raiders that escaped capture and those who were 

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exchanged returned to the rebel forces with stories discouraging to the 
cause. Throughout Indiana they rode through a land flowing with milk and 
honey, — a land of plenty. Bountiful wheat harvests had just been cut 'and 
the thousands of acres of growing corn and the barns bursting with hay and 
other forage crops gave evidence of this plenty. The thousands of head of 
live stock, cattle, hogs and poultry ; the abundance of horses — everything, to 
the eyes of the poorly-clad and sometimes hungry raiders, indicated that the 
North was not even feeling the effects of the war in such a way to know its 
appalling losses. 

Dearborn county, in this one event, deserves all the credit it ever received. 
Its people were loyal. The invader was met with armed force, none refusing 
to assist. The women were using every energy, preparing food and other nec- 
essary supplies. All business for the time was suspended. For a week at 
least Dearborn county was turned into an armed camp. Night and day the 
tramp of armed men could be heard. Munitions of war were to be seen on 
every hand. The hay field was left with the new-cut timothy on the ground, 
the farmer being too busy resisting the invader to pay attention to his work. 
The business man shut the doors of his business house and joined the nearest 
company organizing to repel the raiders. The young man on the farm hastity 
mounted his horse and rode away in the direction he had heard the rebels 
were to be found. Squads of these horsemen were to be found riding on 
even- road and byroad. Nothing can describe to this generation the excite- 
ment and the feeling, or the determined resistance, felt in every breast. Occa- 
sionally, in the line of the raider's travel, they would find some person who 
would endeavor to curry favor by claiming sympathy with the rebel cause, 
thinking to evade loss or to secure gain. One case afterwards was reported 
that was humorous. A man of this kind thought it wise, as the rebel forces 
passed on the highway, to hurrah for Jeff Davis with all of his might. The 
rebel chieftain and staff happening to ride by at that time, dismounted and 
assured him that they were just looking for him ; that a friend was what they 
wanted. They were needing a good dinner and, of course, if he was their 
friend he would be delighted to get them up a good meal. The would-be 
sympathizer pleaded his wife's sickness, his want of wood for fuel, and other 
reasons, but the chieftain was immovable. He was ordered to cut wood and 
upon refusing, a guard was detailed which, with bayonets, stimulated his in- 
dustry all that hot afternoon, while with a saw and buck he provided the neces- 
sary wood and his good wife and family cooked for the raiders. It was safe 
to say afterward that this man had no sympathy for the cause of the 

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Apropos of Governor Morton's great genius for organization, in connec- 
tion with the Morgan raid, the report of W. H. H. Terrell, adjutant-general 
of Indiana, concerning the organization of the minute-men for repelling the 
invaders in herewith given : 

"Late on the evening of July 8, 1863, the intelligence was received at 
Indianapolis that a rebel force, estimated to be six thousand cavalry, with 
four pieces of artillery under command of Gen. John H. Morgan, had crossed 
the Ohio river, near Mauckport, and was moving on Corydon, Indiana. 
Governor Morton at once issued a patriotic call upon the citizens of the state, 
to leave their various occupations and organize for defence. 

"Under this call, within the space of forty-eight hours, sixty-five thou- 
sand men had tendered their services. Of this force, thirteen regiments and 
one battalion were organized specially for this emergency, and the regiments 
designated numerically, from the One Hundred and Second to One Hundred 
and Fourteen, inclusive, the battalion being assigned to the One Hundred and 
Seventh Regiment." 


When the war with Spain came on, in 1898, Indiana was not lacking in 
its patriotism. Her quota was so small and her patriotism so abundant, that 
it was feared by many who were anxious to bear a part that no opportunity 
would be given for service. Dearborn county lacked none of its former read- 
iness to respond to the call, but at first the opportunity seemed lacking. The 
first call was filled by the militia organizations of the state volunteering to 
enlist and maintain their status, as in the militia. But a second call gave the 
counties that were alert the chance to be recognized and Dearborn county, as 
usual, secured recognition by the acceptance of one company. This company 
had been recruited by George A. West, who was made its captain : George 
W. Fitch, who was appointed its first lieutenant, and Hanson G. Freeman, 
who was appointed its second lieutenant. 

Governor Mount assigned the company to the One Hundred and Sixty- 
first Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, as Company M. The non-com- 
missioned officers and the enlisted men were as follow : First sergeant, Jacob 
J. Rief: quartermaster sergeant, Henry A. Spencer; sergeants. George W. 
Laird. John Seekatz. Charles D. Sparks and Cyrus M. Spencer: corporals, 
Henry C. Flush. John Siemental. Jesse L. Laswcll. Edward Marshall, Paul 

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Givan, Edwin J. Evans, John J. Schofield, Charles H. Hayes, William C. 
Wilson, Andrew Dailey, Adrian H. Cissna and George J. Fleck; musicians, 
John M. Strauss and George R. McElf resh ; artificer, John J. Fleck ; wagoner, 
William McAdams; privates, Wesley W. Abdon, Henry Andrews, Frank 
April, George J. Aylor, Charles B. Barrow, Charles H. Bell, Clyde C. Berry, 
Nicholas Billingsley, Thomas C. Brumblay, Henry Christian, Ira W. Clark, 
James Clark, John E. Clark, Bertram V\ r . Connelly, William W. Cooper, Ed- 
ward S. Cox, John Cox, Joseph Cross, Milton E. Davis, George Donner. 
Samuel Downs, Leroy Emehiser, Charles F. Enke, Luke Fahy, James M. 
Frazier, John Frost, Albert E. Gerkin, Andrew Gould, George K. Gould. 
Harley Gray, Peter Hauser, George M. Hayes, Edward M. Hitchcock, Homer 
Huntingdon, Thomas B. Jeffries, Albert L. Johnson, Gifford Johnson, Hal 
Johnson, Walter D. Jones, Charles L. Kelsey, George C. Kepper, George P. 
Ketcham, John W. Knagge, August M. Knippenberg, John M. Kunkel, Ed- 
ward Landers. William R. Lawrence, John F. Losey, Benjamin Marshall. 
Henry Mason, Charles W. McCartney, Ralph A. Meyer, Charles E. Mon- 
tooth, Henry C. Pate. Minter Purnell, Emery J. Ratekin, Amos B. Reed, 
Fred C. Roemer, George Schnetzer, Edward Schwab, Frank E. Speckman, 
Walter S. Stewart, Henry H. Stille, Calvin Suit, Charles J. Taylor, William 
A. Taylor, William Taylor, Edward E. Thompson, William H. Temke, Ed- 
ward A. Truitt, Gideon H. Tudor, Marcus W r ard, William S. Webster, Will- 
iam J. Wesler. Henry J. Wingerberg, Martin Winkley, Clarence Young and 
John G. Zimmerman ; recruits, Ernest M. Bales, Curtis A. Moody, Frank C. 
McCartney, Charles H. Rief, Karl Slageter and George W. Strieker. 

The regiment, after a short time in camp at Indianapolis, was sent to 
Jacksonville, Florida, where it remained for several months, after which it 
was ordered to Savannah, where it stayed until about January i, 1899, when 
it was ordered to Havana, Cuba, where it remained until ordered home for 
muster out. It was mustered out at Savannah on April 30, 1899, and returned 
home at once. WTiile the men never were ordered to take part in any en- 
gagements with the enemy, yet they were as ready and willing, if it had been 
their lot, as any of the men who had, in the years gone by, stood in front of 
an enemy. 

During their term of service they lost two men by sickness, but none 
was discharged on account of disability. The scenes on the streets of Law- 
renceburg when the men were leaving for the rendezvous at Indianapolis were 
a reminder of the stirring days of the Civil War. Grave news had been re- 
ceived from Santiago, Cuba, that the army then there was having severe en- 


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gagements and the future seemed to promise that the Dearborn county com- 
pany would soon be called on to meet the enemy. The problem of sanitation 
in a tropical climate had not then been worked out and relatives and friends 
of these who had enlisted realized the seriousness of a campaign in Cuba. 
The streets were full of people, met to give the soldiers a cheery good-bye, and 
the old veterans of the Civil War led the procession escorting them to their 

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Before Indiana became a territory, and while Dearborn county was at- 
tached to Hamilton county, it is probable that what, if any, legal business the 
pioneers had, was transacted in Cincinnati. At that time those who lived 
in the county were only squatters, having no legal possession of any of the land, 
neither could they obtain such possession. While the county was part of Bote- 
tourt county, Virginia, if there were any white people residing here they were 
not of the kind who referred any of their transactions to a court. While 
it was a part of Illinois county, or Knox county, the seat of justice was too far 
away to be considered in legal matters. In 1796, when the first permanent set- 
tlers located in Dearborn county, there were nine attorneys in Cincinnati, 
according to Judge Burnet's notes, "all of whom, with the exception of two, 
became confirmed drunkards and descended to premature graves." 

Burnet also says what seems to have been true of Dearborn county later 
on, as well as of Cincinnati, that "It is always my opinion that there was a fair 
proportion of genius and talent among the early members of the bar. Some 
of them, it is true, 'were uneducated, and had to acquire their legal knowledge 
after they assumed the profession. These were not numerous, but were noisy 
and officious, and, for some time, were able to secure a considerable amount 
of practice. This may be accounted for, in part, by the fact that the docket 
contained a large number of actions for slander and assault and battery, and 
indictments for larceny, libels and the like, which generally originated among 
the followers of the. army, who were numerous, consisting of pack-horsemen, 
bullock drivers, boatmen and artificers, who were not always discriminating in 
the selection of counsel. 

"In 1796 the circuit comprised the counties of Washington, Hamilton and 
Wayne. Nevertheless in December, 1799, Mr. St. Clair and myself attended 
the court at Vincennes, in the county of Knox, with a view of engaging in the 
practice. But the distance, connected with the fact that the docket did not 
present a prospect of much lucrative business, induced us to abandon the 

"When it is recalled that the country at that time, and for some years after, 
was destitute of roads, bridges and ferries and even of white inhabitants, after 

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traveling thirty or forty miles from the county towns, it might naturally be 
concluded that our journeys through the wilderness from court to court were 
irksome and unpleasant. Such, however, was not the fact. We took care to 
provide comfortable stores, which we were enabled to transport on our horses, 
with the aid a of pack horse, and our minds were made up to endure anything 
that might occur. The want of bridges and ferries rendered the art of swim- 
ming an indispensable qualification of a good hackney. No man purchased a 
good horse for saddle, without being first assured that he was a safe swimmer, 
and when mounted on such a steed he felt himself secure. Generally our 
parties consisted of four or five, and were in reality more like excursions for 
amusement, than journeys of fatigue and distress." 


Oliver H. Smith, in speaking of the early Indiana lawyers, says: "Our 
lawyers were what the world calls self-made men. meaning men who have not 
had the advantage of rich fathers and early education; to whom the higher 
seminaries and colleges were sealed books; men gifted by nature with strong, 
vigorous, clear intellects, fine health and sound constitutions ; men who, like a 
newly-hatched swan, were directed by nature to their proper elements, their 
profession. Few of them failed of success. Necessity urged them to action, 
With most of them it was 'root or die.' In ninety-nine cases out of every 
hundred of the failures in the different professions and avocations in life, 
charged by the world to 'bad luck,' it is nothing more or less than the selection 
of a profession, avocation or business that nature never intended you for. The 
smallest teal or duck that swims on the bosom of Chesapeake Bay, would sink 
and drown, in that element, the best-blooded and finest game-cock that ever 
old Virginia produced in her most chivalric days; while in the cockpit the teal 
or duck would be nowhere in the fight. 

"Our counties furnished too little business for the resident attorneys; 
we all looked for a circuit practice. Some rode the whole circuit, and others 
over but few counties. We sometimes had a little sparring in our cases in 
trials, but it ended there, and we stood banded together like brothers. At 
the Rush Circuit Court my friend, Judge Perry, bargained for a pony for 
$25 to be delivered next day, on a credit of six months. The man came with 
the pony, but required security of the Judge for the $25. The Judge drew the 
note at the top of a sheet of foolscap and signed it. I signed it ; James Rari- 
den signed it and passed it on, and on it went, from lawyer to lawyer around 

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the bar, till some twenty of us had signed it. I then handed it up to the court, 
and the three judges put their names to it. Judge Perry presented it to the 
man he had bought the pony from, but he promptly refused to receive it. 'Do 
you think I am a fool, to let you get the horse and all the lawyers on your 
side? I see you intend to cheat me out of the pony.' Up he jumped and ran 
out of the court house at full gallop. 

"Our attorneys were ready off-hand practitioners, seldom at fault for the 
occasion. Sometimes we had to meet attorneys from other states who 
would fire the Latin and technical terms with a triumphal air, but in most 
cases they were foiled by the quick retorts of our bar." 



Prior to 1820 the following persons seemed to be the members of the 
bar of Dearborn county : James Dill, Jesse B. Thomas, Thomas Wardell, John 
Lawrence, Elijah Sparks, Amos Lane, Jesse L. Holman, James Noble, 
Stephens C. Stephens, William Hendricks, Daniel J. Caswell and Moses Hitch- 
cock. From 1820 to 1840 and up to 1850, were John Test, Sr., George H. 
Dunn, Edwin Pratt, Ezekiel Walker, Arthur St. Clair Vance, Philip L. 
Spooner, Horace Bassett, Henry Cunliffe, Daniel S. Major, James T. Brown, 
Theodore Gazlay and Carter Gazlay. The attorneys in i860 were James T. 
Brown, Abram Brower, William E. Craft, Theodore Gazlay, Carter Gazlay, 
Daniel S. Major, Benjamin M. Piatt, Aguila Reid, Benjamin Spooner, John 
Schwartz and Philip L. Spooner. Aurora — Edward H. Green, William S. 
Holman, John D. Haines, Isaac Miles, Omer F. Roberts and R. Q. Terrill. 

The list of members of the bar placed in the corner stone of the court 
house at its laying in 187 1, contained the following names: Daniel S. Major, 
William S. Holman, John D. Haynes, John Schwartz, John K. Thompson, 
William Wirt Tilley, George B. Fitch, Noah S. Givan, Francis Adkinson, Will- 
iam H. Bainbridge, Omar F. Roberts. George M. Roberts, Elmer W. Adkin- 
son, Hamilton Conaway, William H. Mathews, Isaac M. Dunn, Charles S. 
Dunn, Hugh D. McMullen, Oliver B. Liddell, Richard Gregg and George R. 


It is said of James Dill, one of the most prominent early pioneer members 
of the Dearborn county bar, and perhaps its earliest, according to dates fur- 
nished by Samuel Morrison for the "Dearborn County History." that he was an 

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Irish barrister who emigrated to America shortly after the Revolutionary War. 
He came to the Northwest Territory and soon became the friend and associate 
of Gen. William H. Harrison and Gen. Arthur St. Clair, marrying the daugh- 
ter of the latter. He was appointed by General Harrison the first recorder of 
Dearborn county, March 7, 1803, but resigned in August of the same year. 
He was afterwards, September 6, 18 13, appointed clerk, which place he re- 
tained until his death in 1838. Sen. Oliver H. Smith, who studied law under 
him, describes his preceptor thus: "He was frank and open in his intercourse 
with others; about the common height, wore a long cue, dressed with taste, fea- 
tures good, eyelids heavy, hair thrown back in front." Congressman William 
S. Holman, the "great objector," said this of General Dill : "Gen. James Dill is 
a grand character in the history of Dearborn county. He was the last of our 
gentlemen of the old school. Forty years ago the spirit of Westminster per- 
vaded our jurisprudence. There was infinitely more of the pomp and show 
of judicial authority then than now. When General Dill appeared in court, 
it was in the full costume of the gentlemen of the last century — his knee 
breeches and silver buckles and venerable cue, neatly plaited and flowing over 
his shoulders, seemed a mild protest against the leveling tendencies of the age ; 
but nothing could impair the hold which the gallant soldier and courtly and 
witty Irishman had on the friendship of the people of this county. He re- 
mained clerk for many years, and until his death." General Dill was a soldier 
during the War of 18 12, a member of the territorial Legislature serving as 
speaker of the House in that body. He was a member of the convention that 
formed the first Constitution of the state of Indiana and was chairman of 
the committee on impeachments and militia. He was also a general in the 
state militia, from which he derived his title. 


It is not generally known, but it is true, that to General Dill may be 
given much of the credit of securing the victory over the slavery advocates 
during territorial days. When the issue came that a pro-slavery delegate, or an 
anti-slavery delegate should be elected to represent the territory in Congress, 
Jonathan Jennings was counted the leader of the victorious anti-slavery party ; 
but history says very little concerning General Dill. It was the vote of Dear- 
born county at that election that gave the anti-slavery advocates the victory 
and at that time General Dill was a warm advocate of the anti-slavery party. 
His popularity in his own county was greater than that of any other member of 

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his party. The settlers of Dearborn county, as it was bounded at that time, 
were bitterly against slavery and General Dill was their leader. The result 
was that while Knox county was carried for Randolph, the candidate on the 
pro-slavery ticket, Dearborn county was carried by the anti-slavery party by 
sufficient margin to overcome the Knox county vote. 

W. H. Smith, in his "History of Indiana," says of this slavery issue during 
territorial days and of the campaign of 1809 : "The campaign was of the red- 
hot order and charges and counter charges were freely made and denied. Jen- 
nings proved a thorough campaigner. He made speeches, attended log-roll- 
ings, assisted at house raisings, and made himself generally popular. Governor 
Harrison had been one of the staunchest friends of slavery, and had used all 
his influence against Jennings (and in favor of Thomas Randolph, the pro- 
slavery candidate), but when the votes were counted out the result was that 
Jennings had triumphed. This was a terrible disappointment to Governor 
Harrison and the advocates of slavery, they having failed to recognize the 
trend of public sentiment. The people of Knox county remained steadfast to 
their traditions and favored slavery, but the southern and eastern parts of the 
territory had grown more rapidly than Knox county. The eastern part, 
especially, was settled up by Quakers from North Carolina, who had left that 
state because of their dislike to human bondage, and they brought with them 
into the new territory the feelings which ripened afterwards into active aboli- 

The fight over the slavery question did not end with the campaign of 
1809. Although the advocates of a free territory were victorious, yet the pro- 
slavery party kept up the fight until the Constitution was adopted and Indiana 
became a state. In this fight General Dill was found leading the anti-slavery 
party in this county, shoulder to shoulder with Governor Jennings, and to this 
witty, genial and courtly Irish barrister may be ascribed much* of the credit 
of routing the pro-slavery party and giving the state a free government. 


Quoting from "Butler's History" on this question, the importance of 
which has been overlooked by most writers of early history : "At the election 
for delegates to the convention to frame a Constitution the opponents of slavery 
succeeded in electing a majority of them. The friends of slavery early saw 
their defeat, and they began to agitate to abandon the project of forming a 
state government, on the ground of the increased expense it would entail upon 

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the people. But it was too late for such a proposition to be entertained. Soon 
after the convention organized it came to a vote on the slavery question. It 
was while considering the article providing for amendments to the Constitu- 
tion then about to be made. The question came up again in a more decided 
and emphatic form on the report of the committee on general provisions. This 
committee reported a very long section, with a great many provisos in it, but 
after due consideration, and considerable discussion, the report was amended 
into the form in which it was finally adopted. 

"In the eastern counties it was generally considered that the adoption of 
the Constitution was operative at once, and that all slaves were unconditionally 
emancipated by it, and those who owned slaves at once gave them their free- 
dom. In the western counties, however, a different opinion prevailed. It 
was there held that the property in slaves was a vested right, secured by the 
ordinance, and could not be impaired. 

"Some of the slave-holders in those counties removed their slaves from 
Indiana into Southern states, but in most cases such slaves were afterwards 
released by the courts. In 1817 two slaves, held in Orange county, brought 
suit for their freedom, but did not succeed until after a contest before the 
courts lasting for five years. In the western counties slaves were openly held, 
and as late as 1820 there still remained in Indiana one hundred and ninety 
slaves. It was not until 1830 that the slavery question was brought to an end. 
so far as the legal right to hold a slave was concerned, .but the national census 
of 1840 disclosed the fact that there were still three slaves in Indiana." 

Just how much General Dill, as leader of the anti-slavery forces of Dear- 
born county, contributed to all this has never been shown, but it is probable, 
from the fact that he was elected a member of the constitutional convention 
from Dearborn county, after having made the fight against slavery previously 
for some years, that he was considered the leader of the anti-slavery party 
in the county. 


Little has been written in local history of Jesse B. Thomas, one of the 
first members of the bar of the county. He seems to have been a man of fine 
ability and of strong character. He located in Dearborn county and was a 
practicing attorney, when the county was organized on March 7. 1803. He 
was born in Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1777 and in 1799 came west to Bracken 
county, Kentucky, where he studied law with his brother. Richard Symees 

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Thomas. At the first election of the territorial Legislature in 1805, he was 
elected a member and served as speaker of the House. He was a member of the 
second territorial Legislature, which was convened on September 26, 1808, and 
was again elected speaker. Later on, when Illinois Territory was organized, 
he was appointed, by President Jefferson, one of the judges of that territory, 
and removed to Kaskashia, thence to Cahokia and afterwards to Edwards- 
ville. On the formation of a Constitution and a state government in Illinois, 
in 1818, he' was a delegate to and president of the convention that formed the 
Constitution of that state. He was elected one of the first two United States 
senators by the state Legislature, and served in that capacity for ten years. He 
was either the author of the celebrated historical "Missouri Compromise," or 
had the honor of having his name attached to it, as the "Thomas Bill." After 
retiring from public life he removed to Mt. Vernon. Ohio, where he died in 
1853, at the ripe age of seventy-six. 


Judge Elijah Sparks was a native of Queen Anne county, Virginia, and 
emigrated to Kentucky about 1800, where he studied law and practiced at 
Bank Lick (now Covington). In the spring of 1806 he removed to Law- 
renceburg, at which time John Weaver, a brother-in-law, was a United 
States officer and, with a small command, had charge of a block-house in 
what was then Dearborn county. On January 16, 1814, he was elected one 
of the territorial judges of Dearborn county, which office he filled until his 
death, in May, 181 5. He was, in his earlier years, a traveling preacher of 
the Methodist church, and Rev. Allen Wiley alludes to him. with a contribu- 
tion to his character as a Christian, as "one of the prominent instruments 
of the planting, spread, and symmetry of Methodism in this part of Indiana." 
His daughter married William S. Durbin, and was the mother of Winfield 
Taylor Durbin, governor of Indiana from January, 1901, to January, 1905. 


Horace Bassett was another of the strong members of the legal fraternity 
with which Dearborn county was blessed in its early history. He was born 
in Mansfield, Connecticut, on January 18, 1782. In early life he emigrated 
to Vermont, where he studied law with a Colonel Mattox. He followed his 
profession successfully in that state for several years, filling the office of 

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state's attorney for some time. He removed to Indiana in 1820 and located 
at Aurora. Two years later he was elected a member of the state Legislature, 
which was yet meeting at Corydon. He was re-elected, serving continuously 
for a period of six years. He was one of the members of the first Legislature 
that assembled at Indianapolis. It is said that he was instrumental, during 
his service as a legislator, in securing to Dearliorn county, the adoption of the 
township system, and that when the second constitutional convention was in 
session, William S. Holman, one of the members from Dearborn county, suc- 
ceeded in having the Dearborn county system extended to the whole state, 
under the clause that all laws were required to be uniform. 

In 1832 Mr. Bassett was appointed by President Jackson one of the com- 
missioners to remove the Indians from the state of Indiana to Indian Terri- 
tory. In 1834 he was appointed by Judge Jesse L. Holman, clerk of the 
United States circuit and district court and removed to Indianapolis, which 
position he continued to hold until his death in that city on December 18. 
i860. At his death the committee appointed to draft resolutions expressive 
of the feelings of the members of the bar in that city said of him : "It is not 
so much his long and useful life as a lawyer, a legislator and an officer of 
the court ; as his high merits as a man and Christian, which we desire to 
commemora te. ' ' 


It is given to some men to live when history is made, and it is the for- 
tunate province of others, by the exercise of their gifts and ability and native 
force of character, to assist in making history. Amos Lane and his son, 
James H. Lane, were of the latter kind. The former was born on March I, 
1778, in the state of New York. He settled in Lawrenceburg in 1808 and 
sought to be admitted to the bar, but was refused license, for the sole reason, 
as he frequently declared, that he was an ardent friend of Thomas Jefferson. 
In the same fall, 1808, he removed to the Kentucky side of the river, and 
located on the Judge Piatt farm. In 181 1 he removed to the county seat at 
Burlington, and was admitted to the bar of Kentucky, where he practiced 
until 1814, when he once more moved to Lawrenceburg and was admitted to 
the bar without further trouble, soon gaining a high standing in his profes- 
sion, especially as a criminal lawyer. He was employed to prosecute in the 
celebrated case of the State vs. Amasa Fuller, indicted for murder. In 18 16 
he was a member of the first Legislature of the state and was chosen speaker 
of the House. He was re-elected in 181 7 and served once more in 1839. He 

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was elected to Congress in 1833, defeating John Test, a very able and popular 
Whig. In 1835 he was again elected, this time defeating George H. Dunn. 
In Congress, Mr. Lane was a great champion of General Jackson, and won 
the title of "The Wheel-Horse/' on account of his ability and zeal in de- 
fending the hero of New Orleans. He is described by his son, George W. 
Lane, as being "fully six feet high, erect and of commanding carriage, and 
possessed a voice of remarkable force and power, deep and full, over which he 
had complete control. His language was ready and fluent, and being master 
of invective in a marked degree, woe unto the man that incurred his dis- 
pleasure. He had full, blue eyes, which were very expressive under all 
circumstances, but when he was aroused by feelings of emotion they were 
positively piercing. Frequently he would close his teeth together, and talk 
through them with a hissing sound that would almost make one's flesh crawl. 
Instantly changing his manner, his voice would become soft and mellow, 
coupled with the most touching tones, that would draw tears from many of 
his hearers." Hon. William S. Holman said of him: "He was a man of 
strong will ; at the forum or on the stump, he neither asked or gave quarter, 
but he commanded an eloquence that could raise a hurricane or melt his au- 
dience to tears." Mr. Lane died on September 2, 1849. 

James Henry Lane, son of Amos Lane, was born in Lawrenceburg in 
1 814, shortly after the family removed from Burlington, Kentucky, to this 
side of the river. He was a merchant in his younger days, and at one time 
was the proprietor of a store on the corner of High and Walnut streets, the 
house in which he conducted his store is still standing, and known as the 
Parry corner. He studied law under his father, Amos Lane, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, but was of too stirring a disposition to settle down to the 
practice. On the breaking out of the Mexican War, James H. Lane at once 
raised a company and was appointed by Governor Whitcomb, colonel of the 
Third Indiana Regiment. He served as its colonel until the expiration of its 
term of service, and was mustered out, only to engage at once in recruiting 
the Fifth Indiana, of which he was made colonel, serving until the close of 
the war. He served as lieutenant-governor of Indiana from 1849 to I 853, 
and represented this district in Congress from 1853 to 1855. When the 
"border ruffian" difficulties commenced in the state of Kansas, he resigned 
his seat in Congress and went to that territory, where he became a noted 
leader of the Free-State party. He was instrumental in making a free state 
of Kansas and on its being admitted into the Union was elected to the United 
States Senate, serving one full term and was serving his second when he 

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ended his strenuous life by suicide. "He was a man of restless ambition, un- 
conquerable energy and imperious will. For his serv ices in repelling the bor- 
der ruffians of Kansas, and preserving that beautiful country from the curse 
of slavery, he deserved well of his country, and will ever occupy a prominent 
and honorable place in the history of the great struggle between freedom and 
bondage." James H. Lane married, in 1841, Mary Baldridge, a granddaugh- 
ter of General Arthur St. Clair. 


Judge Jesse L. Holman was born at Danville, Kentucky, on October 24, 
1784. While he was an infant his father was killed in the defense of a block- 
house, which had been attacked by the Indians. He studied law at Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, in the office of Henry Clay, and when scarcely of age com- 
menced practice at Port William, now Carrollton, Kentucky, where he mar- 
ried Elizabeth Masterson, a lady of superior accomplishments. In 1810 he 
removed to Indiana Territory, purchased land and erected a cabin on the 
range of hills that rise abruptly from the Ohio, just south of Aurora. From 
the time of his coming to Indiana until the day of his death, he was almost 
continually in the public service. In 181 1 he was appointed prosecuting at- 
torney of Dearborn county, by Governor Harrison. In 18 14 he represented 
the county in the territorial Legislature and was the president of the legisla- 
tive council, and in the same year was appointed by Governor Posey judge of 
the second judicial circuit of the territory. On the admission of the state into 
the Union, Judge Holman was appointed by Governor Jonathan Jennings one 
of the three supreme judges of Indiana and he remained on the bench for 
fourteen years. In 1831 he was defeated for United States senator by but 
one vote, although the Legislature was politically much against him. In 
1832 he was elected to take charge of the common schools of Dearborn county 
and in 1834 was appointed by President Jackson United States judge for the 
district of Indiana, and held that office until his death, on March 28, 1842. 
Justice John McLean, of the supreme bench of the nation, said of Mr. Hol- 
man: "His legal research and acumen have left enduring evidence, but 
what most excited my admiration was his singleness of purpose; he had no 
motive but to discharge his public duty uprightly." Judge Holman, even 
with all his duties as a jurist and legislator, took time to preach the Gospel, 
and for years the pastor of the Baptist church at Aurora. He organized 
a Sunday school and was its superintendent. He laid out the city of Aurora 
and was active irt establishing the college at Franklin, Indiana. 

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William S. Holman, son of Jesse L. Holman, perhaps attained more 
prominence than any citizen of Dearborn county since its organization. His 
whole life, after his majority, was devoted to public affairs. No public man 
in the state, perhaps, held the confidence of the public as thoroughly as he 
did. Born at Veraestau, the home of his father, overlooking the Ohio river, 
and the broad valley near Aurora, on September 6, 1822, he was educated in 
the common schools of the neighborhood and at Franklin College, where he 
studied for two years. He spent his whole life as a citizen of Dearborn 
county. At the age of twenty he lost his father, which prevented his com- 
pleting his college course. He then studied law and when of age, was ad- 
mitted to the bar and at once commenced practice in his native county. In the 
same year he was elected probate judge of Dearborn county. In 1849 he 
was chosen prosecuting attorney, and in 1850 was elected senatorial delegate 
from Dearborn county to the constitutional convention. In 185 1 he was 
a representative in the first Legislature under the new Constitution, and was 
made chairman of the judiciary committee. In 1852 he was elected judge of 
the court of common pleas, serving until 1856. In 1858 he was elected to 
Congress, from what was then the fourth congressional district, and from that 
time, until his death in 1897. he was elected continuously a member of the 
lower house of Congress, with the exceptions of 1864. when he was defeated 
by John I. Farquar. of Brookville. and 1876 and 1878, when he was defeated 
by Thomas M. Browne, and in 1894, when James E. Watson defeated him. 
At the time of his death he was said to have served in Congress longer than 
any other member. He always acted with the Democratic party, but during 
the Civil War supported the war measures of Lincoln's administration and 
cast his vote for the appropriations made for the suppression of the rebellion. 
He was opposted to the reckless disposal of the public domain and to all 
forms of class legislation. He died at his post in Congress, in the summer 
of 1897. and is buried in the family lot in Aurora cemetery. 


James T. Brown was one of the characters of the Dearborn county bar. 
Born in 1795 in Mercer county. Kentucky, he came to Indiana in 1814. grow- 
ing to manhood near Madison, obtaining what educational advantages the 
schools then offered in that city. He first was admitted to the bar in Decatur 
county, but located in Dearborn county in 1838. He was possessed of keen 
wit and intellectual vigor and was famed for his terseness of expression and 

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inexhaustible humor. Those who knew him have long since passed away, but 
stories of his peculiarities are yet extant and are passed down from older 
members of the bar to the younger and are thus perpetuated. Mr. Brown Was 
a very eccentric man and had little regard for the customs of polished society. 
A fellow member of the bar said of him soon after his death : "He came to 
Dearborn county thirty years ago, with a piercing black eye, a great bald head, 
an old coat, and no linen exposed to view ; and so he remained to the last ; yet 
he would have been a very bold or a very reckless man, who would have dared 
to have joked the old gentleman on his antique garments, or his contempt for 
ordinary- fashions." He never married and died at Lawrenceburg in 1867. 


George H. Dunn was a native of New York, and came to Dearborn 
county in 1817, an active young man of pleasant manners and good appear- 
ance. Mr. Dunn possessed qualities that enabled him soon to secure the con- 
fidence and respect of the people of the county. As an attorney he was faith- 
ful to his clients, exact in his pleadings, chaste in his language, and in argu- 
ment, kindly and conciliating. His speech, however, was carefully delivered 
and his influence was strong with the people and at the bar. He was elected 
1o the Legislature in 1828, 1832 and 1833; was a member of Congress from 
1837 to 1839 and treasurer of the state of Indiana from 1841 to 1844. He 
assisted in revising the Indiana code, and at a later period. 1847 to 1850. 
serv ed as circuit judge. He was active in the affairs of state and his construc- 
tive mind was ever busy in plans for its welfare. While in the Legislature 
the charters of the state bank and its branches and of the railroad from Law- 
renceburg to Indianapolis were passed, both of which it is claimed were 
largely the work of Mr. Dunn. On July 4, 1833, the completion of the 
first mile of railroad in the state of Indiana was celebrated at Shelbyville by 
thousands from all parts of the state, and George H. Dunn was the hero of 
the occasion. Though disappointments followed, he never gave up the idea 
of a railway from Lawrenceburg to the capital of the state, and to his untiring 
zeal and confidence in its feasibility may be attributed its final success. He 
did not see it fully accomplished until he had grown old in the work, but peo- 
ple of that day gave to him the entire credit for its successful completion. On 
l he monument over his grave, in the old cemetery in the city of Lawrence- 
burg, is appropriately placed the representation of a railway train. He died 
on January 12. 1854, aged fifty-seven. 

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Daniel S. Major was a native of Dearborn county, and was born near 
Harrison on September 6, 1808. His father, Judge William Major, was one 
of the early pioneers of Dearborn county, having purchased land on White- 
water river near Harrison, as early as June 5, 1802. Facilities for education 
were limited in the pioneer days, but Mr. Major took advantage of every 
opportunity offered and at an early age attended Miami University, at Ox- 
ford, Ohio. A close student, he was graduated from that institution in 1831, 
with the first honors of the university. The same month he entered the office 
of the clerk of Dearborn county, as deputy clerk and student of law, under 
that courteous and witty Irishman, Gen. James Dill. From that time until the 
day of his death he was active in the affairs of the county, taking part in 
every movement that would tend to the upbuilding of society. As an attor- 
ney he was strong in commercial law, to which he especially gave his time. 
He was a Whig in politics, and later a Republican. In private, his reputation 
was spotless and he was an earnest, Christian gentleman, an active supporter 
of every educational enterprise of his day. He died at his home, on a beau- 
tiful spot overlooking the broad valley of the Ohio, on September 23, 1872. 


Ebenezer Dumont was the son of John and Julia L. Dumont, and was a 
native of Vevay, Indiana, having been born in that town in 18 14. He came 
to Dearborn county at the age of twenty-one and commenced the practice of 
law. In the year 1838 he was elected to the Legislature, as a member of the 
lower House and following this, was county treasurer. At the breaking out 
of the Mexican War he assisted in raising a company and was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of the Fourth Indiana Regiment, in which command he 
served, with distinction for one year, taking part in the capture of Huamantla, 
the siege of Pueblo, and many other engagements. Returning home at the 
expiration of his term of service, he was again elected to the state Legislature, 
as a member of the House of Representatives, and was chosen its speaker. In 
1852 he was elected president of the State Bank of Indiana, which position 
he filled until the charter expired. At the breaking out of the Civil War he 
was president of the board of sinking-fund commissioners, from which he re- 
signed to accept the position of colonel of the Seventh Regiment, Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, serving with much credit during the three-months ser- 

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vice. When the regiment was reorganized, he was again appointed its colonel 
by Governor Morton, but in a short time was promoted to brigadier-general 
and assigned to Kentucky, commanding at Crab Orchard and later on at Pa- 
ducah. His health being too precarious to justify his remaining in the ser- 
vice, he accepted the nomination for Congress in the fall of 1862, and was 
elected, serving two terms. Shortly before his death he was appointed terri- 
torial governor of Idaho, but died before going to his labor, on April 17, 187 1, 
at his residence in Indianapolis, where he had resided since his election as 
president of the State Bank. 


Col. Benjamin J. Spooner was born at Mansfield, Ohio, on October 27, 
1823. His parents were natives of New Bedford, Massachusetts. At the be- 
ginning of the Mexican War he assisted in raising a company, with James H. 
Lane, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in Company K, of the Third 
Regiment, with James H. Lane as its colonel. He took part in the battle of 
Buena Vista, and returning to Dearborn county read law and begun its 
practice in Lawrenceburg. He was elected prosecuting attorney for the dis- 
trict and took an active interest in the politics of those times, first as a Whig, 
afterwards as a Republican. At the commencement of the Civil War he was 
commissioned hy Governor Morton lieutenant-colonel of the Seventh Regi- 
ment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, for the three-months service, serving in the 
campaigns in eastern Virginia. His term of service expiring, he was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel of the Fifty-first Indiana, under Colonel Streight. 
They were in winter quarters in Kentucky during the winter of 1861-62, and 
took part in the battle of Pittsburg Landing on the 6th and 7th of April, 
1862, but after the siege of Corinth he recruited the Eighty-third Regiment. 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was appointed its colonel by Governor Mor- 
ton. With this command he was sent to the front and was in the campaigns 
in front of Vicksburg and afterwards was transferred to the Army of the 
Cumberland, taking an active part in the campaign in front of Atlanta up to 
the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, in which engagement he lost his left arm. 
His wound unfitting him for active service, he resigned and was appointed by 
President Lincoln United States marshal for the district of Indiana, this be- 
ing the last appointment made by the martyred President. Colonel Spooner 
served in that capacity until 1879. when he resigned. He died at Lawrence- 
burg on April 8. 1881. 

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John Schwartz was born in Bavaria in 1831, and received a classical 
education. He took an active part in the Revolution of 1848 and was com- 
pelled to flee from the land of his birth to avoid arrest and possible punish- 
ment, perhaps death. He landed in New York in 1850 and reached Law- 
renceburg, this county, on June 7, 1853. He worked as a clerk and book- 
keeper and later studied law with James T. Brown. About the year 1858, he 
formed a partnership with Benjamin J. Spooner. He served as mayor of 
Lawrenceburg for four years, and following this service was city attorney 
for four years. He recruited a company at the commencement of the Civil 
War and was commissioned its captain, serving for more than a year, at the 
end of which time he was compelled to resign on account of poor health. His 
company was assigned to the Thirty-second Regiment, Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry, under Col. August Willich, and was wholly composed of Germans. 
Captain Schwartz possessed a fine legal mind and a wonderful memory. It 
was said he could recall page and book for most any reference needed in a 
law suit. He was a candidate on the state Republican ticket for attorney- 
general in the campaign of 1874, but was defeated. 


George M. Roberts was born in Cross Plains, Ripley county, Indiana, 
in March, 1843. When about eleven years of age his parents removed to 
Quincy, Illinois, where he acquired his primary education in the public 
schools of that city. Later he attended Knox College, at Galesburg. Illinois, 
and in 1864 enlisted in the One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Illinois Regi- 
ment and served as a first lieutenant during the Civil War. Upon leaving the 
army he attended law school at Albany, New York, graduating in June, 1865. 
He first located at Omaha, Nebraska, where he was elected mayor, and in 
1870 came to this county, locating at Lawrenceburg. From the time of his 
locating in Dearborn county until the day of his death, in October, 1906, he 
was recognized as a lawyer of ability ; a strong advocate and fearless in the 
discharge of duty. He was three times elected mayor of Lawrenceburg, dis- 
charging the duties of that office to the satisfaction of his constituents. 

O. H. Smith, in his "Early Indiana Trials and Sketches," gives, among 
other things, something of an idea of social conditions as early as 18 18. He 
says: "Early in the winter of 18 18, in the midst of a snowstorm, I arrived in 


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Lawrenceburg from Rising Sun. whiere I had lived since coming into the 
state in 1817. The evening of my arrival. General Dill, clerk of the circuit 
court, was to have a party at his house, and had promised fine music for the 
occasion. I was favored with an invitation. I started early from the hotel. 
Before I got within a square of the house of the General, the fife and drum 
were distinctly heard in that direction. Stepping up to the door, I knocked 
several times, but got no answer. Entering the main hall, I saw upon the 
platform of the stairs the musicians, one playing the fife, one beating on the 
small drum and the other, on a huge bass drum, with all their might, making 
as much noise as if they had been at the head of the army at the battle of 
Germantown. The General and Captain Vance were marching to the music. 
The General told us afterward thai it was as fine music as he ever heard. I 
was introduced that evening to Capt. Samuel Vance and General Harrison. 
General Dill and General Harrison were warm friends. They had both acted 
as aids to Gen. Anthony Wayne in the Indian wars." 

Mr. Smith says of Captain Vance: ''Captain Vance held his first commis- 
sion in the army from General Washington and was in many hard-fought bat- 
tles, the 'bravest of the brave.' He was present in the midst of St. Clair's de- 
feat, fought with General Wayne in his campaign against the Indians and 
afterwards commanded at Ft. Washington. The war over, Captain Vance 
returned to civil life, married Miss Lawrence, a granddaughter of General St. 
Clair, became proprietor of Lawrenceburg and named the town for his wife. 
The person of Captain Vance was tall and commanding; his face, large; his 
nose, of the Roman cast : his eyes, light ; his hair, sandy, with a cue hanging 
down his back; his forehead, high and slightly retreating; his nature was 
frank and noble, magnanimous and generous. He was the father of Lawrence 
Vance, of Indianapolis. Captain Vance died years since, honored and re- 
spected by all who knew him." 

Speaking of General Dill, with whom he studied law, O. H. Smith says : 
"General Dill was my preceptor. He was frank and open in his intercourse 
with others, about the common height, wore a long cue, dressed with taste, 
features good, eyelids heavy, hair thrown back in front. The General married 
a daughter of General St. Clair and was many years secretary of the Senate 
and clerk of the Dearborn circuit court. The General has long since left us." 

Speaking of Judge Isaac Dunn, Smith says : "About the same time, I be- 
came acquainted with Judge Isaac Dunn, of Lawrenceburg, a native of New 
Jersey, one of the prominent men of the state. The Judge was speaker of the 
House of Representatives and many years associate judge of the Dearborn cir- 



cuit court. He married a sister of John H. Piatt, of Cincinnati. Judge Dunn 
was one of the most energetic men the state ever had in it, possessing good 
common sense, clear intellect, and sound judgment, with a pure moral and 
religious character." 

Speaking of Judge John Watts. Mr. Smith says : "Judge John Watts, 
another of the pioneers of Indiana, I must number with my early friends. Judge 
Watts was a Baptist preacher. His person was large and fleshy. He was the 
predecessor of Judge Eggleston on the circuit bench ; was plain in his dress 
and manners ; of strong, clear mind ; hospitable and liberal, friendly to all, and 
always courteous to the bar. He was the father of Col. Johnson Watts, of 
Dearborn, and Judge John S. Watts, of New Mexico. Judge Watts has since 
gone to his reward, beloved by all who knew him." 


O. H. Smith, once United States senator from Indiana, who came to Dear- 
born county from New Jersey and studied law with Gen. James Dill from 1817 
to 1819, gives the following account of the trial of Fuller and his execution — 
the first and last legal execution the county ever suffered: 

"At the March term, 1820, of the Dearborn circuit court. Judge Eggleston 
took his seat on the bench, as the successor of the Hon. John Watts. The 
Judge was a young Virginia lawyer, a cousin of the Hon. William S. Archer, 
of the United States Senate. He was a fine scholar and a well-read lawyer. 
His integrity and his moral courage were above suspicion, while his im- 
partiality commended him to the approbation of all. He will long be remem- 
bered by the writer, one of the young members of the profession, for the 
Judge was ever willing to hear all that could be said by the humblest members 
of the bar, and when he decided, even against him, his manner gave courage to 
increase preparation for the next case. I received my license to practice law 
. from his hand, after a short examination, in person. His remarks in signing 
the license made a deep impression on me. My means were exhausted, and it 
was a question of life or death with me. The Judge kindly remarked, 'Mr. 
Smith, I will sign your license, but you are only prepared to commence the 
study; don't be discouraged but persevere in your studies and you may yet 
stand high in your profession.' 

"The March term ( 1820) of the Dearborn circuit court was memorable 
for the trial of Fuller for killing Warren. Palmer Warren, the deceased, was 
my room-fellow at our boarding house while I was a student. He was a 

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young, pleasant man, of good reputation. Fuller was his senior in years and 
also highly respectable. These young men, it seems, became attached to a 
young, though not handsome, girl, with a broad English accent, and both pro- 
posed marriage. The young lady preferred Warren, and rejected Fuller, who, 
in a moment of excited feelings, shot Warren with a pistol, first offering him 
one to defend himself, which Warren refused to accept. The ball entered the 
left breast and penetrated the heart. Warren fell dead. I was not there at the 
time, but saw his vest afterward, with the bullet hole through it. As these 
young men were highly respected in Lawrenceburg, especially Fuller, who was 
a great favorite, the trial excited much interest. I was present at the trial. 
The young judge took his seat upon the bench for the first time. The prisoner 
was brought into court by Capt. Thomas Longley, the sheriff, and took his seat 
in the box. He was dressed in black, except his white vest ; his countenance 
was composed and his eye steady. Amos Lane and John Test appeared for 
the state ; Daniel J. Caswell, Charles Dewey, Samuel O. Richardson, John Law- 
rence and Merritt S. Craig were counsel for the prisoner. The jury was em- 
paneled with some difficulty. The evidence was positive and conclusive; still 
the arguments of counsel occupied several days. Every appeal that was pos- 
sible to make to the jury by the able counsel for the prisoner, was fully met 
by the closing speech of Mr. Lane for the state. The iUry, after a short 
absence, returned a verdict of 'guilty of murder in the first degree.' The 
judge, after overruling a motion for a new trial, pronounced a most impressive 
and solemn sentence of death, by hanging, upon the prisoner. The court room 
was filled to overflowing with both men and women. All were much affected 
and many tears were shed. The prisoner looked pale and agitated, yet it was 
apparent that he was not without hope. The execution was fixed at a distant 
day by the court, to afford an opportunity to test the legality of the conviction 
in the supreme court. The judgment was affirmed by the last judicial tri- 
bunal and the record returned. The people in Dearborn county, almost en 
masse, signed a petition to the governor for the pardon of Fuller, and such 
were his hopes, that he refused to escape from his prison, when he could have 
done so. Time rolled on and brought the fatal hour, but no pardon and Fuller 
was publicly executed in the presence of thousands. This case will long be 
remembered in old Dearborn." 

William H. Bainbridge was the son of P. W. and Catherine (Palmer) 
Bainbridge and was born in the state of Pennsylvania on June 5, 1829. He 
came to Indiana in 1848, locating at first in Rushville. but, in 185 1, removed to 
Shelby ville, where he studied law with Judge Cyrus Wright. After complet- 

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ing his studies, he removed to Brown county, Indiana, where he practiced his 
profession with success until 1866 when he came to Lawrenceburg. He served 
for five years as attorney for the city of Lawrenceburg and in 1884 was elected 
Judge of the seventh judicial circuit, comprising Dearborn and Ohio counties. 
He was, after his term of office, in the active practice for a number of years, 
retiring to a farm near Morrow, Ohio, several years before his death, which 
occurred on December 20, 1913* 


The attorneys now practicing before the courts of Dearborn county are, 
Willard M. Dean, Noah J. Givan, Martin J. Givan, Harry McMullen, Cassius 
McMullen, John H. Russe, Ira L. Miller, Charles J. Lang, J. H. Russe, Jr., 
Joseph C. Van Dolah, Estal G. Bielby, Thomas C. Carmichael, Thomas S. 
Cravens, Llewellyn E. Daviess, Nicholas Cornet, Morris W. McManaman, 
Charles A. Lowe, Edward L. Hayes, James H. Ewbank, George E. Tebbs, 
Everett McClurc. 

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It is not an easy task to give an accurate history of the medical profes- 
sion in Dearborn county. In the pioneer days of the profession there was no 
organized society of medical men to record the doings of the early physicians. 
The pioneers in the profession were evidently men of high standing and well 
worthy of a place in history. It took a man thoroughly imbued with the high 
calling of his profession to respond to the calls for help which, sometimes, 
took them on horseback rides for miles through the thick forest and at the risk 
of life from Indians or wild animals. The streams had to be forded and night 
did not deter them when duty demanded their presence. 


Dr. Daniel Drake, one of the earliest physicians of Cincinnati, in 1852 
delivered an address on "Early Medical Times" that tells the story, true to 
the facts, of the every-day life of the pioneer physician. He had been through 
that period as a practicing physician and at the time of delivering the address 
was old. being, not many years afterwards, gathered to his fathers. He said 
as follows : "Every physician was then a country practitioner, and often rode 
twelve or fifteen miles on bridle paths to some isolated cabin. Occasional rides 
of twenty miles, or even thirty miles, were performed on horseback, over roads 
which no kind of a carriage could travel on. The ordinary charge was twenty- 
five cents per mile, one-half being deducted and the other half paid in prov- 
ender for his horse or produce for his family. Those pioneer physicians 
were, moreover, their own bleeders and cuppers, and practiced dentistry not 
less, certainly, than physic ; they charged a quarter of a dollar for extracting a 
single tooth, with an understood deduction if two or more were drawn at the 
same time. In plugging teeth, tin foil was used instead of gold leaf, which 
had the advantage of not showing so conspicuously. Still further, every phy- 
sician for the first twelve or fifteen years was his own apothecary, and ordered 
little importations of cheap and inferior medicines by the dry goods merchants 
once a year, taking care to move in the matter long before they were needed. 
From twenty-five to thirty days was the required time of transportation from 
Philadelphia to Brownsville, and as much more by river to Cincinnati. Thus, 

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from four to five months were required for the importation of a medicine 
which, at this time, being ordered by telegraph and sent by express, may be 
received in two days, or a sixtieth part of the time. Thus science has length- 
ened seconds into minutes. The prices at which these medicines were sold dif- 
fered widely from those of the present day. Thus, an emetic, a Dovers pow- 
der, a dose of Glauber's salt, or a night draught of paregoric and antimonial 
wine (haustus anodynus, as it was learnedly called), was put at twenty-five 
cents ; a vermifuge or blister at fifty cents ; and an ounce of Peruvian bark 
at seventy-five cents for pale, and one dollar for the best red or yellow. On 
the other hand, personal services were valued low. For a bleeding, twenty- 
five cents ; for a sitting up all night, one dollar, and for a visit, from twenty- 
five to fifty cents, according to circumstances or character of the patient. 

"Many articles in common use then have, in a half century, been super- 
seded or fallen more or less into neglect. I can recollect balsam of sulphur, 
balsam of Peru, Glauber's salt, flowers of benzoin, Huxham's tincture, sper- 
maceti (for internal use), melapodium, flowers of zinc, ammoniaret of cop- 
per, dragon's blood, elemi, gamboge, bitter apple, nux vomica, and red, pale 
and yellow bark. On the other hand, we have gained since that day the va- 
rious salts of quinine and morphine, strychnine, creosote, iodine and its prep- 
arations, hydrocyanic acid, ergot, collodion, sulphate of magnesia and chlo- 

"Indeed, in a half century our materia medica has undergone a decided 
change, partly by the discovery of new articles and partly by the extraction of 
the active principles of the old. The physician often carried medicines in hi 5 
pocket and dealt them out in the sick room ; but the common practice was to 
return home, compound them and send them out. But few of you have seen 
the genuine old doctor's shop of the last century, or regaled your olfactory 
nerves in the mingled odors which, like incense to the god of physic, rose from 
brown paper bundles, bottles stopped with worm eaten corks, and open jars 
of ointment, not a whit behind those of the apothecary in the days of Solo- 
mon. Yet such a place is very well for a student : however idle, he will be 
always absorbing a little medicine, especially if he sleeps beneath the greasy 
counter " 

physicians' fees. 

Doctor Drake delivered this address sixty-three years ago. It is now- 
much farther behind the times of the physician of today than the early pioneer 
physician was behind the time in w hich Doctor Drake was talking. Early leg- 

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islators were sometimes confused as to their duties. It is entirely possible that 
later ones, too, have their troubles. But in pioneer days there were no prec- 
edents and legislation; all had to be originated. Sometimes mistakes would 
be made. But the next Legislature would, if the law was bad, rectify it. 
The first Legislature after Indiana became a state undertook to regulate the 
compensation of physicians for professional services, and to prevent over- 
charging. An act, approved December 24, 1816, provides, "It shall not be 
lawful for any physician or surgeon to charge or to receive more than twelve 
and one-half cents per mile for every mile he shall travel in going to, and re- 
turning home from, the place of residence (for the time being) of his patient ; 
with an addition of one hundred per cent, for traveling in the night." In 1822 
there was a State Medical Society and at its meeting held at Corydon, Decem- 
ber 11, the following list of charges was recommended : Visit, 25 cents to $1 : 
mileage, 25 cents ; vivisection, 25 cents to 50 cents ; pulverized Febr, 6% to i2 r /£ 
cents; emetics. 12J.4 to 25 cents; attendance through the day, $2.50 to $5 ; at- 
tendance at night, $5 ; obstetrics, $5 ; extracting tooth, 25 cents ; reducing lux- 
ation, $5 to $10; amputation $20 to $50. 


The early' legislators seemed to have a broad view of the scope and im- 
portance of the profession, for, in December, 1816, Governor Jennings ap- 
proved an act, of which section 1 reads as follows: "Be it enacted by the 
General Assembly of the state of Indiana, that, for the purpose of regulating 
the practice of physic and surgery in this state, each circuit as laid off for hold- 
ing circuit courts shall compose one medical district, to be known as, first, sec- 
ond, third medical districts in the state of Indiana, according to the name of 
the circuit." It was further provided in this act that in each district there 
should be a board of medical censors, who were required to admit to mem- 
bership every physician or surgeon residing, or wishing to practice, in the dis- 
trict, who should, "on examination before them, give proof of their qualifica- 
tions to practice either profession and reasonable evidence of their moral char- 
acter." An act approved January 18, 1820, organized four medical districts 
and gave the State Medical Society authority to establish as many additional 
as it might deem expedient. 

The State Medical Society was first organized in 1820. Their meetings 
were held at Corydon, which was then the capital of the state, but after 1826 
the meetings were held in Indianapolis. The act of 18 16, referred to, named 
as censors for the third district, Dr. Jabez Percival, Dr. D. F. Sackett. Dr. D. 
Oliver, Dr. John Howe, and Dr. Ezra Ferris. These censors were authorized 



to meet on the first Monday in June, 181 7. at the house of Walter Armstrong, 
in the town of Lawrenceburg, where examinations would be held and licenses 
issued to those deserving. Doctor Sackett, one of the number appointed, lived 
at Salisbury. No evidence has been found, that we know of, to show that this 
board ever met to carry out the purpose for which it had been appointed. An 
attempt was made during the session of the General Assembly in 1820 to 
amend the defects of the previous law. The medical societies had never 
been legally organized, it was claimed, and the provisions of the law had not 
been such as to induce many of the men well qualified to become members to 
join, nor had it been sufficiently stringent to prevent persons not qualified 
from becoming members. The new act provided that district medical societies 
be composed of men of good moral character, residing in the district and who 
had been regularly licensed to practice medicine in the state, or had been 
reputable practitioners in the state for a period of two years next preceding 
the passage of the act, or who had graduated at any regular medical college 
in the United States. 


In those early days the epidemics that came around and carried off many 
of the people were not so well understood as they are now. Many were in- 
clined to view them as special dispensations of divine provident, brought on 
a wicked world as a punishment for their sins; and that it was the part of 
the people to put up with it and be submissive. Those, however, who were 
willing to combat the epidemics with all the knowledge at their command, 
found themselves limited to much narrower scope than the physicians of the 
present day. Quarantines were not thought of at that time, and the causes 
for the spread of the disease were little known. Cholera was thought by 
many to be spread by some atmospheric disturbance. Others surmised it was 
in the food eaten and much caution was urged concerning eating melons and 
kindred articles of food. The following is an extract from a paper read be- 
fore the State Medical Society in 1885 by Dr. George Sutton, of Aurora, one 
of the foremost medical men of his day and one of the closest students of epi- 
demic diseases of his time : 

"The object of this paper is to put on record a brief review of the epi- 
demics that have prevailed in southeastern Indiana, or, more particularly, in 
Dearborn, Ripley and Ohio counties, during the last fifty years, and also to 
direct your attention to the changes which have taken place in our endemic 
malarial diseases. Of several of the epidemics we allude to, no notice has 
yet been published. 

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"The first epidemic we direct your attention to was an epidemic of cholera 
in Dearborn county, which occurred in 1833. This was before I commenced 
the practice of medicine, but as the facts have never yet been published, and 1 
have obtained them from a reliable source, and they are still remembered by 
many of our old citizens, I take the liberty of presenting them. 

"A steamboat ascending the Ohio river in the month of May, 1833. 
landed near the mouth of Tanner's creek to bun* one of the deck hands, who 
had died of cholera. Two men, one an old citizen of Dearborn county, by the 
name of Page Cheek, were fishing near the place where this boat landed. The 
officers of the boat, seeing these men, employed them to bury the body, which 
they did. All the next day, Cheek, who lived near the mouth of Wilson's 
creek, about a mile from Tanner's creek, plowed in the cornfield, apparently 
well, but during the night he was suddenly attacked with cholera and died 
after a short illness. His brother-in-law, Eli Green, went with his wife to the 
funeral. They resided near Hartford, about six miles from Cheek's residence. 
Within a week, both Green and his wife died with cholera, and in a few days 
after their deaths three of their children also died, making five deaths out of 
this family of seven persons. The disease spread through the neighborhood 
and soon appeared at Aurora, where a large number of deaths occurred, 
among the number some of the most prominent citizens. It is impossible to 
ascertain now the number of deaths which occurred, as no account of this epi- 
demic in Dearborn county was ever published. The disease was regarded at 
the time as being new, and the epidemic as being the most fatal that had ever 
visited this part of the country. 

"In 1838. the Laughery valley was visited by a malignant form of ma- 
larial fever, different from anything I have ever seen, with the exception of 
a few sporadic cases. Intermittents were prevalent that autumn over the 
whole country, but along this valley we had a modification of remittent, with 
what we regarded at that time as congestive fever. The patient would be 
seized with a slight chill, followed almost immediately by profound coma or 
congestion of some organ, and very frequently died before a physician could 
be procured. In other cases, the chill was followed by fever, delirium and 
great irritability of the stomach. There was generally in such cases a re- 
mission, but no well-marked intermission. The skin and conjunctiva assumed 
in a few days a yellowish or jaundiced appearance. These cases we regarded 
at the time as bilious remittent fever, but we probably had even' form and type 
of malarial fever in this locality, such as simple intermittent fever, remittent 
fever, bilious fever and pernicious or congestive fever in various forms, and 

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I think I can safely say that every family residing along this valley for eight 
miles from the Ohio river was more or less unwell, and in many families all 
were bedfast. 

"We have annually, at the present time, autumnal and intermittent fevers 
in various forms, but I never see now cases of pernicious congestive fever, 
or even bilious fever, similar to what we had at that period along the valley of 
Laughery. The country was then new, the land was exceedingly rich and 
there were extensive swamps and a dense forest, except around the log cabins 
of the inhabitants. Since then, the valley has been cleared, the swamps drained 
and the land cultivated, and the congestive fevers, which were occasionally 
seen fifty years ago, have disappeared. In the month of July, 1843, following 
notices in the Eastern newspapers, an epidemic of influenza made its appear- 
ance and within a few days a very large proportion of the inhabitants were 
afflicted with it. The disease itself, however, was seldom fatal, but it occa- 
sionally gave rise to other diseases which were attended with danger, and the 
origin of a number of cases of phthisis pulmonalis was attributed to this epi- 

"In 1848 we had a remarkable epidemic of scarlet fever. During the 
time I had been practicing medicine I had had considerable experience with 
scarlatina; the cases were generally mild, with a few exceptions. This year, 
however, we saw the disease in a new form. We heard of its prevalence in 
Switzerland county and were informed that a large number of children had 
died from the disease. It was supposed to have been brought to Aurora by the 
boy who carried the mail, as he had but recently recovered from an attack of 
scarlatina. Two children who resided in the same part of the town, but in 
different houses, were taken unwell on the same day. They both died within 
a short time of each other, and the disease spread through the city. It pre- 
sented a variety of symptoms. In some instances, the violence of the disease 
was concentrated upon the throat ; in others, upon the brain, producing con- 
vulsions or coma; in other cases, the patient seemed to sink as if from a 
shock, and in still other cases there \vas violent gastro-enteric irritation — vomit- 
ing and purging, with but little rash. 

"In the spring of 1849 cholera, which was prevailing as an epidemic in 
the United States, made its appearance in Aurora and assumed its most malig- 
nant form. For a time it was principally confined to a small section of our 
town, including the portion in which I resided, which was the most dry and 
elevated and regarded as the most healthy part of our city. In this section of 
the town there seemed to be an accumulation of infection, for more than half 

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of the inhabitants died. I was suddenly attacked with the disease while at- 
tending patients in the night, and my whole family, one after another, was 
taken down. My eldest son died after only a few hours' illness, and my 
youngest child sank to what appeared to be the lowest stage of collapse from 
which a patient could recover. In watching the progress of this epidemic it 
appeared to me that cholera, like other diseases, presented a diversity of symp- 
toms, and that the diarrhoea that generally accompanies this disease, and at 
that time Was regarded as only a premonitory symptom, was in reality a form 
of cholera, which occasionally gave rise to the most malignant cases. Follow- 
ing the cholera, a malignant form of dysentery prevailed as an epidemic. As 
it appeared in some cases to be intimately associated with cholera, appearing 
among our rural population immediately after the introduction of well marked 
cases of cholera. I regarded it as one of the modifications of this disease. We 
have never had an epidemic of contagious malignant dysentery similar to 
what we had at that time, except during or immediately after the prevalence 
of cholera. It was many years after I commenced the practice of medicine be- 
fore I saw a case of cerebro-spinal meningitis. Now we occasionally have 
cases, and the disease is probably on the increase. The same may be said of 

"In 1862 we had an epidemic of purpura, generally known by the name of 
spotted fever, in which there were a number of deaths. Some of the patient? 
died within twenty-four hours from the first symptoms of the attack. Look- 
ing back then over a period of fifty years, we have seen in southeastern Indi- 
ana a number of epidemics, and have seen our malarial diseases assume dif- 
ferent forms and undergo very marked changes." 

In the early days of the practice of medicine in Dearborn county calomel 
was a very popular remedy and the lancet was used unsparingly. A good 
physic was the first aid, and if the results were not satisfactory, bleeding was 
resorted to as the next remedy. Blistering and salivation also were in some 
cases thought to be very efficacious. It is probable that the amount of calomel 
given for a dose in those days would be thought very injurious in these mod- 
ern days. 


To support Doctor Sutton's claim that there has been a great change in 
the character of the diseases of the country, as the forest was cleared and the 
ground drained and cultivated, the advertisements of the druggists of pioneer 
days would indicate what was most called for and what the druggist expected 

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to sell. A copy of the Lawrenceburg Palladium of Saturday, December 9. 
1826, has no advertisements but legal ones. The Palladium announces that its 
editors are J. Spencer and D. V. Culley and that the paper is issued every 
Saturday morning. A copy of the Political Beacon of Wednesday, December 
II, 1839, has an advertisement by Lewis & Hobbs, headed "Fever — Ague — 
Life Medicines — Moffat's Pills and Phenie Bitters." The firm takes up a 
column of space telling of the virtues of these medicines as a remedy for fever 
and ague. Dr. Ezra Ferris, druggist, has "Eastman's Elixir," which the pub- 
lic is told is a great remedy for the same disease. Elsewhere in the same 
issue both firms have the same remedies advertised in several places. John 
Ferris also announces that he has Doctor Spohn's "Elixir of Health," that 
will cure chills and ague. In fact, one-third of the advertising space is de- 
voted to announcements of firms that have remedies for malarial diseases. 
The Beacon was published by Milton Gregg. The Indiana Register, pub- 
lished by George W. Lane and George D. Hebard, a copy of which, dated 
Friday, June 6, 185 1, is at hand, has advertisements of "Blood Purifiers," to 
ward off chills and fever. Ferris, McCullough & Company were the principal 
druggists at that date. 


Only a few of the practitioners of those days had received a medical edu- 
cation. Medical instruction was frequently secured from studying in the office 
of an older physician. At the conclusion of the tutorage the student would 
receive from his preceptor a certificate, stating just what had been accom- 
plished. During the course of study in the office of the preceptor, the student 
would be taught how to concoct a few remedies, and by going with his pre- 
ceptor to see his patients he would thus get a fair idea of how to treat the 
common diseases prevalent in that locality. 


The first physicians to engage in the practice of medicine in Dearborn 
county was probably Dr. Jabez Percival. He was a soldier of the Revolution- 
ary War and was born in 1759 at New Amsterdam, New York. His early 
advantages are unknown, but he had practiced medicine in his native state be- 
fore coming west. He came to Lawrenceburg in 1801, and his practice ex- 
tended over a large scope of country. He was fortunate in possessing an iron 
constitution and a strong will. These sustained him in the great exposure 

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and labor incident to the practice of medicine in that day. It is said of him 
that he never refused to attend a call, regardless of the financial condition of 
the patient or how far the ride. He possessed many peculiar traits of char- 
acter and was a man of abundance of courage, as well as endurance. It is said, 
as an illustration of his powers of endurance, that he was once thrown from a 
horse, which resulted in the dislocation of one of his hip joints. Persons 
gathered around with offers of assistance, which he refused, but climbed a 
fence nearby and mounted his horse and rode home. He was chosen as a 
magistrate at one time. A man in the vicinity, of great physical power, had 
broken the peace, and the constable whose duty it was to arrest the man was 
afraid on account of the reputation the man had. This did not suit the 
doctor and pseudo squire and he proceeded to make the arrest himself and, al- 
though, in the melee, he had his right arm broken, yet he succeeded in holding 
the culprit until the bystanders, encouraged by the doctor's success, came to 
his rescue and the man was secured. Another incident that illustrates his 
great courage was when some parties were endeavoring to kidnap some colored 
people with the intention of selling them into slavery. They had the kid- 
napped negroes confined on a boat and threatened to shoot anyone who would 
attempt to interfere. Xo one was willing to take the risk of attempting to res- 
cue them, but when Doctor Percival heard of it he entered the boat without 
resistance and took them from their claimants. While he was "squire," it is 
said he married couples in a way peculiarly his own. While he was engaged 
in driving a yoke of oxen, a gentleman and lady came up on horseback and 
informed the squire that they desired to lie married. He asked to see the li- 
cense. Looking up, he inquired, "Do you promise to live together till death 
shall part you?" They answered, "Yes." "I pronounce you husband and 
wife, gee, Buck; get-up." Dr. Percival died in 1841. 

The most prominent physician of his day in Dearborn county was Dr. 
Ezra Ferris. He was deservedly prominent, for he was eminently a public- 
spirited citizen and active in all the affairs of the times — a minister of the Gos- 
pel, a law maker, a school teacher, a physician. In all the duties put upon him. 
he acquitted himself with honor to himself and credit to the constituents who 
had asked him to do service for them. Doctor Ferris was born in Stanwicli, 
Connecticut, on April 26. 1783. His father, who was also a native of the vil- 
lage, determined, six years after the son was born, to emigrate to the West. 
The enterprise at that time was no small undertaking and it attracted consid- 
erable attention. Doctor Ferris, although then only six years of age, always 
retained a distinct remembrance of the event. On September 20, 1789. the 

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family took up their journey, accompanied by two other families. As the 
wagons moved away from the little village, they were surrounded by a crowd 
who predicted all kinds of evil happenings to the three families in their prog- 
ress westward. Their route was along the north side of Long Island sound to 
New York City ; thence through New Jersey and Pennsylvania and over the 
Alleghanies to Redstone, where they took boats to Ft. Miami (Columbia), 
where they arrived on December 12, 1789. At the time of their arrival at the 
mouth of the Little Miami there were some thirty or forty families living in 
the place. These people were restrained very little by law, and were very short 
of provisions, excepting such as could be found by hunting in the woods, in 
which hovered the hostile savage. The new comers were assigned to an 
apartment about sixteen feet square in the fort, where they remained for a 
time. Ezra Ferris had the benefit of such schools as could be found at Co- 
lumbia during the Indian wars and after Wayne's victory he pursued his 
studies elsewhere, obtaining a fair education. When quite a young man, he 
was licensed to preach and served as pastor of the Duck Creek Baptist church 
of Hamilton county, Ohio. He studied medicine and for some years taught 
school at Lebanon, Ohio, from which place he removed to Lawrenceburg. In 
Dearborn county he preached for the Baptists wherever a pastor was needed, 
filling pulpits that were without a pastor. He was elected a member of the 
convention that formed the first Constitution of the state of Indiana and in 
that body was made a member and chairman of the committee on elective 
franchise and elections. He was also a member of the state Legislature in 
1816, 1818, 1820 and 1826. After he advanced in age he letired from the 
practice of medicine and kept a drug store, preaching for the Baptist congre- 
gations at Lawrenceburg, Salem and other points. In politics the Doctor was 
a Whig and, in his political principles, was very firm in his belief. In 1851 
he published a series of articles on the early history of the Miami country. 
A. H. Dunlevy, in his history of the Miami Baptist Association, wrote that 
"Elder Ferris knew more of the early history of the Miami country than 
any man living at the time of his death." Doctor Ferris was twice married, 
and died at Lawrenceburg on April 19, 1857. 

Dr. Jeremiah H. Brower was born in New York City in 1798. He 
was descended from one of those old Dutch families that located about 
Manhattan island. His father was a physician before him and educated his 
son for the profession. In the year 1819 the family emigrated west, the 
father, -Abraham Brewer, locating in Lawrenceburg and the son at Elizabeth- 
town. Ohio, where they respectively engaged in the practice of medicine. 

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Dr. Jeremiah Brower later located at Lawrenceburg. He was honored with 
the presidency of the Indiana State Medical Society, which trust he discharged 
with credit. During the Civil War he assisted in the care of soldiers in the 
hospitals, where his health was undermined. He died on August I, 1866. 
aged sixty-eight years. 

Dr. David Fisher was a native of Vermont and was born about 1780. 
Little is known of his early "life. He practiced as a physician in his native 
state until about 1822, when he immigrated to Indiana, locating at Wilmington. 
A few years afterwards he settled at Aurora. He erected a hotel in the latter 
place, which he kept in connection with practicing his profession. About the 
year 1826 he removed to Rising Sun, where he died in 1851. 

Dr. Henry J. Bowers was a native of Massachusetts and was born in 
1801. At the age of twenty, he emigrated west, locating at Lawrenceburg, 
where he commenced the study of medicine. In 1829 he located at Moore's 
Hill, where he continued to practice his profession until his death in 1866 
Doctor Bowers was elected to the state Legislature from Ripley county, 
where he resided, although his office was in Moore's Hill. He was also hon- 
ored by being elected a member of the constitutional convention in 1850. 

Dr. Nelson Horatio Torbet was bom in Pennsylvania in the year 1800. 
He studied the profession of medicine in Philadelphia and came to Dearborn 
county directly from that city as soon as his studies were completed. He 
located at Wilmington and in 1834 was elected to the state Legislature. He 
was also elected county treasurer in 1844. While 'on a visit to Kansas, in 
1873, he contracted a disease which ended his life at the age of seventy-three. 
At one period of his active life he was prosperous, having a large practice, 
extending over many miles of the hills about the village of Wilmington. 

Dr. Myron H. Harding was born on August 7, 1810, in the town of 
Williamson. Ontario county. New York. He was the second son of David 
Harding and wife, who, in 1820, immigrated to Ripley county, Indiana. My- 
ron H. Harding attended such schools as could be found in Ripley county 
in those times and worked at clearing, chopping and piling the brush, and at 
other work incident to pioneer life until the age of eighteen, when he became 
a school teacher. At the age of twenty he commenced the study of medicine 
in the office of Doctor Cornett. of Versailles. After a study of one year, he 
successfully stood the medical examination necessary. He then followed his 
profession as a licensed practitioner until the year 1837. when he graduated 
from the Ohio Medical College. For a number of years he was located at 
Manchester, and an advertisement in the papers of 1831 announces that his 

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office is at the house (hotel) of Oliver Heustis, where he will be found reg- 
ularly, etc. Later on, he located at Lawrenceburg, where he resided the rest 
of his long and useful life. He was easily one of the leading physicians and 
citizens of the county, taking a live interest in all public questions. He served 
as president of the Indiana State Medical Society and of the Dearborn County 
Medical Society. He took an active interest in the advance of medical 
science, and was a member of the American Medical Association and an hon- 
orary member of the California State Medical Society. 

Doctor Harding, unlike most of men, was first closely devoted to his 
profession ; secondly, he was devoted to his family, and then he always had 
time to give to the public. Few men took a more active interest in public 
affairs, and very few, a more intelligent interest. He was never known to 
shirk a duty and would respond to a call to duty at any hour up to the end 
of his practice, which was continued until the ripe age of seventy-five years. 
He passed away on the 18th day of September, 1885, and lies buried in the 
family lot in beautiful Greendale cemetery. 

Richard C. Bond was born in Wood county, West Virginia, March 22, 
1822, and was the son of Lewis and Lydia (John) Bond. He attended school 
at the New Geneva Seminary, Pennsylvania. He read medicine with Dr. 
James Stevenson, of Greensboro, Pennsylvania, and completed the course 
with Doctor Nicklin, of Virginia. His father was a Baptist minister and, at 
the age of thirty-two, the Doctor was impressed with the conviction that he 
had a call to preach, and was ordained. He was for several years pastor of 
the Baptist churches in Aurora, Rising Sun and Wilmington. Later he real- 
ized that one profession was sufficient and, giving up the ministry, he located 
in Aurora in 1848, where he remained a successful practitioner until his 
death. By his skill in the treatment of cholera during the epidemic of 1849 
he gained a wide reputation and saved many lives. In 1857 he attended lec- 
tures at the Miami Medical College from which college he received a diploma. 
In 1861 he was appointed surgeon of the Fifteenth Indiana Regiment, with 
which he served in the campaigns in West Virginia. Later, he was attached 
to the Army of the Cumberland, taking part in the battle of Shiloh. In June, 
1863, his health failed and he was compelled to resign and return home. 

One of the brightest stars in the medical firmament was Dr. Samuel H. 
Collins, who was born in Massachusetts in 185 1. He was the son of Rev. 
Samuel A. Collins,, who, for several years, was pastor of the First Baptist 
church of Cincinnati. Doctor Collins's mother was Mary F. Covington. The 
Doctor graduated at Dennison College, Granville, Ohio, in 187 1, and at the 


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Miami Medical College in 1873. He commenced the practice of medicine 
at West wood, a suburb of Cincinnati, where he continued for two years. In 
1878 he volunteered to go to Memphis to assist in the terrible outbreak of 
yellow fever. He continued at Memphis during the epidemics of yellow 
fever in both 1878 and 1879, and was appointed to the national board of 
health, on duty at Ship island, in the gulf of Mexico and at New Orleans. 
In 1 88 1 he came to Lawrenceburg and commenced the practice of medicine. 
In 1883 he formed a partnership with Dr. M. H. Harding, which continued 
until Doctor Harding's death, which occurred in September. 1885. Doctor 
Collins filled many of the positions in the Dearborn County Medical Society 
and was a valued member of the Indiana State Medical Society, as well as 
the American Public Health Association. He was quick and accurate in 
diagnosis, a good surgeon and active in all the civic affairs that tended to 
better sanitary conditions. He served for several terms as a member of the 
common council of the city of Lawrenceburg, and as city health officer. The 
Doctor, shortly before his death, removed to Elizabethtown, Ohio, where 
he died in April, 191 5. 

The medical profession of Dearborn county has been represented during 
all the years since early pioneer days by men who have kept abreast of the 
times. New discoveries in medicine are adopted as promptly in Dearborn 
county as anywhere in the country. The physicians of today are men who 
have gone to much pains to perfect themselves in their life work. A look 
backward easily discovers rapid improvement in the manner of treating dis- 
eases, and in preventing them. Especially in the latter phase does the work 
of the physician appear to advantage. Better sanitary laws have been en- 
acted ; better quarantine laws have been enforced, and contagious and infec- 
tious diseases have been reduced in their spread until many of them cease 
to be a menace. 


Judging from the files of the early papers, the list of physicians has in- 
creased in numbers as the years have passed, although the population has 
decreased. In 1826 the Palladium had the cards of Dr. T. B. Pinckard, who 
announced he would practice in Dearborn and Boone counties and in Hamilton 
county, Ohio, and that his office was on High street below the market house 
Dr. Henry J. Bowers had a card announcing his office opposite the Palladium 
printing office, and that he offered his professional services to "the citizens 
of Lawrenceburg and vicinity." to practice "physic, surgery and midwifery." 

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In 1839 Dr. J. H. Close presented his card in the Political Beacon, saying that 
he had permanently located in Lawreuceburg. with an office in his drug store 
on Alain street and residence in the house of J. \V. Hunter, opposite Dr. J. 
H. B rower. In 185 1 the Register announced that J. P. Ulrey and G. \V. 
Harryman were prepared to practice dentistry and could be found on Thurs- 
days and Fridays of each week at their office, next door above the mayor's 
office. Drs. Jeremiah H. Brower and R. D. Ewing had formed a partnership 
to practice medicine, with an office at the corner of Elm and High streets in 
the basement of Doctoi Brower's residence. Drs. G. \V. Shaw and S. W. 
Stenger announced that they were homeopathists and would serve the public 
as physicians, with offices on Short street, opposite the Branch bank. 


The physicians of today in Dearborn county are as follows: E. J. E111- 
mert. George F. Smith. A. T. Fagaly. F. M. Mueller. O. S. Jaquith and H. 
H. Dwyer, all of Lawrenceburg : H. H. Sutton. Mark Bond. E. J. Libbert. C. 
C. Marshall, J. L. McElroy, J. M. Jackson. James F. Treon. E. R. Wallace 
and Miss Ella S. Holmes, all of Aurora; J. C. Elliott, of Guilford; R. T. 
Neffner, of Weisburg; YY. F. Duncan, of Manchester: D. E. Johnston, of 
Moores Hill; Hplland P. Long. Fleetwood H. Sale and James H. Sale, of 
Dillsboro, and C. C. Housmeyer, of Farmers' Retreat. 

The Dearborn County Medical Association had its counterpart in the 
earlier days. An association was organized in 1820 and it seems to have 
been kept up continuously in some form ever since. In 183 1. a notice, signed 
by Dr. Jabez Percival. president, is in the columns of the Western Statesman 
of that time, announcing a meeting of the medical society, and the various 
papers, at different times, prepared by members of the profession of the 
county are evidence that the members have ever been alert and up-to-date in 
making use of every discovery in the medical world that has tended to alle- 
viate the sufferings of mankind or that would prevent distress and disease. 

Some of the members of the profession in the county have, in the years 
past, attained to a considerable degree of prominence outside of the county, 
and all of them have been distinguished by their readiness to respond to any 
call where they could relieve suffering. 

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The first newspaper published in Dearborn county was called the Dear- 
born Gazette. It was published in Lawrenceburg in 1 817 by a man who wrote 
his signature as B. Brown and hailed from "down East" somewhere. The 
office was in a little brick building on the corner of the alley back of the resi- 
dence of Edward Hayes, Sr.; and which was then owned by James Hamilton, 
an ex-sheriff of the county. The motto of the Gazette was "Equal and Exact 
Justice." The early pioneer tradition is that the printer of the establishment 
was one Steele Simpson. 

The Indiana Oracle was a paper issued in 181 9, published every 
Wednesday by Dunn & Russell. Later, in 1823, it changed proprietors and 
was published by Dunn & McPike under the title of the Indiana Oracle and 
Dearborn Gazette. Earlier writers think that the Dearborn Gazette was a 
separate paper and that the two consolidated. 

The successor to the Oracle and Gazette was the Indiana Palladium, the 
first number of which was issued by Milton Gregg and D. V. Culley. The 
Palladium flew at the mast head the motto, "Equality of rights is nature's 
plan, and, following nature, is the march of man." Quoting from its saluta- 
tory, it says, "We profess ourselves Republicans, warmly attached to the best 
interests of our country, and pledge ourselves to publish a paper founded 
on purely Republican principles, uncontrolled by faction, and unbiased by 
party spirit. Divesting ourselves of everything like sectional partialities and 
local prejudices, our paper shall be devoted exclusively to the benefit of our- 
selves and the public in general." 


C. F. Clarkson, at one time of Brookville, Indiana, and, later, of Des 
Moines, Iowa, in telling some reminiscences, speaking of the Palladium, said, 
"The first permanent newspaper, from which there has been continuously a 
live paper issued, was started January 10, 1825. and called the Indiana Pal- 
ladium. It was published by Milton Gregg and David V. Culley, both able 
writers and practical printers. The office was originally located in the second 

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story of what was then called the 'Bank building.' This building was just 
west and adjoining the old residence of 'Father' Isaac Dunn. In the summer 
of 1829 the proprietors built a one-story office further east on the continuation 
of High street, opposite the residence of that sturdy old citizen, William 
Tate. They continued tc publish the Palladium, making it a spirited paper, 
until September 12, 1829. when, owing to some unfortunate difficulties, Mr. 
Gregg' sold out to Mr. Culley, who continued to publish if until he was ap- 
pointed to a position in the land office at Indianapolis by President Jackson. 
Mr. Culley was a decided Democrat, while Milton Gregg was a National Re- 
publican, which was previous to the day when, at the suggestion of James 
Watson Webb, the party took the name of 'Whig.' " 

Continuing, Mr. Clarkson says, "The writer went into the Palladium 
office September 21, 1828, as an apprentice, but retired from it with Mr. 
Gregg. So long as Gregg & Culley published the Palladium, it was independ- 
ent in politics, but when Culley assumed control it espoused the cause of Jack- 
son and Democracy. Mr. Gregg at once commenced preparations to start a 
National Republican paper, which he did in the second story over the old 
Ferris drug store, corner of High and Short streets, then occupied by Prichard 
& Noble, for drugs. The paper was commenced on March 10, 1830, and was 
called the Western Statesman. Previous to that time there had been various 
vicissitudes and changes among the papers at Brookville, Indiana, the last 
paper being published by August Jocelyn. Gregg purchased of Jocelyn the 
Brookville printing materials They were old and badly broken in 'sorts.' 
Mr. Gregg sent a wild Hoosier teamster for the printing establishment, who 
laid a quilt on the floor and emptied all the cases on it — all sizes and varieties 
of types in one inglorious 'pi.' John W. Holland, who lived and flourished 
at Indianapolis long afterwards, will, if living yet, vividly recollect aiding 
the writer in distributing the 'pi.' " It took three weeks. 

Clarkson finished his apprenticeship in the office of the Statesman. 
He describes in a rather interesting manner some of the work of the office 
as it was done in those days. "The people were poor, just opening their 
farms, and mail routes and postoffices were scarce. A part of our apprentice- 
ship was to ride horseback, Friday and Saturday every week, to distribute the 
papers to subscribers. The route was down by Aurora and Rising Sun ; then 
north to Watts Mill ; then up by old Charles Dashiell's, around by Manchester, 
etc., and then home, leaving packages of papers in twenty or thirty places. 
Mr. Gregg continued to publish his paper but a few weeks by himself. On 
April 28, 1830. he sold a half interest to Thomas Dowling. an able writer 

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and shrewd politician from Washington City, who had learned his trade and 
politics in the old National Intelligencer office. Dowling became a prominent 
man in Indiana politics, standing high socially and financially. He died in 
the seventies in Terre Haute. He Tylerized' in 1842 and, as a consequence, 
got a fat Indian contract, which made him financially comfortable for life. 
Dowling remained with Gregg only until November, 1830, when he sold out 
and bought a paper at Greensburg." 

Continuing his reminiscences, Mr. Garkson says, "Mr. Gregg continued 
to publish the Statesman until the spring of 1831. John Spencer, who was 
then sheriff of Dearborn county, having been appointed receiver of public 
money at the land office in Ft. Wayne, resigned the office of sheriff. At 
that time Noah Noble was governor of Indiana, and he appointed Milton 
Gregg, sheriff. At that day public officers performed the duties of the office 
in person, instead of, as now, having deputies to transact their business, while 
they Mnoke cigars, talk politics, and prepare for re-election, or to succeed to 
a better office. Mr. Gregg being engrossed with the sheriff's office, in which 
there was more money than publishing a paper, abandoned the office entirely, 
though it was yet in his name. He gave the editorial and mechanical depart- 
ments over to the writer hereof, then only twenty years of age. During the 
year, I purchased it of Mr. Gregg, with the understanding that possession 
was to be given at the end of the newspaper year, which was March 2, 1832. 
I published the paper by myself until March 2, 1833, when I sold one-half 
to D. S. Major. In July of the same year the other half was sold to J. R. 
Smith, who was a worthless vagabond and soon left for parts unknown. The 
paper then had a precarious existence for some time under Major's adminis- 
tration, who. as a lawyer, had enough to do without a newspaper. Papers 
were flamboyant in those days and delighted in announcing, with some display 
of large type, just what they were going to do politically and what they were 
going to oppose. Clarkson announced in his prospectus that, 'The great prin- 
ciples which this press shall maintain will be those of the Union, of the Ameri- 
can system, and of internal improvements. It will support for the next Presi- 
dent. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, and for vice-president, John Sergeant, of 
Pennsylvania.' Under elate of March 15. 1833, Mr. Major set forth that he 
was opposed to the right of secession. 'That a state has a right to withdraw 
from the Union whenever she becomes dissatisfied with any of the measures 
of the general government. I cannot admit.' 'I hold that there is no such thing 
as state sovereignty, nor a sovereignty in the general government.' 'For let 
the doctrine of nullification and secession once prevail, and all the wisdom, 

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talent, zeal and patriotism in our government cannot save the Union. Like 
the pestilential blast, it will sweep over our land and leave the dilapidated wails 
of the once fair fabric of our republican government the blasted monument 
of our folly.' Mr. Gregg served his term as sheriff, then engaged in the 
then popular business of flatboating and river trading, but in 1839 he again 
returned to his profession. He continued to be interested in a paper called the 
Political Beacon until 1844, when he again sold, this time to Messrs. Dunn 
& Watts. In 1840 Gregg, who was an ardent campaigner and partisan of 
the Whig party, issued a manifesto in his paper as early as January 25, saying. 
'Our banner is thrown to the breeze, on whose broad folds are inscribed the 
names of Harrison and Tyler, and in their cause, and for their interests we 
shall expect to do battle in such a manner as to prove to the world that we 
are no lukewarm politicians.* Mr. Gregg removed from here to Madison and 
from there to New Albany." 

Senator O. H. Smith, in his "Early Indiana Trials and Sketches," pays 
this tribute to Milton Gregg and David P. Holloway and to the press of Indi- 
ana at that time: "I feel under great obligations to the conductors of the 
Indiana press, for the high moral tone they have infused into their columns, 
and to none more than to the veteran editors whose names stand at the head 
of this article. I have known them both long and well. I have seen them, read 
them, heard them. I might speak of Mr. Gregg as a member of our Legislature, 
and as a member of our constitutional convention, where the high order of 
his talents placed him in the front ranks. I might speak of Mr. Holloway as 
a member of Congress, where he stood deservedly high ; but I chose rather 
to place them in my reminiscences, in the more important positions of editors 
of newspapers, dispensing information, intelligence and morality among the 
masses. It is there that their lights have shown the most brilliantly, because 
the most valuable to society. They are both, like Mr. Greeley and Mr. Brooks, 
in the meridian of life, in the midst of their usefulness, devoted to the interests 
of our state. I^ong may they live to contribute to the good order of our 

David V. Culley was a native of Pennsylvania and, in 1824, came to 
Dearborn county, where he married a Miss Brown. With Milton Gregg, he 
established the Palladium, but, in time, political differences caused them to 
dissolve their partnership. Mr. Culley served in the Legislature several terms 
and in 1836 was appointed by President Van Buren register of the land office 
at Indianapolis, where he continued to reside until his death, in 1869. 

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A paper, called the Indiana Whig, was started in 1834 by John McPike, 
who was a relative of the Dumont family, but it continued only for a short 
time. A paper, called the Dearborn County Register, was issued at Wilming- 
ton and published by J. B. Dent. This suspended in about a year and the outfit 
was bought up by John B. Hall, who removed the plant to Lawrenceburg 
when the county seat was moved back from Wilmington in 1844. Hall pub- 
lished the paper until 1850, when he sold out to George W. Lane, but Mr. 
Lane did not take kindly to the newspaper business, and sold out the next 
year to Oliver B. Torbett and Charles C. Scott, who, in turn, disposed cf 
the plant in 1853 to Addison Bookwalter. Mr. Bookwalter was its editor 
and proprietor for eighteen years, his valedictory appearing in 187 1. It was 
then taken over by Edward F. Sibley, who looked after it until 1877, when 
it was purchased by W. D. H. Hunter and W. H. O'Brien, who ran it suc- 
cessfully until 1894. Then they disposed of it to W. H. Rucker,'who, in a 
year or two, took in a partner in the person of W. T. Gooden. The former, 
some ten years ago, turned over his interest to his partner, W. T. Gooden, 
who is now the proprietor. It will appear from this history that the Register 
of today has been issued continuously for seventy-one years in Lawrence- 


The early editors of the county papers labored under many disadvantages 
that present-day editors escape. There were no metropolitan papers in those 
days. The editor of the Palladium felt himself entirely on a par with the 
Cincinnati or Louisville editor. He received by mail his Washington news 
and gave up his first page, and sometimes part of his second, to it. If the 
Legislature was in session, the balance of the second and part of the third 
might be expected to be taken. His editorials were carefully prepared and 
were of the same character as those with a larger field. The ordinary things 
of every-day life right at home did not concern him much. His field was 
the world and lie handed out the information as to what was going on, to- 
gether with his viewpoint in regard to its interpretation. The last of the 
third page would be devoted to advertisements, sheriffs' and other official 
publications, while the last page would be filled with choice literary gems of 
poetry or prose. ?.s the editor felt disposed, followed, in perhaps the last col- 
umn and a half, with matters of national importance, and international affairs 

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were discussed freely. The affairs of Europe were placed before its readers 
and the reader of a county newspaper in those days was kept better posted 
on European political matters than any reader of the metropolitan papers 
before the present war commenced. 


In October, 1850. the first number of a paper, called the Independent 
Press, was issued by Henry L. Brown and James E. Goble, its editor being 
Oliver B. Torbett. It was a seven-column folio. In 185 1 the plant was pur- 
chased by W. W. Hibben, who, after a short experience, disposed of it, on 
June 9, 1852, to James P. Chew. Later on, Chew sold out to Edward F. 
Sibley, the owner of the Aurora Standard. A year or so afterward, the 
Press was revived by R. D. Brown, who was followed by Thompson Brothers, 
afterwards of Greensburg. The paper seemed to have rather a precarious 
existence for several years. But, in June, 1864, Lyman Knapp issued the 
paper in the name of the Union Press. The Press was strictly loyal, support- 
ing the cause of the Union warmly, and urging that the war be vigorously 
prosecuted and slavery wiped out. This sheet was again purchased by James 
P. Chew in 1867 and the name changed to the Lawrencebnrg Press. Mr. 
Chew conducted the Press until June 27, 1878, when he sold it to James E 
Larimer. Mr. Larimer possessed a vigorous pen. His editorials were fear- 
less and few cared to cross lances with him. He kept up a running fire against 
things he deemed wrong from his first assuming charge until he laid down 
the weapons in 1893. In that year he disposed of his outfit to Edward S. 
Smashey, who continued its publication alone for several years, but some 
two years later sold a half interest to Union Banner Hall. Since that time 
the paper has had a varied experience. Hall disposed of his interest to Archi- 
bald Shaw, who continued until January, 1910, when George J. Cravens pur- 
chased the entire plant, enlarging and building it up ; but, after two years of 
editorial work, he sold it to Albert F. Geisert, who scarcely acknowledged 
his ownership until he disposed of it to William G. Glover, the present owner. 
The Press has had a varied existence. In its earlier years it struggled for 
existence, but managed to keep up a semblance of life until the time of Lyman 
Knapp in 1864. From that time until the present it has been at the front as 
a vigorous, active publication, advocating the principles of the Republican 
party, while the Register has been equally as vigorous in its support of the 
Democratic party. In 1894 John Fichter, a former attache of the Press, 

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started a paper called the News. It is issued by him weekly and is independent 
in its political affiliations. 


The first newspaper published in Aurora was called the Indiana Signal. 
and was edited by L. C. Hastings. It was issued through the campaign of 
1836 and closed its labors when the campaign for President closed with the 
election of Martin Van Buren. In 1839 a paper, called the Dearborn Demo- 
crat, was established in Aurora by the Aurora printing company. It was 
edited by Alexander E. Glenn and the paper was kept going until the cam- 
paign of 1840 closed. During that campaign it was edited by C. \Y. Hutchins. 
who. after the election, removed the plant to Lawrenceburg. In 1846 Nimrod 
Lancaster started a paper, called the Western Republican, in Lawrenceburg. 
The following year he removed it to Aurora. It was started as an independ- 
ent paper, but. in November. 1847. it appeared with I^ancaster and John B. 
Hall as editors and announced its support of Zachary Taylor for President 
In 1848 it changed hands and was called the Western Commercial, being pub- 
lished by X. \V. Folbre and \V. H. Murphy. It was neutral in politics and 
religion. In 185 1 the paper became the property of Messrs. Root & Bowers 
and the name was changed to the Aurora Standard, with Whig politics. These 
gentlemen kept it' for only a short time, when they sold out to their foreman. f 
Edward F. Sibley, who continued its publication until 1857. when the paper 
suspended. In 1859 the Aurora Commercial was issued by W. H. Nelson, 
who continued it until 1861. when Edward F. Sibley again took it in charge, 
conducting it until 1868. when the business was taken over by John Cobb. 
The business was then organized into a stock company, with twenty-four 
members, and the name of the paper was changed to the Dearborn Independent. 
In April. 1873. L. W. Cobb purchased the paper and its good will and from 
that time until his death, in 191 2, continued to edit and publish it. Since the 
death of Mr. Cobb his widow. Mrs. L. XV. Cobb, has continued its publication 
very successfully. 


County newspapers now occupy quite a different position in relation to 
their subscribers and the public than did the papers of the twenties and thirties. 
Now, a paper may announce that it supports the Democratic or the Repub- 
lican party in its salutatory and gladly receive all the public business its party 

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can give on account of being victorious at the polls, but a careful scrutiny of 
its editorial column (if it has any) will fail to find any word of defense of 
the party. In those former days it was quite the contrary. The editor was 
supposed to use his pen largely to defend the principles of his own party and 
to attack any and all weak places in the armor of the opposite party. The 
paper was the exponent of party policies and principles. The opponents of 
Jackson stood ready to criticize the Jacksonian policy, while Jackson's friends 
were ready to attack the opposition. Politics were then somewhat mixed. 
Calhoun was pushing his nullification ideas, while many were warmly opposed 
to it, seeing nothing but wreck ahead should it be pushed to its logical con- 
clusion. Personal politics was very common. An editor would feel perfectly 
free to criticise a brother editor, using all the invectives his vocabulary would 
admit. The public would lock on in delighted admiration and both editors 
would count it a good advertising medium — part of their equipment. Such 
quarrels scarcely ever extended beyond the editorial rooms. Perhaps they 
would be good friends all the while, but each took delight in seeing how much 
vituperation could be used in assailing his opponent in business. This has all 
passed away and a better conception of the duties of the newspaper and what 
the editor owes to his patrons has prevailed. 


To gain some idea of a county newspaper of the pioneer days, a copy 
of the Indiana Palladium, issued December 9, 1826. edited by J. Si>encer ami 
D. V. Culley, has on its first page an account of the hardships of the early 
settlers in Kentucky from 1779 to 1781. and a campaign against the Indian 
town of Chillicothe, near where the town of the same name is now located 
in Ohio ; an account of an Indian attack on a settler's house, which was driven 
away by the family, with great loss : some two or three clippings from other 
journals. The second page has an article on the extremely rapid growth of 
the postoffice department and the article states that thirty-six years previous 
(in 1790) there were only seventy-five postoffices in the whole United States 
and that the number now (1826T exceeds six thousand five hundred. The 
second page also has a lot of news from Europe, taking up a column ; a column 
on General Bolivar, the liberator of Bolivia ; a short account of Sir John 
Franklin being heard from on his Arctic expedition at Great Bear lake; an 
article on the deplorable condition of Greece and two items of news from 
New York City. The third, or editorial, page starts out with the announce- 

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ment that "The early period in the week in which the mail leaves the scat of 
government precludes any information from the Legislature at present. In 
our next we shall probably be able to give our readers some information on 
that head." On this page also appear the new Orleans markets of November 
ii, 1826: a steamboat accident opposite the mouth of Big Bone creek, when 
the steamboat "Union" burst a boiler, killing four persons and badly scalding 
seven ; the passengers were brought up to Cincinnati by the "General Marion." 
the wounded being left at farm houses near the scene of the accident; the 
editor has an editorial on taxes. They also discussed the temperance question 
in the following manner: "Ardent Spirits — The members of a convention 
which lately met in Vermont voted not to have ardent spirits in their houses 
except as medicine." The editor says, "The above reminds us of an anecdote 
we once heard of a senator in one of the state legislatures, who, like many 
other spirited speakers, had occasion to use a little of the vivifying medicine. 
He whispered to the doorkeeper of the House, that he wished him to furnish 
for his use, every day a bottle of good Holland, and let it be charged among 
the contingent expenses of the state. 'But, ah,' said the doorkeeper, 'there is 
no provision by law to authorize such a charge.' 'Nonsense,' cried the legis- 
lator: 'just stick it under the head of fuel.' " 

The second column has an article on Texas, taken from a paper called 

the Arkansas Gazette, of October 10. Some South American news follows: 
then a half column of Cincinnati market reports; "sugar, New Orleans, 9 
cents; Havanna. white. 17 cents; loaf and lump, 19 cents; Salt, Turks Island, 
$1 per bushel: Kenawha, at the river. 28 cents; in store, 33 cents." Thomas 
Longley, sheriff of Dearborn county, has three legal notices of sheriff's sales. 
John B. Carrington has a short notice that he cannot attend to the gunsmith- 
ing which he had previously announced he was prepared to carry on. Daniel 
Bartholomew, justice of the peace in Aurora, announces two stray mares 
taken up, which he makes in two separate notices. The editor advertises fif- 
teen or twenty cords of wood wanted, immediately — or at such periods through 
the winter as will suit the purchaser — for which a liberal price will be paid. 
Enquire at the printing office. He also announces that "Pork will be taken 
at this office in payment of subscriptions to the paper, if delivered in twenty 

Edward Ferris and Daniel Hagerman have a legal ad., stating that they 
have been appointed administrators of the estate of Andrew Armstrong, late 
of Dearborn county. Israel Xoyes announces he has been appointed admin- 
istrator of the estate of Israel Noyes. and William Brundridge. justice of the 

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peace, announces that Charles Dawson, of Logan township, has taken up a 
stray sorrel horse. Walden & McNeely announce a dissolution of partnership. 
The last page has "A Man's a Man for a' That," five stanzas ; clippings from 
other papers take up most of the page. The board of county supervisors, 
John Porter, president, and James Dill, secretary, publish a report of the re- 
ceipts and expenditures of the county for the year ending November 25, 
1826. After showing the various items, it summarizes as follows: Total 
expenses, $3,102.56^ ; receipts, $2,224.05^ ; leaving a debt of $878.51. N. 
G. Howard has a card announcing that he is a counsellor at law, with office 
on High street opposite the clerk's office. Dr. J. B. Pinckard offers his pro- 
fessional services to the public of Dearborn county, Indiana, and Boone 
county, Kentucky, with an office on High street, below the market house. 
Dr. H. J. Bowers announces that he will be found at his office on High street, 
opposite to the Palladium printing office. Baxter Davis and Daniel Brown 
announce that they have commenced business in the mercantile line under the 
name and style of Davis & Brown, at their old stand, formerly occupied by 
Brown as a dry goods store, where they have, and intend keeping, a large 
and general assortment of seasonable goods, which they will sell low for cash 
or country produce. They will also pay cash for pork delivered in any quan- 
tity on, or before, the first of January next. 


In a number of the Western Statesman, published by Milton Gregg, 
March 17, 1830. he announces the subscription price to be two dollars and 
fifty cents per year or two dollars cash in advance. John McPike was the 
president of the town council and advertises that sealed bids will be received 
for constructing a wharf and harbor between Walnut and Short streets. John 
P. Dunn, recorder, gives notice that an election will be held on the evening 
of the first Monday in April. 1830, to elect a president and five select council- 
men for the incorporated town of Lawrenceburg. John Vattier, M. D., tenders 
his services as a physician to the citizens of Aurora and vicinity. Dr. Ezra 
Ferris and M. E Ferris offer their professional services to the public — "Dr. 
M. E. Ferris, residence on High street: Dr. Ezra Ferris, residence four miles 
west on the Indianapolis road." Samuel Morrison announces that he will be 
a candidate for the office of county clerk, and John Spencer offers himself as a 
candidate for sheriff. The overseers of the poor give notice that on May 1, 
in front of the market house, they will offer a pauper for sale to the highest 

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bidder. A two -column article clipped from the Saturday Evening Post, on 
the "Happy Influence of Female Character," is on the last page. 

Arthur St. Clair Vance and Thomas B. Pinckard advertise an adminis- 
trator's sale of the personal estate of Samuel C. Vance, deceased, consisting 
of household furniture, twenty-five or thirty head of hogs, a lot of corn, ten 
or eleven head of horses and cattle. The editor has an editorial on the debate 
in Congress on the tariff laws and says, "Van Buren and Calhoun were pre- 
paring to destroy the protecting system." 

W. H. Harrison advertises "for sale one hundred and fifty acres of land 
in the Horse-Shoe Bend of the Miami." Jabcz Percival gives notice that the 
Medical Society will meet at the office of the president. Jacob Blasdel adver- 
tises his "Grist Mill For Sale" at Cambridge, July 31, 1830. Reuben Graves, 
president of the board of trustees of the Petersburg (Kentucky) Academy, 
advertises "First session open August 16, 1830. Tuition, ten dollars per ses- 
sion. Curriculum calls for teaching Latin, Greek. French, Hebrew and Span- 
ish. Rev. W allace Danton will have charge of the classical department." 
In an issue of the Statesman of June 17, 183 1. T. B. Pinckard. principal, adver- 
tises "The W ashington Agricultural School." Site of college is twenty-five 
acres on the Ohio river adjacent to Lawrenceburg. He advertises "Boarding 
on the premises, with rooms for some forty or more," and that the twenty- 
five acres will be turned into a botanical garden, where the principles of 
agriculture will be taught from nature. 

The Statesman is warm for a protective system and critical of General 
Jackson, a warm friend of Henry Clay and has little good to say of Martin 
Van Buren. The advertising paid little attention to display, but to a mere 
statement of facts the advertiser wished to publish. It was supposed that read- 
ing matter was so scarce that display type was not necessary, as the readers 
would find it. It was a waste of space. 

In 1832 Charles F. Clarkson became editor of the Western Statesman. 
He was an able man and afterwards developed to be the leading journalist 
and editorial writer of Iowa, while his son l>ecame still more widely known 
as a leader of the Republican party. The March 23, 1832, copy of his paper 
has for its first page material a poem that lambasts Martin Van Buren ; an- 
other, on the marriage of Levi Williams and Miss Nancy Twenty-Canoes, a 
member of the Tuscarora tribe of Indians. The other five columns are taken 
up with an open letter from Mr. Holmes refusing to accept the renomination 
for the United States Senate from the state of Maine. The second pa»e 
has the Twenty-second of February address of Daniel Webster, delivered 

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at a banquet at Barnard's hotel in Washington ; nearly two columns of foreign 
news and a column of Congressional doings. The third page has at the head 
of the first column, "For President, Henry Clay, of Kentucky ; for Vice-Presi- 
dent, John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania.'' There is a lengthy sketch of the 
decision of the supreme court in regard to the treatment the state of Georgia 
had given the Cherokee Indians and some missionaries. About two columns 
are devoted to advertising, in which W. S. Durbin, father of Ex-Governor 
W. T. Durbin, announces that he has a fine bullock, weighing perhaps twelve 
hundred pounds, that he will offer for sale at the market house. L. W. 
Johnson has some cranberries, just from the Upper Wabash country, for sale. 
John Palmerton, acting colonel, has an order for the mustering of the militia. 
The First Battalion shall meet at the residence of Oliver Heustis, on the 5th 
day of May; the Second Battalion shall meet in the public square in Law- 
renceburg. The Thirty-fifth Regiment shall meet for muster at the home of 
Jacob Dils, September 7. and at the same place on the 6th of October for 
muster, inspection and review. 

A copy of the same paper, dated October 12, 1832, gives an account of a 
county meeting of the National Republican party at Rising Sun, October 6, 
when Pinckney James presided, John Gray and Martin Stewart were vice- 
presidents, and Daniel S. Majors was secretary. The committee on resolu- 
tions was Milton Gregg, chairman ; Shadrach Wilber. Thomas Tanner, Ezra 
Ferris and Arthur St. Clair Vance. Doctor Ferris read an address and one 
thousand copies of it were ordered printed for distribution. They had pretty 
much the same sort of a political organization in those days as now, but it went 
under a different name. A so-called vigilance committee was appointed for 
each township, and those from some of the upper townships were as follow : 
Lawrenceburg, Ezekiel Jackson, William Hamilton, James Thompson, Walter 
Hayes and Hamlet Sparks; Logan township, James McLure, Doctor Smith, 
John Hansell, Moses Hornaday and Robert Bradshaw; Kelso township, An- 
drew Anderson, Jonathan Lewis, James Godney, Robert Rowe, Jr., and Will- 
iam S. Ward; from Jackson township, Richard Hughs, William Lynass, 
George Lynass, William White and Joseph White. The paper went on to 
say that, notwithstanding the Methodists had a big gathering and it was 
muster-day at Rising Sun, the crowd in attendance on the convention was very 

In one of the issues of the paper of 1832 the editor publishes, in full, 
President Jackson's proclamation on the action of South Carolina in endeavor- 
ing to nullify the laws of the United States and in another issue the proclama- 

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tion of Governor Hayne, of South Carolina, denouncing Jackson as a tyrant 
and urging the people of South Carolina to stand firm and pay no attention 
to the usurper. The country seemed to be much stirred up over the question 
and the true meaning of a strong central government seemed to be much con- 
fused among the statesman of the times. The Statesman also has an extract 
from an issue of the Charleston (South Carolina) Mercury, which breathed 
out all kinds of threats and promulgations against President Jackson. Clark- 
son, in his editorials, although opposed to Jackson, stood firm for his action 
in the nullification matter. And Webster's speech at the banquet indorses 
Jackson's action unequivocally. Journalism had a good field for an able editor 
just then and the call for able men developed such as Clarkson into a leader 
in after years. 

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The churches of Dearborn county have done more for the upbuilding of 
society in the county than any other one element. From the first, the settlers 
were God-fearing people. The church grew with the population. When the 
first pioneers erected their log cabins, the next thing that was done was to 
establish the church. The earliest of the churches to obtain a foothold in the 
county were the Methodists. Since that church was first planted in this coun- 
try, some one hundred and thirty years ago, Methodism has kept an even 
pace with the onward march of emigration. The first log cabin had hardly 
been roofed and the first smoke ascended from its chimney, till the fearless 
Methodist circuit rider, with his faithful horse and his saddle bags, Bible and 
hymn book, was there to share its hospitality. Unbroken forests possessed no 
dangers that he was afraid to face. Wild animals, raging streams, perils from 
the Indians or from hunger, left him undaunted. They never waited to be 
urged to preach the Gospel to the settlers, but, before the trees were felled, 
l>efore the ground was cleared, or the first crop harvested, they were here and 
would collect the widely-scattered pioneers to some private house, where the 
bread of life would be broken to them and an organization effected. Dearborn 
county was in what was then called the Miami circuit when it became a county, 
and Elisha W. Bowman was said to have been the pastor in charge. The cir- 
cuit was extensive and the pastor was kept busy riding from one preaching 
place to another. William Burk, the presiding elder, came around every three 
months, when special services would be held. The people would lay aside their 
everyday affairs and spend two or three days in attending the meetings. Dur- 
ing the years 1802 and 1803, when James Hamilton and Captain Vance were 
busy with their plan of a city in Lawrenceburg, and when Ephraim Morrison 
and his sturdy family were looking about for land that they could own, after 
being robbed of the fruits of their labor at the mouth of Hogan creek. Rev. 
John SaJe and Joseph Oglesby were the pastors, Sale as the senior, and 

(25) ■ 

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Oglesby the junior preacher, in charge of the Miami circuit. Captain Vance 
had scarcely selected a name for the city, that was to be, before these enter- 
prising men camped in the place and began to look about with an eye to the 
opportunities for securing a building for holding religious services. These two 
men were succeeded by Rev. Benjamin Lakin and Rev. Joshua Riggin in the 
years 1805 and 1806. In 1806 the name of the circuit was changed from 
Miami to the Whitewater circuit, and Thomas Heliums and Sela Paine were 
the preachers in charge. John Sale, one of the former pastors, was sent to 
the people as the presiding elder. Presiding elders served then for four years 
in one district, and the preachers in charge were changed every year. In 1807 
Joseph Williams and Hezekiah Shaw were sent to the Whitewater circuit, and 
were followed, in 1808, by Hector San ford and Moses Crume. Following 
these were Samuel H. Thomson and Thomas Nelson. 

About this time the name of the district was changed and, while before 
this it was attached to the Ohio conference and the Ohio district, it was now re- 
organized and the district was called the Miami district, Whitewater circuit, of 
Indiana. The circuit was reduced in size, so that it was thought that one man 
could look after the congregations and Moses Cmme was appointed its preacher 
in charge again, with Solomon Langdon as presiding elder. 

In 181 1 the circuit was again changed to the Lawrenceburg circuit, with 
Walter Griffith, pastor. He was succeeded by William Dixon and Moses 
Crume again followed Dixon, and Samuel Parker was presiding elder. In 
1814 John Strange was sent to Lawrenceburg as the pastor in charge, and 
John Sale became the presiding elder ; both of them were men of great ability 
as pulpit orators. 

In 1816 Russell Bigelow (later a bishop) and Allen Wiley were in charge 
of the circuit and district and the following year Allen Wiley was returned to 
the circuit. In the fall of 181 7, John Sale was made presiding elder, relieving 
Moses Crume, whose name disappears from the list of appointments for this 
part of the country. Moses Crume was presiding elder on the Miami circuit 
and three different times was he pastor of the church in Dearborn county. 

In 1818 Benjamin Lawrence was appointed to the circuit, with Henry F. 
Fernandez, junior preacher, John Sale continuing as presiding elder. All 
these years there were no church buildings. The preaching was done at some 
private house in the inclement weather, and in the open during the summer 
months and good weather. Sometimes a log school house would be found 
available and would be used, as was the case in Lawrenceburg. The house of 
Capt. Joseph Hayes, in the Big Bottoms, was said to be a regular preaching 

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place. His house was always open for the circuit rider or his assistant, and 
when the quarterly meeting was held his latch-string was out to all the neigh- 
borhood for entertainment and sleeping quarters. 

In Lawrenceburg the organization grew so strong by 1820 that the ad- 
vantage of having a house built for the sole purpose of worship began to be 
agitated, and in 1821 a brick house was erected, sufficiently large, it was then 
thought, to accommodate the congregations for several generations. It was 
built on Walnut street, where the Liedertafel Hall now stands, and served a* 
a house of worship for the congregation until 1847, when the present com- 
modious Hamline chapel was erected. In 18 12 John P. Durbin was the pastor 
in charge, with James Collard as assistant. Walter Griffith was presiding 
elder. In 1822 Henry Baker was pastor and in 1823, William H. Raper, after- 
wards a noted pulpit orator in the Ohio conference, was pastor. He was re- 
appointed in 1824 and John Jayne was the junior preacher, Alexander Cum- 
mins being presiding elder. 


Methodism, however, was growing. Its membership was continuously in- 
creasing and circuits were divided. It was found impossible to care for the 
congregations where the membership had increased so rapidly. The district 
was changed and made much smaller. The days of the old circuit-rider, with 
his convenient saddle bags, were passing. The hardships incident to the first 
traveling preacher were gradually decreasing until the pastor who had only 
eight or ten appointments to look after was thought to be in charge of a 
"brush" circuit, indeed. Yet it was really only the dawn of the present-day cir- 
cumstances, and the "best was yet to be." The circuits along the river, in 
the older settled part of the state, began to grow desirable and those who re- 
ceived such appointments counted themselves fortunate. The interior part of 
the state was as yet very new, and the preacher receiving an up-state appoint- 
ment knew some of the same difficulties of the man in charge in Dearborn 
county when the century commenced. 

The name of the district was changed, in 1824, to the Madison district 
and it was made much smaller. John Strange was appointed presiding elder 
and James Jones and Thomas S. Hitt, preachers in charge of the circuit. A 
church had been erected at Manchester about the same time that the church 
was built in Lawrenceburg, and when the regular pastor could not be present 
local preachers would fill the appointment. 

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3 88 


About the same time, churches were built in other parts of the county and 
the growth in members, wealth and influence became astonishingly grea:. 
From about 1825 on, the Lawrenceburg circuit was divided and in a few years 
several separate charges were created, until the status became what it now is, 
with a station where a pastor is maintained at Lawrenceburg, Aurora and 
Moores Hill. The circuits are Wilmington, Manchester, Homestead and Dills- 
boro, with pastors in charge at each place. 

The church membership has increased from the scattered few that assem- 
bled to hear Elisha W. Bowman, the first circuit rider on the old Miami cir- 
cuit, and William Burk, the presiding elder of the charge, to a host of members. 
How many there would be over the territory covered by these two faithful 
followers of the Cross, cannot be told, but within the confines of the county of 
Dearborn there are now seven strong, separate organized circuits and stations, 
with membership as follows: Aurora station, 535; Dillsboro circuit, 500; 
Homestead circuit, 371 ; Lawrenceburg station, 340; Manchester circuit, 233; 
Moores Hill station, 225 ; Wilmington circuit, 301 ; total, 2,505. These organ- 
izations have, besides, fine church property representing many thousands of 
dollars in value. 

The church at Lawrenceburg was made a station in 1838, and on Decem- 
ber 29, 1838, was held the first meeting of the official board, when the follow- 
ing were recorded as present : E. G. Wood, presiding elder ; Joseph Tarking- 
ton, station preacher; Benjamin Fuller, Isaac Dunn, W. S. Durbin, L. B. 
Lewis, Ellis G. Brown, George Tousey, deacons. At the second meeting of the 
quarterly conference, on March 23, 1839, there were present, E. G. Wood, pre- 
siding elder ; Joseph Tarkington, station preacher ; George Tousey, John Calla- 
han. Jacob P. Dunn, W. S. Durbin, James Jones, Enoch D. Johns, William 
Brown, as members of the official board, 

On Sunday. October 20, 1839, it is recorded that the ordinance of bap- 
tism by sprinkling was administered by Rev. Aaron Wood to W. F. More, 
Rebecca Griffith. James Seeds, Elizabeth Flower, Thomas Lucas, Harriet 
McLeaster, Isaiah McLeaster, Margaret McComas, William Tate and David 
Carrington. In 1847, when the present church building was erected, the offi- 
cial board was represented at a meeting held the 8th day of May, 1847, by 
E. G. Wood, presiding elder; Augustus Eddy, station preacher; Benjamin 
Fuller, David Moore, George Tousey, W. S. Durbin, Robert Patton, Isaac 
Kaufman. David Macy and W. B. McCullough, stewards ; E. Tate, Hamlet, 
Sparks, David Springer, James Jones, William Brown, W. H. Crist, George 
B. Sheldon and Henry K. Hobbs, class leaders. There is no record of the cost 

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of the present building, but the original subscription list shows a total of six 
thousand six hundred and seventy-three dollars collected. From the time the 
Lawrenceburg church was made a station it has flourished and grown and its 
influence has been for good all the years since. At present its membership, as 
stated, is three hundred and forty. The official board at the last official 
meeting were: Robert H. Blackmore, William A. Creath, Harry E. Fisher, 
Henry Hodell, Arthur E. Jackson, Omer T. Ludlow, William H. O'Brien, 
Omer A. Stockman, George H. Wood, Frank A. Ludlow, Martin J. Givan, 
S. S. McWethy, Cornelius O'Brien, Archibald Shaw. The station preacher is 
Lawrence T. Jeffrey. 


The first sermon preached by a Methodist minister on the site of Aurora 
of which there is any record was by William Lambden, in the year 1816. 
The services were held at the home of Daniel Bartholomew. Following the 
services a church organization was perfected, with a class, consisting of Martin 
Cozine and wife, Elizabeth, Richard Norris, Joseph Norris and wife, Ira 
Wright and his wife, Elizabeth, and Daniel and Olivia Bartholomew, nine per- 
sons in all. In 1823 William H. Raper, pastor of the Lawrenceburg circuit, 
had this as one of his preaching places. 

A little later, Daniel Plummer and Alfred J. Cotton held a protracted 
meeting in a log school house, which stood near the present site of the Cath- 
olic school house. The first church was built in 1830. and stood near where 
the Stedman foundry later was built. It was a brick building, plain in struc- 
ture, about thirty by forty feet in dimensions, with a small cupola. This church 
was completed in 1838. during the pastorate of James Jones. 

In 1839. under the pastoral labors of S. T. Gillett and Charles Bonner, the 
church received a large number of members, throughout the Lawrenceburg 
circuit, and of the number. Aurora had one hundred and forty. This gave 
new impetus to the stuggling congregation, but the church was burdened with 
debt and was finally sold, in 1842. In 1845 another one was erected, which 
on account of the fast-growing congregation, soon became too small, and in 
1849 it was made a station. Soon afterward steps were taken to build a larger 
and more commodious church, which was completed and dedicated in 1862. by 
Bishop E. R. Ames. From that time to the present, the congregation has 
flourished and grown strong. With the church is a flourishing Sunday 
school, which is at present the largest of any church of the denomination in 
the county. 

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The Guilford circuit, or Homestead circuit, as it has been called of recent 
years, was originally, like all the other parts of the county, a part of the Law- 
renceburg circuit. When the Methodist Episcopal church commenced to grow 
in wealth and numbers, it was formed into a separate circuit. Methodist cir- 
cuits pay little attention to state lines and the Homestead circuit has one charge 
at Elizabethtown, Ohio. At one time it also had a preaching place in the 
school house at Mt. Nebo, but, owing to the death of members and changes in 
the neighborhood, it has been done away with. The charges on the Home- 
stead circuit in Dearborn county are Homestead, Guilford, Bright and, some- 
times, at Logan. It was on this circuit that Edward Eggleston served as a 
junior preacher in the latter part of the fifties. He was then only nineteen 
year of age. He says of his experience as a circuit rider, in a letter to his 
brother, George Cary Eggleston, which the latter published in part in his "First 
of the Hoosiers" : "I have bought a good, strong and very lazy horse, with- 
out enough spirit in him to think of going at any gait faster than a walk, un- 
less whipped or spurred into involuntary exertion of a strictly temporary char- 
acter. The distance between appointments is considerable, and with such a 
horse I have abundant excuse for starting early and arriving late. By taking 
all day to make journeys that might easily be accomplished in a few hours, 1 
get all day instead of a few hours for my study. I throw the reins on my 
horse's neck and let him jog along at his favorite speed of two or three miles 
an hour. Then I get out my book and devote my time to profitable reading or 
study." Eggleston was a voluminous reader and in one of his letters he said 
he sometimes, in his sermons, used poetry he had read. "The practice is dan- 
gerous, however." he writes, "in this hill country. Not long ago I quoted a 
part of the twenty-third Psalm, not thinking it necessary to mention its source. 
A few days later a good brother said to me, 'That was a mighty pretty part of 
your sermon about green pastures and still waters and all that. But why 
don't you preach that way all the time?' " The good brother had thought it 
was original with Eggleston. He only served on the circuit six months, having 
to quit on account of ill health. 


The Manchester circuit was set off from the Lawrenceburg circuit just 
as soon as it showed sufficient strength to support a preacher. The first Meth- 
odist organization held its meetings in a frame barn built by Rev. Daniel 
Plummer. It is thought, however, that as early as 1822 the congregation built 

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a frame church at Manchester. This building was rather poorly built and was 
not sufficiently large for the congregation. It was replaced by a larger one 
and in 1876 the present substantial frame building was erected. At Wright's 
Corner is located another church of the Methodists that was built about 1855, 
and has been kept in good condition. 

The houses of Benjamin Powell and William Bainum were the early 
preaching places on the Wilmington circuit, long before it was made a cir- 
cuit and in the days of John Strange and Allen Wiley. Mr. Bainum was a 
zealous Methodist and was a class leader in the young society. It is said the 
first quarterly meeting in the neighborhood was held at his house. Among 
the leading members of the society at this place in those pioneer days were 
William Glenn, afterwards a prominent citizen of Cincinnati, and Ranna 
Stephens. The Methodists erected a brick house of worship about the year 
1838, which was used for a number of years and then gave place to the 
present structure, which was built in 1865. 

Mount Sinai is another of the preaching places on the Wilmington circuit. 
A society was organized about 1835 and Peter Hannegan, a Revolutionary 
soldier, was one of its first members. The present church was erected about 

The Dillsboro circuit was formed like the others in Dearborn county 
when the growing needs of the church called for it, and the three appoint- 
ments are all thrifty. The pastor of the Lawrenceburg circuit had a preach- 
ing place among the members of this church prior to 1826. but it was not until 
1838 that the congregation erected a place of worship. It has always been 
a strong organization and today has two hundred and eighteen members en- 
rolled. The present church was erected about 1875. The church at Mt. 
Tabor, in Washington township, is a part of the Dillsboro circuit and has 
at present two hundred and twelve members. This organization was one 
of the first in the county. Meetings were first held at the home of Daniel 
Crume, who was a local preacher himself. This was probably as early as 1816. 
for it is claimed that a hewed-log meetinghouse was erected as early as 18 18, 
standing on the same site as the present church. In 1850 the log church was 
replaced by a brick building, which was blown down by a storm in 1873, and 
in 1874 the present structure was erected. 

The Methodist church at Moores Hill was organized in 1818 at the log 
cabin of Moses Musgrove. Mr. Musgrove was the class leader and the 
members of the class were, Terrence Curry and wife, Peter Hannegan and 
wife, Simon Peters and wife, Moses Musgrove and wife, Hiram Knapp and 

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wife and Eliza Triddle. In 1820 a public service was held at the house of 
John Dashiell, which was said to be near the present town site of Moores 
Hill. Meetings were held also, about that time, at the home of Adam Moore. 
The first church erected by the Methodists was about 1829. The second 
church was erected on the site of the present school building and was built 
in 1839. The present commodious place of worship was erected in 187 1. 
Moores Hill Methodist church became a station in 1851-52 and has flourished 
ever since, being one of the most powerful influences for good the county has 
within its borders. 


The Baptist church of Dearborn county was born at about the same time 
as was the Methodist church. It was a pioneer and came with the pioneers. 
Henry Hardin, of Hardinsburg, was a zealous member of that denomination, 
and it might almost be said that the roof had hardly been laid on his log cabin 
until services were held in it. He entered the land where Hardinsburg now is, 
on April 27, 1801, only eighteen days after Joseph Hayes had entered the first 
piece of ground in the state for an actual settler. The Baptists of the Hardin 
neighborhood were Jacob Froman, the Fowlers, Bullocks and Bonhams. A 
frame house for worship was erected at an early date in Hardinsburg and was 
used jointly by several denominations. Later on, at a date that is uncertain, 
the frame gave place to a brick church, built by the Baptists. The congrega- 
tion, for various reasons, dwindled until it finally had no members and the 
brick church was converted into a school house, which is still standing in good 
condition and is used for a school house to this day. 

In 1804 Ezra Ferris came to Lawrenceburg. He was a man of much 
ability, and a zealous Baptist minister. He might be called the father of the 
Baptist church in the county of Dearborn. His greatest care seemed to be to 
build up the church wherever it could be done, and he preached wherever called 
by any struggling band of faithful members. Through storm and flood, he 
would go to fill an appointment to preach to these scattered members. He 
was known far and wide as a broad-minded, public-spirited man. who had 
the welfare of his fellow man at heart. He had been identified with the old 
Duck Creek Baptist church of Hamilton county. Ohio, before coming to 
Dearborn county. He had emigrated from Conneticut, possessed a good edu- 
cation for those times, and was a strong speaker. He no sooner had become 
acquainted with his new surroundings than he went to work organizing the 
Baptist church, collecting the widely-scattered membership into organizations 
and preaching the Gospel to them. 

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In these pioneer days, no attempts were made to erect a public place of 
worship, but services were held in private houses or at school houses. Mrs. 
Ella Bond Miller, in a sketch of the early history of the church, read at the 
rededication of the Baptist church in Lawrenceburg, said of those early days : 
"In the early days the services were held at the homes of the members and at 
school houses, and occasionally at the Presbyterian church, on and after March 
28, 1835. In December, 1837, the church met in the new meeting house, which 
was the court house. On February 7, 1838, the trustees, Ezra Ferris and E. 
P. Bond, leased for ten years the upper room of the building occupied as a 
court house ; the trustees to repair and fix the room for the purpose of hold- 
ing church services; the committee for the corporation of the town of Law- 
renceburg, reserving the right to use the room as a school house ; the teacher of 
the school to sweep the room at the close of every week. In August, 1839, the 
church authorized the trustees to secure and rent a room for the exclusive use 
of the church; also to procure glass lamps to light the house. In Decem- 
ber, 1843, a committee was appointed to see what could be done in regard to 
building a house of worship. In 1845 a was bought for the sum of two 
hundred and forty dollars, and the house which has just been remodeled was 
erected. The first service in the new building was held in October, 1845. On 
the day of dedication the seats had not been completed and the need was met by 
a supply of planks. The dedication sermon was delivered by Elder Sage, of 
Cincinnati, from the text, 'Ye must be born again.' In 1903, under the 
pastorate of Rev. C. F. Dame the church was renewed and rcinvigorated. He 
was pastor for over seven years and during that period he increased the mem- 
bership, remodeled the church and put the congregation once more on its 
feet. Since that time it has remained an active and strong congregation. 


"The Baptist church at Aurora has, owing to the labors of Judge Jesse L. 
Holman, been one of the strongest congregations in the county. Judge Hol- 
man came to the county from Carrollton, Kentucky, in 181 1 and it was not long 
afterwards until he began organizing a congregation of the Baptist faith. He 
was a public-spirited citizen of great ability, prominent in both church and 
state. He combined with his political life and his services as a public officer, 
the duties of a Baptist minister and served the congregation at Aurora as its 
preacher for many years. On Saturday, February 20, 1820, a council of the 
church was organized at Aurora, with Elder A. Graves as moderator and 

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Jesse L. Holman as clerk. " The following brethren and sisters were 
constituted a church of Jesus Christ, by the name of the church of Aurora, 
to wit: Timothy Brown. William Hancock, Jesse L. Holman. Sophia Brown, 
Lydia St. Johns and Sallie Brown. A former Dearborn county history says of 
the early history of the Baptist church in Aurora: "The first services were 
held in a log house located on a lot where William Brewington now resides, 
on Fifth street. It was built originally for a private residence by Mrs. Joanna 
' Fox. but was afterwards used as a school house, and by all denominations of 
Christians for church purposes, as occasion might require. Somewhere be- 
tween the year 1825 and 1828, the Baptists built a meeting house on their lot, 
one lot east of the present site of the old house, and this was the first meeting 
house built in the town. It was a brick structure, the bricks of which were 
made on the lot where now stands Hurlbert's machine shop. It was surmounted 
by a small belfry and for a time the people were summoned to church by a 
triangle. Afterward this was supplanted by a bell, which is the present ferry 
bell on this side of the river. Some of the seats which were in the old meeting 
house are now in use in council hall. This old building has some special remi- 
niscences connected with it, one of which is that the world-renowned Lorenzo 
Dow once preached in it. and, second, that the first session of the United 
States bankrupt court was held within its walls, presided over by Judge Jesse 
L. Holman. The reason for this court being held here was owing to the fact 
that Judge Holman was sick, and unable to go to the capital of the state to 
transact the business absolutely necessary to be done. The church worshipped 
in the house until 1848. Elder James Dickens, of the Bulletsburg. Kentucky, 
church, became the first pastor and under his ministry, the church entered upon 
its career of usefulness and prosperity. Frequent accessions were had by 
letter up to October, when the first convert was baptized. At the close of 
the year the church numbered seventeen members. Elder Dickens served the 
church until 1824 when, he having declined further services, Elder Samuel 
Harris was called to this pastorate and served until 1832. He died of cholera 
while on a visit to Cincinnati, in 1832. Elder Curtis succeeded Harris, but 
he relinquished the charge in 1834, when the church voted unanimously to 
invite a council to consider the propriety of setting apart to the ministry 
Jesse L. Holman. The council met on July 12, 1834, the following being 
the officiating ministers: Elders William Morgan. William Bruce. Thomas 
Curtis, Robert Kirtley, Ezra Ferris and Daniel Palmer. Brother Holman was. 
according to the desires of the church, solemnly set apart to the work of a 
minister of Jesus Christ. As pastor of the church Brother Holman more than 



met the expectations of his brethren, and received large accessions to the 
church. The church building in which the congregation now worships was 
completed in 1875, at a cost of twenty thousand dollars. 

One of the oldest Baptist congregations is that of the Ebenezer church, 
on the Manchester pike leading out from Aurora. It was constituted on 
February 7, 1822, with a membership of six. Their names were Elder William 
Morgan, James Morgan, Thomas Bevan, Samuel Bevan, Elizabeth Morgan 
and Sarah Morgan. The first pastor was William Morgan. The present 
brick house was erected about 1845 and remodeled in 1870. The dedicatory 
sermon was preached by Elder James Stephenson. In the farthermost part 
of Manchester township, on the state road leading to Napoleon, at Hogan 
Hill, was at one time a Baptist congregation. In 1825 they used the school 
house for a place of worship. About 185 1 a frame church building was erected, 
and stood until 1877, when it was torn down. By removals and deaths, 
the congregation dwindled until none were left to keep up the organization. 
Among the members of this congregation are given Andrew, Edward and 
James Babcock, Enoch Conger, Amos Morris, Joshua Givan, Cyrus Mills, 
James Stephenson, the Ferris family, the Day family and a Mrs. Hathaway. 

The Baptist church at Sparta was organized on May 21, 1822, at the 
house of Eli Spencer, with Daniel Palmer, pastor, and Samuel Marsh, Gilbert 
S. Givan, and wife, Sallie Johnson, C. Falkner, Isaac Offut, Matthew Spencer, 
Rachel Fox, Nathaniel Richmond and wife, members. The present neat brick 
place of worship was erected in 1853, a smaller building, built in 1840, having 
preceded it 

The Baptist church at Moores Hill was erected in 1866. The congregation 
was first organized on November 29, 185 1, but later, in 1852, they built a 
frame church on the lands of Mr. Justis, where it continued until the present 
substantial structure was erected in 1866. 

At Lawrenceville, prior to 1856, a Baptist society built a small frame 
church. Jonathan Lawrence, with the aid of others, was instrumental in or- 
ganizing the society. It was short lived and the building was purchased by 
the German Methodists. 

Among the early settlers of Logan township were a number holding the 
faith of the Baptist denomination, and a church was organized early. Bayless 
Cloud was one of the leading spirits. Before coming to Indiana, he had been 
a member of the Bulletsburg, Kentucky, church. The first church, which 
was built of logs, stood about a half mile west of Logan, and was probably 
built as early as 1825. Elder Palmer was one of the regular ministers and. 
later, Dr. Ezra Ferris preached for them. 

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In what is now Harrison township, the Baptists, in pioneer times, were 
perhaps stronger than any other denomination. The old Dearborn county his- 
tory, quoting W illiam McClure, Sr., of Brookville, says: "Among the first set- 
tlers in the Whitewater, of the religious denominations, the Regular Baptists 
had a large majority. There were churches on Hackelman's farm, above 
Harrison; on Johnson's foTk, Little and Big Cedar, near Fairfield and one or 
two on West fork. The preachers in early times were Ezra Ferris, of Law- 
renceburg; Jeremiah Johnson, at Hackelman's; James Remy, at Johnson's 
fork; Moses Hornaday, at Indian creek; Lewis Deweese. William Tyner and 
John Blades, at Little Cedar, and William Wilson, on West fork. Lewis De- 
weese was an eloquent preacher, delivered short discourses and quit when he 
was done. He united in marriage nearly every one in his vicinity, and was 
noted for his brevity, generally. Some others were good preachers, but none 
of them so popular as Deweese. At one time Mr. Deweese was baptizing in the 
Whitewater. A large crowd gathered on the bank. Among these was a 
fun-loving girl, who was amusing herself and those around her by kicking 
off large lumps of the bluff bank on which she stood, just above the baptizing 
spot, which fell into the water and both made a noise and muddied the water. 
The old preacher turned around, standing still in the water, and said, 'You 

Sally , if you don't quit, kicking that dirt into the river, I will expose you 

before this whole congregation.' She quit." 

Rev. Allen Wiley said that a church of the Baptist persuasion was built 
as early as 1805 at Jacob Hackelman's, and that a Baptist church was built at 
an earlier date on Lee's creek, a small branch of Dry fork of Whitewater 
about three miles east of Harrison, and that it was a log house. Of Hackel- 
man's, Wiley said, "A Mr. Tyner, a son-in-law of Hackelman. was pastor of 
the church, preaching with zeal and some success. Shortly after the organiza- 
tion of the above church, either in the fall of 1805 or summer of 1806, the 
members of the church and the citizens built a log meeting house, in the old 
style, with a gallery in it ; the house was in the southwestern corner of Hackel- 
man's land. That old house was the first meeting house ever built in the 
Whitewater valley, on the Indiana side of the line. To the great disgrace of 
somebody, I know not whom, that house is now (1845) desecrated, by being 
turned into a barn." The Dearborn county atlas, published in 1875, says that 
the first Baptist church of Dearborn county — Mt. Happy — was organized in 
Harrison township, on the fourth Saturday in June, 1807, by the following 

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persons: Christopher Wilson and John Goss, from Bulletsburg, Kentucky, 
Henry Harden, from Lawrenceburg, and William Tyner, from Cedar Grove. 
The following persons constituted the membership : Jacob Hackelman, Sarah 
Hackelman, Mary Hackelman, James Qoud, Sally Cloud, Heziah Ashby, 
Robert Scanland, Katie Scanland, Nancy Allensworth, Henry and Patsy 
Remy, William and Elizabeth Remy, Sibbel Relif, William Smith, and Eliza- 
beth Edwards. Just where the editor of the atlas obtained his information is 
not now known, but Rev. Allen Wiley lived at Cedar Grove, and was familiar 
with the early history of the Whitewater valley at the time. It is, therefore, 
very probable that in the giving of dates, Wiley would be the more nearly 

Mr. Wiley says, further, that "When I came to the Whitewater, in the 
fall of 1804, there were only two men on it, so far as I know, who had ever been 
Methodists ; these were James Cole and Benjamin McCarty, the latter having 
been a local preacher and exhorter in Tennessee. He settled on the White- 
water in 1803, at which time he had rather fallen from his religious enjoy- 
ments. He subsequently became a local preacher of medium talent, and later 
withdrew, and connected himself with the United Brethren." 


The Presbyterian church, like the Methodist and the Baptist, was early 
on the ground in the infant settlements. However, it did not maintain church 
organizations at quite so early a date as the other two. An organization of 
the Presbyterian church was perfected at Rising Sun, then a part of Dearborn 
county, as early as 1816; in Aurora as early as 1826, when Rev. Lucius Alden 
opened a seminary in the village and preached for those of the Presbyterian 
faith at Aurora, Dillsboro and other points where he might be called. The 
church at Dillsboro was called the Hopewell church, and was built in 1826. 
It was a log structure. The first members of the church at that point are 
given in the Dearborn county history, published in 1885, as the Perlees, Row- 
lands, Swallows, McCabes, Wilsons and Hustons. The organization later re- 
moved their church to Dillsboro, where meetings were held in it until 1854. 
when the present brick building, which is now owned by the Lutheran con- 
gregation, was erected. At Aurora the Presbyterians re-organized the church 
in 1844 w - N. Smith, pastor of the church at Lawrenceburg, preached 
for them. In 1856 they became sufficiently strong to erect the present edifice, 
which remains to this day an evidence of the prosperity of its congregation. 

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The Presbyterians of Lawrenceburg perfected their organization on Septem- 
ber 27, 1829. Rev. Sylvester Scoville was the organizer and reported the re- 
sults of his labors to the presbytery at Oxford, Ohio, and the church was re- 
ceived under their care on October 2, 1829. The first members of this organ- 
ization were : Duncan Carmichael, Catherine, Carmichael, William Archibald, 
Betsey Archibald, Jacob Piatt, Mrs. Ann Runyan, Mrs. Margaret Johnson, 
Mrs. Jane E. Sparks, Mrs. Sarah Darragh, Mrs. Catherine L. Pinckard, Mrs. 
Jane Clark Hageman, Mrs. Elizabeth Hamilton, Mrs. Elizabeth Rice, the first 
nine being received by letter from other churches, the remaining four by con- 
fession of faith. The first trustees were Duncan Carmichael, William B. 
Ewing, William Archibald, George H. Dunn and Stephen Ludlow. They had 
no church, but met in the Methodist church or the court house. During the 
pastorate of Mr. Scoville, a church building was erected on the site of the 
present building, being completed in 1830. It was at first used jointly with 
the Baptists, they having contributed towards its building fund, with the under- 
standing that it was to be used by them one-half of the time. The amount 
the Baptists contributed, it is said, was refunded to them later and the use by 
that denomination was discontinued. On September 26, 1838, the church dis- 
solved its connection with any other church of the kind and remained inde- 
pendent until 1 84 1, when it once more united with the New-School presbytery, 
at Madison. Later on it again connected itself with the Old-School presbytery 
at Oxford, Ohio, and was subsequently placed with the newly organized 
Whitewater presbytery. Henry Ward Beecher, the celebrated pulpit orator, 
preached for them for two and one-quarter years. He came to the little strug- 
gling organization in May, 1837, and left in the latter part of August, or the 
month of September, 1839. Mr. Beecher, telling of his call to Lawrenceburg, 
said : "When I was twenty-three years old I went forth, knowing very little. 
My first step was across the Ohio river, opposite Cincinnati, where a hall had 
been opened with a view of forming a New- School Presbyterian church, for I 
was then a Presbyterian, and am still, in everything except their confession of 
faith. After preaching about a half dozen Sundays, I was visited by a young 
woman, about twenty-one, or twenty-two years old, named Martha Sawyer 
(that's not her name now, so you won't know who it is), and I was invited to 
take charge of another church at Lawrenceburg, Indiana. She was, I believe, 
trustee, deacon and treasurer of the church — at any rate, they had no other. 
She collected all the money that was collected and they paid me about one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars per year, and the American Missionary Society made up 
the rest, so that I had the munificent salary of four hundred and fifty dollars 

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per year. There I began my ministerial and pastoral life. There was but one 
man in the church, and that was one too many. However, here I began to 
learn. I don't know how, but here I learned for two years, and a little more, 
and then I was called to Indianapolis, where I was for two years preceding 
my coming here. The little brick church, which would seat one hundred or 
one hundred and fifty persons, was where I preached my earliest sermons. 
When we had a communion, I had to go out and borrow a deacon and elder. 
That church remains. A photograph of it has been taken and sent to me. I 
recognize every brick in it. I was sexton of it as well as pastor. I swept it 
twice a week ; got lamps from the adjoining town and hung them on the walls, 
and bought oil and filled and trimmed them, and kept them trimmed, for. 
previous to that, there had been no evening service. The church has existed 
ever since, with various degrees of prosperity, but now they have undertaken 
to build for themselves a new church and I come to ask you what you are going 
to do to help them." The basket was passed, and returned well filled. 

At Bright is a vigorous organization of the Presbyterian church, which 
was commenced as early as 1831. The original membership numbered about 
forty, among whom were the Gibsons, McGahens, Reids, Judds, Blackwells, 
Shepherds, Pollocks, McClures and Langdales. Soon after the organization 
was perfected, a log meeting house was erected on the site of the present com- 
modious building. The present building was erected in 1848, but it has been 
remodeled and re-arranged until it is now very modern in its inside con- 

At Harrison the first Presbyterian organization dates back to 1810, when, 
according to Rev. Ludlow D. Potter, Rev. Samuel Baldridge organized a 
church of seventeen members at the home of John Allen. From 1810 to 1814 
Mr. Baldridge worked as an itinerant missionary in the Whitewater valley 
from Brookville to Lawrenceburg. Later on, Rev. Mr. Robertson and Rev. 
James Dickey preached to the families in that section. But it is not recorded 
that they succeeded in perpetuating their congregations to the present time. 


The Lutheran church is, perhaps, in membership, the second strongest in 
Dearborn county. No sooner had the German immigrants become settled than 
the mother church followed. On October 3, 1847, the German Evangelical 
Zion church of Lawrenceburg was constituted, with five trustees. The first 
five to serve in that capacity were Johann David Hauck, George Ross, Johann 

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4 oo 


Reimer, Lorenz Winter and Johann Siemental. They used the Presbyterian 
church for services for a short time, and in 1848 built a brick place of worship 
on Walnut street, fifty-four by twenty-eight feet. The upper part was used 
for services and the lower part for a school room. In 1862 they dissolved con- 
nection with the Evangelical Reformed synod and changed the name to the 
German Evangelical Zion congregation of Lawrenceburg. In 1867 the present 
church was erected. While this building was being erected some of the con- 
gregation left the organization and established the Evangelical Lutheran 
church, erecting a church on the corner of Main and Fourth streets. Both 
churches are now flourishing, with good, strong congregations. 

The first organization of the Lutheran church in Aurora was made in 
1856. The first pastors of St. John's Evangelical church that are now re- 
called were Reverend Koenig and Reverend Wichman. The list of first mem- 
bers includes Fred Schmidt, E. H. Niebaum, J. H. Bower, John E. Bair, John 
Freiberger. Herman Schumacher, John Schumacher, Henry Hartker, H. Da- 
vider, George Sciller, George Ritter, Charles Huxell, George Drexler, John 
Steig, Floran M. Frank, Mrs. Catherine Siemental, Mrs. Barbara Braunagel, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Siemental, Mrs. Rothert, Mrs. Herdegon and Mrs. Kreitlein. 
The first officers of the church were, Fred Schmidt, president; E. H. Niebaum, 
secretary; John E. Bair, treasurer; Herman Schumacher, John E. Bair and 
John Frybarger, trustees. In 1874 the membership had grown so strong that 
a fine church was erected, which is yet standing. 

St. Peter's Lutheran church was organized at Dillsboro in 1876. They 
had formerly worshipped at Fanners' Retreat, but the membership grew about 
Dillsboro until they become sufficiently strong to erect a church. They pur- 
chased the ground and church of the Presbyterian congregation, and enlarged 
and repaired it. Among the families that were assisting in the first formation 
of the society were those of Henry Niebrugge, William Grieve and George 

St. John's Lutheran church at Farmers' Retreat was erected in 1867. The 
church organization is, perhaps, the pioneer one of this denomination in the 
county, for it was organized as early as 1842 or 1843, and a building was 
erected. Among the early members were Fred Luker, Henry Lubbe, Chris 
Nolte. Martin Marting, E. H. Stapel, John and Fred Heffelmire and Ernest 

St. Stephen's Lutheran church, in the northern part of Manchester town- 
ship, was established in 1843. with a membership of twelve, among whom were 
the following: Valentine George, Peter Yogel. John Drain. Christopher Scitz. 

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William Rupp, Jacob Graff and William Windhorst. The first church build- 
ing was a log one, which was dedicated by Rev. August Miller. In 1853 the 
present substantial brick building was erected. A half mile west of Hubbell's 
Cross Roads, in Jackson township, stands St. John's Lutheran church. The 
building was erected in 1854. The church society dates back to 1833, when it 
was organized by Rev. Frederick Rice. Of the original membership, John 
Gutapfel, George Knerr, Fielding Gutapfel and wife and Philip Weis and wife 
were among- the number. 

On the Manchester state road, in Lawrenceburg township, is an organiza- 
tion of the Lutheran church that was formed in the sixties. They have a sub- 
stantial brick church and a congregation composed of substantial farmers, who 
are among the most prosperous and best citizens of the county. 


In the spring of 1876, upon the invitation of A. Grant Tebbs, then a mer- 
chant in Lawrenceburg, Elder Alfred Elmore, an evangelist of Franklin, In- 
diana, was secured to hold a protracted meeting for the purpose of organizing 
a church in this city. The revival continued about six weeks and an organiza- 
tion of one hundred and twenty members was effected. The first church offi- 
cers were: J. R. Trisler, James D. Willis, elders; Spencer West, Christopher 
Dailey, George Morris and Boone Rice, deacons, and John E. Ammel, clerk. 
W. H. H. Strouse was the first pastor. 

The membership continued to meet in rented halls and other places, includ- 
ing the court house and Floral hall at the fair grounds, until the church base- 
ment was completed. The basement was used for church purposes until the 
church building was completed. On July 22, 1883, the following named per- 
sons were elected on the committee to construct the church building : William 
M. Terrill, A. G. Tebbs, James W. Tebbs, John Sortwell, Sr., and Richard P. 
Roberts. A substantial brick edifice was accordingly built on the corner of 
Elm and Center streets. This building was dedicated on August 7, 1884, the 
address being delivered by Elder Frederick D. Powers, former chaplain of the 
United States House of Representatives and pastor of President Garfield's 
church at Washington, D. C. 

In June, 1904, the church interior was remodeled and opera chairs were 
placed instead of pews, the cost of the improvement being about two thousand 
dollars. Elder F. M. Rains, of the Foreign Missionary Society, delivered the 
address at the re-dedication. Elder J. D. Garrison was the pastor. 


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On February 2. 191 1, a building committee was elected to build a modern 
parsonage for the use of the minister, the following persons being elected as 
the committee : O. S. Jaquith. E. S. Smashey, H. M. Pettit. R. E. Loeschcr, 
C. O. Jennison, Harry B. Mason. E. O. Marlowe and R. P. Nelson. As a re- 
sult, a modern eight-room, brick parsonage, costing about three thousand dol- 
lars, was built, at the rear of the church. The church property is now valued 
at about fourteen thousand dollars. The church suffered heavily from the 
flood of 1913. It required about one thousand five hundred dollars to repair 
the damage, this amount being mostly donated by sister churches, from all 
parts of the country. 

The present officers are: O. S. Jaquith, E. S. Smashey, elders: R. E. 
Loescher, C. O. Jennison. E. O. Marlowe, Reuben Scroggins, Edward Taylor, 
Samuel Ellington and C. H. Burkhardt, deacons ; R. P. Nelson, O. S. Jaquith 
and John L. Sykes, trustees, and E. O. Marlowe, clerk and treasurer. 

The growth has been slow, but steady. Many distinguished men have 
conducted meetings for the church, among whom are Knowles Shaw ; F. Rowe, 
editor American Christian Review; D. Sommers. editor Octographic Review; 
Thomas Munnell; John S. Shouse; R. W. Abberley; State Evangelist T. J. 
Legg, and District Evangelist Fred R. Davies. Among the pastors who have 
served here in recent years and done good work are, \Y. G. Loucks, J. D. Gar- 
rison, W. G. Johnston, George C. Waggoner and S. E. Wilkin. The church 
has a membership of two hundred and twenty-five. The Sunday school has an 
enrollment of about three hundred and maintains a good orchestra of fourteen 
pieces. The church also has a good prayer-meeting. Other auxiliaries are the 
Ladies' Aid Society and Christian Endeavor Society. The missionary work is 
under the supervision of a missionary secretary. 


The German Methodist church was organized in Dearborn county on 
April 11, 1839. Rev. Adam Miller, of Cincinnati, preached to a congregation 
of Germans and, following this, services were held every two weeks by Dr. 
W. Nast. On the 16th of June, 1839, a class, numbering ten persons, was or- 
ganized. Of this class, J. M. Hofer was appointed leader. In 1842 the first 
church was built on Market street, and in i860 the present edifice was erected. 
It was first connected with a circuit, but in 1845 it was created a station. An 
organization of German Methodists exists likewise at Lawrenceville, in Jack- 
son township. They purchased of the defunct Baptist organization their 

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church in 1856 and have kept up a prosperous membership ever since. They 
are a part of the Batesville (Ripley county, Indiana) circuit. 

Other denominations have small congregations over the county, all of 
whom are working to one common end — the betterment of the human race — 
some with greater and some with less success, but they all have the reward of 
earnest endeavor and a knowledge of doing good. 


The Immaculate Conception Catholic Church of Aurora, a large ami 
prosperous congregation, with a membership of more than one thousand 
souls, with an excellent school, attended by two hundred twenty-five children 
and conducted by the efficient Sisters of St. Francis (Oldenburg. Indiana), 
had but a humble beginning. The first to offer up the sacrifice of mass was no 
less a person than the most reverend archbishop of Cincinnati, Ohio, J. B. 
Purcell, D. D., and this important occurrence took place at the house of Mr. 
O'Brien. On the same day Archbishop Purcell lectured by invitation at the 
old school house. In the spring of 1849, tne following parishioners had their 
first meeting at Kemp's bakery and formed themselves into a congregation : 
Henry, John, Anthony and Frank Klueber, Bernard Schipper, John Miller, 
Valentine Hahn, Michael Maloney, Sr., John and Patrick Maloney, Patrick 
Garrity and Michael Morin. They met for church purposes at Anthony Klue- 
ber's, the town hall, school and other places until December 25, 1857, when, 
under the direction of the Reverend Father Unterdiener, O. S. F., of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Aurora's first Catholic church was erected on the classical site of Hog- 
Back. Father Unterdiener was succeeded by Fathers Sigmond and Ausom 
Koch (brothers), both Franciscan Fathers and pastors at St John's church, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. These fathers visited the young congregation at inter- 
vals only until 1863, when Rev. F. Ignatius Klein was appointed the first 
resident pastor, and this devoted clergyman worked with untiring zeal for the 
young flock. In October 12, 1863, though his means were scant and the con- 
gregation small he purchased the present site (lots 163, 164, 165 and 166)', 
at the corner of Judiciary and Fourth streets, agreeing to pay four thousand 
five hundred dollars for the same. He advanced one thousand and five hun- 
dred dollars on the purchase and at once proceeded to erect a church, one 
hundred and six feet by fifty-two feet ground plan and thirty-two feet high, at 

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a cost of twenty-four thousand dollars. He acted in the capacity of architect 
and superintendent and completed the structure, except the steeple, in 1864. 
The steeple was finished in 1876 at a cost of fire thousand dollars. Too 
much cannot be said of the willingness of the members of the congregation, 
who would gather after supper and place the stone upon the ground and 
scaffolding for the masons to work upon the next day, thus dispensing with the 
usual attendants and assisting their pastor with "hands and means." The 
church is built of stone and brick and has a seating capacity of about twelve 
hundred. Father Klein was also attentive to the needs of childhood, hence the 
school received his attention at the first opportunity. In 1866 a brick school 
house, seventy by thirty feet, was built and the Sisters of Providence were 
asked to take charge. The parsonage of twelve rooms was also completed 
in 1873, after which Right Rev. Maurice de St. Palais, appreciating the 
arduous labors of Father Klein, promoted him to St. Mary's church, New 
Albany, Indiana. 

The Rev. Ferdinand Hundt, poet, priest and scholar, was next appointed 
pastor at Aurora. His eloquent sermons produced much fruit and his elegant 
taste was displayed in church decorations. Besides improving the parsonage, 
he purchased three fine altars and a pulpit — lasting ornaments to the church 
and evidences of his zeal. In 1883 Father Hundt was succeeded by the Rev. 
J. J. Schoentrup, who further improved the church and re-arranged the 
pews to the great satisfaction of the people. His delicate health, which caused 
him to apply for a removal, prevented him from further exercising the great 
ability for which he was known. In September, 1890. Rev. J. J. Macke as- 
sumed charge, finding an indebtedness of upwards of sixteen thousand dollars 
which, however, was greatly reduced during Father Macke's stay, 1890 to 
1898. He was followed by Rev. F. A. Roell, who proved a popular leader and 
an able financier. 

The schools, under the direction of the Sisters of St. Francis, are models 
of perfection and the Sisters give a thorough collegiate course and, in conse- 
quence, are very popular with the people. The congregation is, both financially 
and spiritually, in a healthy condition and compares favorably with others in 
this well-managed diocese. 

The records of St. John the Baptist's parish, at Dover, date back as far 
as 1840, but in 1820 there was erected a rude structure, as a place of wor- 
ship, by the parishioners, who were chiefly Irish and F.nglish Catholics. The 
parish was administered to by missionary priests, who passed through this sec- 
tion of Indiana from Cincinnati, Bardstown, Kentucky, and Vincennes, In- 

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diana. In 1840 the records of St. John's assumed permanent shape, and 
show that Father Schneiderjans was the first priest who administered to the 
people regularly. 

Bishop J. B. Purcell, on November 5, 1848, administered the rites of 
confirmation to the first class of sixty-six in St. John the Baptist's, at Cross 
Roads, as the name of Dover was then unknown. Father Schneiderjans, the 
first resident priest, who remained from March 12, 1840, to April 26, 1841, 
replaced the log church by a frame structure, more spacious. He was followed 
by Rev. Joseph Ferneding from 1841 to June 9, 1842, and his successor was 
Father O'Rourke, who officiated from June, 1842, to 1846. Next was Rev. 
Andrew Bennett. At this time the little frame church became too small for 
the growing congregation, and Father Bennett, in 1847, erected the first brick 
edifice, sixty by thirty-five feet, with a spire and a small bell. He remained 
until 1858. In 1859 Father Weinzocpfel attended to the parish from New Al- 
sace until November, i860. Father Anthony Scheideler was the next rector. 
He came in December, i860, to St. Leon, Indiana, and from that place attended 
to St. John the Baptist until 1870. He made great improvements in the parish. 
He erected the stations in the church, built the sanctuary to the church, and put 
in a new altar in 1863 and in 1864 procured a new pipe organ, the first musical 
instrument placed in the church. In 1865 he erected the new brick school of 
two stories, and two rooms for school purposes and rooms for the Sisters' 
home. This parish was the first in Dearborn county to establish the Fran- 
ciscan Sisters from Oldenburg, Indiana. On March 18, 1866, Father Dudden- 
hausen came and remained in the parish until September 20, 1870. During his 
pastorate the ground was purchased upon which the residence and the new 
church stand ; he procured a large bell and made other improvements, and all 
was paid for. Bishop Maurice de St. Palais went on an official trip to Rome, 
but had selected Father Schnell to take charge of the parish before departing. 
He came in November. 1870, and remained until March. 1871. when he re- 
turned to his former charge at Edinburg. which parish had petitioned the 
bishop for his return. Following him, came Rev. H. J. Seibertz, in April. 187 1, 
and remained until August. 1877. During his administration, in 1874. he 
succeeded in erecting a new church and spire, added a third bell and made 
other improvements, though leaving the interior of the church unfinished. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Father B. H. Bmeggemann. There existed a little 
hard feeling in the parish on account of the removal of the new church to the 
present site, but Father Bmeggemann. by his well known zeal and tact, restored 
harmony and peace. 

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4 o6 


The Catholic congregation of Lawrenceburg was organized in 1840, and 
consisted at that time of about fifteen families, among which George Huschart, 
Peter Werst, Michael Lang, Anthony Schwartz, John Kimmel, Jacob Meier 
and Louis Crusart were prominent. Divine services were first held in that 
part of Lawrenceburg generally known as Newtown, in a house rented for that 
purpose, then in the house of George Huschart, and at times, also, in that of 
Michael Lang. 

The corner-stone of the first church, a stone structure, sixty by forty feet, 
was laid in 1841 on west side of Walnut street, one square south of the present 
church, but the building was not completed until 1847, when it was dedicated 
to divine services. Lawrenceburg was attended by priests of neighboring con- 
gregations until 1866. Rev. Joseph Ferneding, of New Alsace, visited the 
place from 1840 to 1841 ; Rev. F. O. O'Rourke, of Dover (Kelso township), 
from 1841 to 1844, when he returned to Ireland; Rev. Andrew Bennett, also 
from Dover, from 1844 to 1850; Rev. M. Stahl, of New Alsace, during the first 
part of 1850; the Reverends Unterthiner, Sigismund and Anselm Kock, Fran- 
ciscan Fathers, of Cincinnati, Ohio, had charge from 1851 to 1859; Rev. Ig. F. 
Klein, of St. Nicholas, Pipe Creek, from 1859 to 1866. The congregation 
had greatly increased in number by this time, and Rev. I. F. Klein, seeing the 
necessity of building a new and more spacious church, made preparations to 
do so. But, wishing to build the church in Newtown, where it would have been 
on much higher ground and not in danger of floods, he met with a great deal 
of opposition from those who lived in the old part of town, around the church ; 
the work, therefore, discontinued. 

On January 6, 1866, Rev. Clement Scheve became the first resident pastor 
of Lawrenceburg. In the spring of 1866 Reverend Scheve purchased of 
Rudolf Walter outlot No. 51, on the east side of Walnut street, and com- 
menced the erection of the present beautiful St. Lawrence's church. The 
church is of brick, one hundred twenty by fifty feet, with a large basement of 
stone, which was first used for school purposes, but since has been converted 
into a chapel and meeting rooms for societies. The church was completed in 
May, 1867, and on the 2nd day of June, the same year, was solemnly dedi- 
cated to the service of Almighty God, by the Right Rev. Maurice de St. 
Palais, bishop of Vincennes. After the solemn blessing of the church, the 
right reverend bishop celebrated a solemn pontifical high mass, assisted by 
Revs. Anthony Scheideler and John P. Gillig as deacons of honor, and the 
Revs. Roman Weinzoepfel and Frederic W. Pepersack, as deacons and sub- 
deacons of mass. Very Rev. Bede O'Connor, O. S. B., chancellor of the dio- 

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ccsc, preached the English and Rev. Nichols Wachter, O. S. F., the German 
sermon. There were also present on this occasion Revs. J. H. F. J. Dudden- 
hausen, of Dover; Rev. Ignace Klein, of Aurora; Rev. Theodore J. Antoni, 
of Napoleon, and the reverend pastor of the church, Cement Scheve. Father 
Scheve also built a pastor's residence in 1867, a spacious brick building consist- 
ing of basement and one story. 

In 1869 the St. Lawrence's congregation donated to the Franciscan Sis- 
ters of Oldenburg, Indiana, a piece of ground adjoining the church, being part 
of outlot No. 51, on which they erected a large three-story school house of 

Reverend Scheve was born on October 4, 1828, in Luesche, Oldenburg, 
immigrated to America in 1848, and was ordained on March 19, 1859. Loss of 
health compelled him to resign his charge at Lawrenceburg in August, 1870. 
He went to Minnesota, where he died in the spring of 1875 > ^ ev - Julius H. F. 
J. Duddenhausen was appointed pastor of Lawrenceburg on October 1, 1870, 
and administered the temporalities and spiritualities of the congregation very 
successfully until May 15, 1875, when he was transferred to Holy Trinity 
church, Evansville. 

Rev. J. F. Sondermann took charge on May 15, 1875. He was b°rn 
near Attendorn, Prussia, December 2, 1844, and was brought to America 
in 1847. He began his studies at St. Meinrad, Spencer county, Indiana, in 
the fall of 1857; studied at Vincennes from 1859 to July, i860; returned 
again to St. Meinrad in the fall of i860, completed his studies there in 1868 
and was ordained in the same place by the Right Rev, Maurice de St. Palais. 
His first mission was Mount Vernon, Posey county,